Araştırma Makalesi
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Sosyal Medya Etkileyicileri Olarak Vloggerlar: Z Kuşağı Üzerinde Para-Sosyal İlişki, Satın Alma Niyeti Oluşturma ve Youtube Davranışları Açısından Vloggerların İncelenmesi

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 32, 441 - 464, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.31123/akil.620050

Öz

Milyonlarca
takipçili vloggerlar kitap yazmaktalar, film çekmekteler ve neredeyse her
alandaki girişimcilikleriyle öne çıkmaktadırlar. Reklamda ilgi çekmeyen ürünler
takipçisi olunan bir vlogger, diğer bir deyişle “influencer” tarafından tavsiye
edildiğinde tercih edilebilmektedir. Vloggerlar, son zamanların
“influencer”ları olarak dikkat çekmektedir. 
Kitleler arasında bir popülerliğe sahip olan vloggerların markaların
dikkatini çekmesi internet çağının kaçınılmaz bir sonucudur. Vlogger
tavsiyelerinin özellikle Z Kuşağı üzerinde etkisinin olduğunu gösteren
araştırmalardan, vloggerların sahip olduğu sayısal göstergelerden hareketle
markalar vloggerlara ürünlerinin tanıtımını yaptırmak istemektedir. Son
yıllarda oldukça popüler olan bu konu, marka araştırmaları kadar bilimsel
araştırmaların da dikkatini çekmektedir. Bu araştırmada teknolojinin içine
doğmuş Z kuşağı bireyleri üzerinde Z kuşağının idolleri olarak görülen
vloggerların marka farkındalığı, satın alma niyeti, vlogger ile para-sosyal
ilişki kurma durumları, Z kuşağı bireylerinin Youtube kullanım durumları ve
motivasyonları ve vloggerlara yönelik tutumlarının sonuçlarını ortaya koymak
amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla çalışmada yedi tane araştırma sorusu oluşturulmuş, bu araştırma
soruları t testi, Anova ve korelasyon analizleri ile test edilmiştir. Ulaşılan
sonuçlar, örneklem dahilindeki Z kuşağı bireylerinin Youtube’u aktif olarak
kullandıklarını, çoğunun bir vlogger takip ettiğini, takip ettiği vlogger ile
para-sosyal ilişki geliştirdiğini, satın alma kararlarında vloggerları dikkate
aldığını göstermiştir. 

