Araştırma Makalesi
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ROMA BETON KUBBELERİNİN ORTAYA ÇIKIŞ SÜRECİ ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

Yıl 2022, Sayı 11, 30 - 52, 20.06.2022

Öz

Beton kubbeler yapı mimarisinde asırlardır kullanılagelmiştir. Bunun yanı sıra beton kubbe inşalarından önce bindirme tekniği Roma İmparatorluk Dönemi’nde kademeli olarak gelişmiştir. Bu teknik kemer ve tonozların inşasında uygulanmıştır. Kemer ve tonoz mimarileri sayesinde ise beton olmayan kubbeler inşa edilebilmiştir. Ancak bindirme tekniği ile inşa edilmiş bu tip kubbelerde kiriş açıları oldukça sınırlı kalmıştır. Ayrıca beton olmayan kubbelerde kullanılmış kireç harcı, kerpiç gibi malzemeler de neme karşı dayanıksızdır. Kereste kullanımından dolayı geniş kirişleri olan ahşap kubbeler ise yangın ve mantara karşı savunmasızdır. Bu tip problemler Romalılar tarafından geliştirilen beton kubbeler sayesinde çözülmüştür. Puzolan, beton kubbe inşasında kullanılan bir hammadde olarak önemli gelişmelere neden olmuştur. Sonrasında beton kubbelerdeki tipolojik ve teknik gelişimler antik toplumların ihtiyaçlarını karşılayacak şekilde kısa sürede tüm Akdeniz Havzası’na yayılmıştır. Bahsi geçen beton kubbeler MÖ birinci yüzyıl ile MS ikinci yüzyılın ilk yarısı sonları arasında oldukça yaygın olarak kullanılmıştır. Kubbeler üzerine çeşitli çalışmaların olmasına rağmen beton kubbelerin kökeni ve gelişimleri üzerine güncel bir araştırma mevcut değildir. Bu makalede beton kubbelerin ortaya çıkış sürecine dair bir değerlendirme yapılacaktır. Bu sürecin detaylıca anlaşılabilmesi için beton öncesi kubbe mimari tarihine de kısaca değinmek gerekir.

Kaynakça

  • Adam, J. P. (1994). Roman Building: Materials and Techniques. London: Routledge.
  • Aliberti, L., Marco, C., & Miguel, A. A. R. (2015). New Contributions on the Dome of the Pantheon in Rome: Comparison Between the Ideal Model and the Survey Model. International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, XL-5/W4, 291-297.
  • Altin, M. (2001). The structural analysis of domes: From Pantheon until Reichstag. In P. B. Lourenço & P. Roca (Eds.), Historical Constructions (pp. 197-208). Guimarães: Portugal: University of Minho.
  • Anderson, J. C. (1985). The Date of the Thermae Traiani and the Topography of the Oppius Mons. American Journal of Archaeology, 89(3), 499-509.
  • Ashby, T. (1907). The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna Part III Section I. Papers of the British School at Rome, 4(1), 3-157.
  • Bachmann, M., & Josef, S. (2013). Erhalt und Instandsetzung mit einfachen Mitteln: Der südliche Rundturm der Roten Halle in Pergamon. Bautechnik, 90(9), 593-601.
  • Ball, L. F. (2003). The Domus Aurea and the Roman Architectural Revolution. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bennett, J. (2005). Trajan: Optimus Princeps. London, England: Routledge.
  • Boëthius, A., & Ward-Perkins, J. B. (1970). Etruscan and Roman Architecture. London, England: Penguin.
  • Brödner, E. (1983). Die Römischen Thermen und das Antike Badewesen. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Campus, A. (2016). Il complesso delle Terme “di Nerone” a Pisa. Studi Classici e Orientali, 62, 205-235.
  • Clark, R. J. (1996). The Avernian Sibyl’s cave: from military tunnel to Mediaeval spa. Classica et Mediaevalia, XLVII, 217-245.
  • Cowan, H. J. (1977). A History of Masonry and Concrete Domes in Building Construction. Building and Environment, 12, 1-24.
  • Cygielman, M. (2009). Tholos tombs in Etruria. In M. Saverio & D. Letizia (Eds.), Earthen Domes et Habitats: Villages of Northern Syria. An architectural tradition shared by East and West (pp. 51-60). Pisa, Italy: Edizioni Est.
  • Deiss, J. J. (1966). Herculaneum: Italy’s Buried Treasure. New York, USA: Crowell.
  • Delbrueck, R. (1912). Hellenistische Bauten in Latium: II Baubeschreibungen. Strassburg, France: Verlag von Karl J. Trübner.
  • Deubner, O. (1938). Das Asklepieion von Pergamon: Kurze Vorläufige Beschreibung. Berlin, Germany: Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft.
  • Emery, W. B. (1958). Excavations at Sakkara: Great Tombs of the First Dynasty III. London, England: Egypt Exploration Society.
  • Eschebach, H. (1979). Die Stabianer Thermen in Pompeji. Berlin, Germany: Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft.
  • Eschebach, L. (1991). Die Forumsthermen in Pompeji, Regio VII, Insula 5. Antike Welt, 22(4), 257-287.
  • Fabiani, F., Salvatore B., Antonio C., & Giuseppe C. (2018). Indagini archeologiche alle Terme “di Nerone” a Pisa: ricerca, didattica, valorizzazione. The Journal of Fasti Online, 410, 1-19.
  • Feldman, M. H. (2006). Assur Tomb 45 and the Birth of the Assyrian Empire. The American Schools of Oriental Research, 343