Kaynakça

  • Abidin, C. (2016). Visibility Labour: Engaging with Influencers’ Fashion Brands and# OOTD Advertorial Campaigns on Instagram. Media International Australia, 161(1), 86-100.
  • Achmad, S. H.,ve Hidayat, R. (2018). The Effect of Video Advertisement by BeautyVlogger on Buying Intention.  International Journal of Accounting, Finance, andEconomics, 1(1), 18-23.
  • Alexa. (2016). Youtube.com Traffic Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/youtube.com
  • Alişarlı, Ö. ve Eken, İ. (2018). Yeni Medyada Ürün Yerleştirme: YouTube’da Paylaşım Yapan Fenomenler Üzerinden Kampanya Süreci.http://acikerisim.ticaret.edu.tr/xmlui/handle/11467/1895#sthash.FbNU6BhD.dpbs
  • Alperstein, N. M. (1991). Imaginary Social Relationships with Celebrities Appearing in Television Commercials.Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 35 (Winter), 43-58.
  • Armağan, E. ve Doğaner, M. C. (2018). Fenomen Pazarlaması: Youtube Güzellik Vloggerları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. 1st International Congress of Political, Economic and Financial Analysis
  • Armstrong, A. ve Hagel J. III (1996). The Real Value of On-Line Communities. Harvard Business Review, 74 (May-June), 134-41.
  • Ballantine, P. W. ve Martin B. AA (2005). Forming Parasocial Relationships in Online Communities.  ACR North American Advances.
  • Biel, J. I., A., O. ve Gatica-Perez, D. (2011, July). You Are Known by How You Vlog: Personality Impressions and Nonverbal Behavior in YouTube. In ICWSM.
  • Booth, N. ve Matic, J. A. (2011). Mapping and Leveraging Influencers in Social Media to Shape Corporate Brand Perceptions.  Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16(3), 184-191
  • Burgess, J. E., ve Green, J. B. (2009).  The Entrepreneurial Vlogger: Participatory culture beyond the Professional amateur divide (pp. 89-107). National Library of Sweden/WallflowerPress.
  • Burgess, J. ve Green, J. (2013). YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture. John Wiley&Sons.
  • Cha, M. (2007). Everybody Tubes: Analyzing the World’s Largest User Generated Content Video System. ACM IMC.
  • Chaffey,D. Ellis-Chadwick,F., Johnston,K., Mayer,R. (2006). Internet Marketing - Strategy Implementation and Practice. Prentice Hall. Harlow, pp.302-350
  • Cheung, M., Yee, C., Luo , C., Ling S. ve Huaping, C. (2009). Credibility of Electronic Word-of-Mouth: Informational and Normative Determinants of On-line Consumer Recommendations.  International journal of electroniccommerce, 13(4), 9-38.
  • Clavaria, K. (2019). https://www.visioncritical.com/blog/gen-z-versus-millennials-infographics E. T. 25/11/2019
  • Colliander, J. ve Dahlén, M. (2011). Following the Fashionable Friend: The Power of Social Media: Weighing Publicity Effectiveness of Blogs versus Online Magazines. Journal of advertising research, 51(1), 313-320.
  • Çakır, V. ve Akıncı, S. (2017). Para-Sosyal İlişki Teorisi Perspektifinden Ürün Yerleştirme Etkililiği.  İNİF E-DERGİ, 2(2), 210-228.
  • Çelik, A. (2018, 03 27). Influencer Marketing ve Ürün Yerleştirme.
  • De Veirman M., Cauberghe V. ve Hudders L. (2017). Marketing through Instagram Influencers: The Impact of Number of Followers and Product Divergence on Brand Attitude.  International Journal of Advertising, 36(5), 798-828.
  • Defren, T. (2012). Social Media Automatio. from http://www.pr-squared.com/index.php/2012/06/social-media-automation.
  • Dehghani, M. ve Tumer, M. (2015). A Research on Effectiveness of Facebook Advertising on Enhancing Purchase intention of consumers.  Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 597-600.
  • Dehghani, M., Niaki, M., Korram, R.,, Iman., ve Sali, R. (2016). Evaluating the Influence of YouTube Advertising forAttraction of Young customers.  Computers in humanbehavior, 59, 165-172.
  • Deighton, J. ve Leora K. (2009). Interactivity’s Unanticipated Consequences for Marketers and Marketing.Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23, 1, 4–10.
  • Dholakia, U. M.,Bagozzi, R. P., ve Pearo, L. K. (2004). A Social Influence Model of Consumer Participation in Network-and Small-group-based Virtual Communities. International journal of research in marketing, 21(3), 241-263.
  • Dıraman, A. (2018). Influencer Marketing ve Kampanya Süreci.
  • Djafarova, E. ve Rushworth, C. (2017). Exploring the Credibility of Online Celebrities’ Instagram Profiles in Influencing the Purchase Decisions of Young Female Users. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 1-7.
  • Duyen, T. N. M. (2016). Beauty Bloggers’ Influence on Vietnamese Young Consumers. Unpublished master’s thesis). Saimaa University of Applied Sciences.
  • Eagly, A. H. ve Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, FL.
  • Erdoğan, İ. (2007).Pozitivist metodoloji bilimsel araştırma tasarımı istatiksel yöntemler analiz ve yorum. (2. Baskı). Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Fishbein, M. ve Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, andBehavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison‐Wesley, Reading, MA.
  • Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., ve Freberg, L. A. (2011). Who are the Social Media Influencers? A Study of Public Perceptions of Personality. Public Relations Review, 37(1), 90-92.
  • García-Rapp, F. (2016). The Digital Media Phenomenon of YouTube Beauty Gurus: The Case of Bubzbeauty. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 12(4), 360-375.
  • Giles David C. (2002). Parasocial Interaction: A Review of the Literature and A Model for Future Research. Media psychology, 4(3), 279-305.
  • Goldberg, C. B. ve Allen, D. G. (2008). Black and White and Read All Over: Race Differences in Reactions to Recruitment Web Sites Human Resources Management, 47(2), 217-236.
  • Hagel, J., ve Armstrong, A. G. (1996). The Real Value of On-line Communities. Harvard Business Review, 74(3), 134-141.
  • Hoerner J. (1999). Scaling the Web: a Parasocial Interaction Scale for World Wide Web Sites.  Advertising and the world wide web, 99, 135-147.
  • Horton, D. ve Wohl, R. (1956) Mass Communication and Para-social Interaction: Observations on Intimacy at a Distance.  Psychiatry, 19(3), 215-229.
  • Jain, V., Vatsa, R., & Jagani, K. (2014). Exploring Generation Z’s Purchase Behavior towards Luxury Apparel: a Conceptual Framework. Romanian Journal of Marketing, (2).
  • Juster, F. T. (1966). Consumer Buying Intentions and Purchase Probability: An Experiment in Survey Design.Journal of the American Statistical Association 61; 658-696.
  • Karaçar, E. (2016). Vlogger Nedir & Nasıl Olunur? Bölüm 1. http://www.ebrukaracar.
  • Khan, M. L. (2017). Social Media Engagement: What Motivates User Participation and Consumption on YouTube?.  Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 236-247.
  • Kim H., Ko, E. ve Kim, J. (2015) SNS Users’ Para-social Relationships with Celebrities: Social Media Effects on Purchase Intentions.  Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 25(3), 279-294.
  • Kutthakaphan, R. ve Chokesamritpol, W. (2013) The Use of Celebrity Endorsement with the Help of Electronic Communication Channel (Instagram): Case study of Magnum Ice Cream in Thailand.
  • Labrecque, L. I. (2014). Fostering Consumer–Brand Relationships in Social Media Environments: The Role of Parasocial Interaction.  Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 134-148.
  • Lee, J. E. ve Watkins, B.(2016). YouTube Vloggers’ Influence on Consumer Luxury Brand Perceptions and Intentions.Journal of Business Research, 69(12), 5753-5760.
  • Luers, W. (2007). Cinema Without Show Business: A Poetics of Vlogging. Post Identity, 5(1).
  • Miller, M. (2009). Integrating Online Multimedia into College Course and Classroom: With application to the social sciences. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5, (2).http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/miller_0609.htm
  • Molyneaux, H., O’Donnell, S., Gibson, K., & Singer, J. (2008). Exploring the Gender Divide on YouTube: An Analysis of the Creation and Reception of Vlogs. American Communication Journal, 10(2), 1-14.
  • Montes, S. (2015). The Top 5 Beauty Vloggers And How Much Money They Really Make. http://thezoereport.com/beauty/how-much-vloggers-make/#slide1.
  • Morris M. ve Anderson E. (2015). Charlie is So Cool Like: Authenticity, Popularity and Inclusive Masculinity on YouTube. Sociology, 49(6), 1200-1217.
  • Nizam, F. ve Öztürk Salğar, N. (2018). Yeni Medyada Tek Tıkla Şöhret Üretimi: İnternet Videolarıyla Gelen Şöhret.http://acikerisim.ticaret.edu.tr/xmlui/handle/11467/1893#sthash.yS0kCyeK.dpbs
  • Noguti, V. ve Russell, C. A. (2015). The Moderating Role of Social Norms on the Effects of Product Placement in Television Fiction: A Field Study in Brazil.  Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 36(1), 20-34.
  • Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers’ Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness.  Journal of advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
  • Owyang, J. (2012a). Why Automating Social Media Marketing Could Change Facebook. http://mashable.com/2012/ 05/03/automating-social-media-marketing/.
  • Owyang, J. (2012b). Brands Start Automating Social Media Responses on Facebook and Twitter. from http://techcrunch.com/ 2012/06/07/brands-start-automating-social-media-responses-on-facebookand-twitter/.
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Vloggers as Social Media Influencers: Investigation of Vloggers in terms of Para-Social Relationship, Intention to Buy and Youtube Behaviour on Generation Z

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 32, 441 - 464, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.31123/akil.620050

Öz

Vloggers, who have millions of followers, write books, films, and stand out with their entrepreneurship in almost every field. Vloggers have recently attracted attention as today’s influencers. Vloggers, who have popularity among the masses, attract attention of brands, which is an inevitable consequence of the Internet era. Brands want to make their products’ publicity thanks to vloggers based on researches that show vloggers’ advices are influential especially on Z Generation and followers vloggers have. This topic, which is very popular in recent years, attracts attention of scientific research as well as attention of brand researches. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the results of brand awareness, brand intention, purchase intention, vlogger, and para-social relations status of Z generation individuals who were born into technology, and the results of their attitudes towards the vloggers and 386 participants who are Z generation members in Anadolu University were interviewed between April 15 and May 20, 2018. For this purpose, seven research questions were created, and questions of participants to interviews were tested with t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results of the study showed that Z generation individuals within the sample actively use Youtube, most of whom follow a vlogger, develop a para-social relationship with a vlogger, and take into account the vloggers in the purchasing decision

Kaynakça

  • Abidin, C. (2016). Visibility Labour: Engaging with Influencers’ Fashion Brands and# OOTD Advertorial Campaigns on Instagram. Media International Australia, 161(1), 86-100.
  • Achmad, S. H.,ve Hidayat, R. (2018). The Effect of Video Advertisement by BeautyVlogger on Buying Intention.  International Journal of Accounting, Finance, andEconomics, 1(1), 18-23.
  • Alexa. (2016). Youtube.com Traffic Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/youtube.com
  • Alişarlı, Ö. ve Eken, İ. (2018). Yeni Medyada Ürün Yerleştirme: YouTube’da Paylaşım Yapan Fenomenler Üzerinden Kampanya Süreci.http://acikerisim.ticaret.edu.tr/xmlui/handle/11467/1895#sthash.FbNU6BhD.dpbs
  • Alperstein, N. M. (1991). Imaginary Social Relationships with Celebrities Appearing in Television Commercials.Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 35 (Winter), 43-58.
  • Armağan, E. ve Doğaner, M. C. (2018). Fenomen Pazarlaması: Youtube Güzellik Vloggerları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. 1st International Congress of Political, Economic and Financial Analysis
  • Armstrong, A. ve Hagel J. III (1996). The Real Value of On-Line Communities. Harvard Business Review, 74 (May-June), 134-41.
  • Ballantine, P. W. ve Martin B. AA (2005). Forming Parasocial Relationships in Online Communities.  ACR North American Advances.
  • Biel, J. I., A., O. ve Gatica-Perez, D. (2011, July). You Are Known by How You Vlog: Personality Impressions and Nonverbal Behavior in YouTube. In ICWSM.
  • Booth, N. ve Matic, J. A. (2011). Mapping and Leveraging Influencers in Social Media to Shape Corporate Brand Perceptions.  Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16(3), 184-191
  • Burgess, J. E., ve Green, J. B. (2009).  The Entrepreneurial Vlogger: Participatory culture beyond the Professional amateur divide (pp. 89-107). National Library of Sweden/WallflowerPress.
  • Burgess, J. ve Green, J. (2013). YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture. John Wiley&Sons.
  • Cha, M. (2007). Everybody Tubes: Analyzing the World’s Largest User Generated Content Video System. ACM IMC.
  • Chaffey,D. Ellis-Chadwick,F., Johnston,K., Mayer,R. (2006). Internet Marketing - Strategy Implementation and Practice. Prentice Hall. Harlow, pp.302-350
  • Cheung, M., Yee, C., Luo , C., Ling S. ve Huaping, C. (2009). Credibility of Electronic Word-of-Mouth: Informational and Normative Determinants of On-line Consumer Recommendations.  International journal of electroniccommerce, 13(4), 9-38.
  • Clavaria, K. (2019). https://www.visioncritical.com/blog/gen-z-versus-millennials-infographics E. T. 25/11/2019
  • Colliander, J. ve Dahlén, M. (2011). Following the Fashionable Friend: The Power of Social Media: Weighing Publicity Effectiveness of Blogs versus Online Magazines. Journal of advertising research, 51(1), 313-320.
  • Çakır, V. ve Akıncı, S. (2017). Para-Sosyal İlişki Teorisi Perspektifinden Ürün Yerleştirme Etkililiği.  İNİF E-DERGİ, 2(2), 210-228.
  • Çelik, A. (2018, 03 27). Influencer Marketing ve Ürün Yerleştirme.
  • De Veirman M., Cauberghe V. ve Hudders L. (2017). Marketing through Instagram Influencers: The Impact of Number of Followers and Product Divergence on Brand Attitude.  International Journal of Advertising, 36(5), 798-828.
  • Defren, T. (2012). Social Media Automatio. from http://www.pr-squared.com/index.php/2012/06/social-media-automation.
  • Dehghani, M. ve Tumer, M. (2015). A Research on Effectiveness of Facebook Advertising on Enhancing Purchase intention of consumers.  Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 597-600.
  • Dehghani, M., Niaki, M., Korram, R.,, Iman., ve Sali, R. (2016). Evaluating the Influence of YouTube Advertising forAttraction of Young customers.  Computers in humanbehavior, 59, 165-172.
  • Deighton, J. ve Leora K. (2009). Interactivity’s Unanticipated Consequences for Marketers and Marketing.Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23, 1, 4–10.
  • Dholakia, U. M.,Bagozzi, R. P., ve Pearo, L. K. (2004). A Social Influence Model of Consumer Participation in Network-and Small-group-based Virtual Communities. International journal of research in marketing, 21(3), 241-263.
  • Dıraman, A. (2018). Influencer Marketing ve Kampanya Süreci.
  • Djafarova, E. ve Rushworth, C. (2017). Exploring the Credibility of Online Celebrities’ Instagram Profiles in Influencing the Purchase Decisions of Young Female Users. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 1-7.
  • Duyen, T. N. M. (2016). Beauty Bloggers’ Influence on Vietnamese Young Consumers. Unpublished master’s thesis). Saimaa University of Applied Sciences.
  • Eagly, A. H. ve Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, FL.
  • Erdoğan, İ. (2007).Pozitivist metodoloji bilimsel araştırma tasarımı istatiksel yöntemler analiz ve yorum. (2. Baskı). Ankara: Erk Yayınları.
  • Fishbein, M. ve Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, andBehavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison‐Wesley, Reading, MA.
  • Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., ve Freberg, L. A. (2011). Who are the Social Media Influencers? A Study of Public Perceptions of Personality. Public Relations Review, 37(1), 90-92.
  • García-Rapp, F. (2016). The Digital Media Phenomenon of YouTube Beauty Gurus: The Case of Bubzbeauty. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 12(4), 360-375.
  • Giles David C. (2002). Parasocial Interaction: A Review of the Literature and A Model for Future Research. Media psychology, 4(3), 279-305.
  • Goldberg, C. B. ve Allen, D. G. (2008). Black and White and Read All Over: Race Differences in Reactions to Recruitment Web Sites Human Resources Management, 47(2), 217-236.
  • Hagel, J., ve Armstrong, A. G. (1996). The Real Value of On-line Communities. Harvard Business Review, 74(3), 134-141.
  • Hoerner J. (1999). Scaling the Web: a Parasocial Interaction Scale for World Wide Web Sites.  Advertising and the world wide web, 99, 135-147.
  • Horton, D. ve Wohl, R. (1956) Mass Communication and Para-social Interaction: Observations on Intimacy at a Distance.  Psychiatry, 19(3), 215-229.
  • Jain, V., Vatsa, R., & Jagani, K. (2014). Exploring Generation Z’s Purchase Behavior towards Luxury Apparel: a Conceptual Framework. Romanian Journal of Marketing, (2).
  • Juster, F. T. (1966). Consumer Buying Intentions and Purchase Probability: An Experiment in Survey Design.Journal of the American Statistical Association 61; 658-696.
  • Karaçar, E. (2016). Vlogger Nedir & Nasıl Olunur? Bölüm 1. http://www.ebrukaracar.
  • Khan, M. L. (2017). Social Media Engagement: What Motivates User Participation and Consumption on YouTube?.  Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 236-247.
  • Kim H., Ko, E. ve Kim, J. (2015) SNS Users’ Para-social Relationships with Celebrities: Social Media Effects on Purchase Intentions.  Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 25(3), 279-294.
  • Kutthakaphan, R. ve Chokesamritpol, W. (2013) The Use of Celebrity Endorsement with the Help of Electronic Communication Channel (Instagram): Case study of Magnum Ice Cream in Thailand.
  • Labrecque, L. I. (2014). Fostering Consumer–Brand Relationships in Social Media Environments: The Role of Parasocial Interaction.  Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 134-148.
  • Lee, J. E. ve Watkins, B.(2016). YouTube Vloggers’ Influence on Consumer Luxury Brand Perceptions and Intentions.Journal of Business Research, 69(12), 5753-5760.
  • Luers, W. (2007). Cinema Without Show Business: A Poetics of Vlogging. Post Identity, 5(1).
  • Miller, M. (2009). Integrating Online Multimedia into College Course and Classroom: With application to the social sciences. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5, (2).http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/miller_0609.htm
  • Molyneaux, H., O’Donnell, S., Gibson, K., & Singer, J. (2008). Exploring the Gender Divide on YouTube: An Analysis of the Creation and Reception of Vlogs. American Communication Journal, 10(2), 1-14.
  • Montes, S. (2015). The Top 5 Beauty Vloggers And How Much Money They Really Make. http://thezoereport.com/beauty/how-much-vloggers-make/#slide1.
  • Morris M. ve Anderson E. (2015). Charlie is So Cool Like: Authenticity, Popularity and Inclusive Masculinity on YouTube. Sociology, 49(6), 1200-1217.
  • Nizam, F. ve Öztürk Salğar, N. (2018). Yeni Medyada Tek Tıkla Şöhret Üretimi: İnternet Videolarıyla Gelen Şöhret.http://acikerisim.ticaret.edu.tr/xmlui/handle/11467/1893#sthash.yS0kCyeK.dpbs
  • Noguti, V. ve Russell, C. A. (2015). The Moderating Role of Social Norms on the Effects of Product Placement in Television Fiction: A Field Study in Brazil.  Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 36(1), 20-34.
  • Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers’ Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness.  Journal of advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İletişim ve Medya Çalışmaları
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Mine OYMAN 0000-0002-9995-6760

Semra AKINCI 0000-0002-9995-6760

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2019
Gönderilme Tarihi 13 Eylül 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019 Sayı: 32

Kaynak Göster

APA OYMAN, M., & AKINCI, S. (2019). Sosyal Medya Etkileyicileri Olarak Vloggerlar: Z Kuşağı Üzerinde Para-Sosyal İlişki, Satın Alma Niyeti Oluşturma ve Youtube Davranışları Açısından Vloggerların İncelenmesi. Akdeniz Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi(32), 441-464. https://doi.org/10.31123/akil.620050

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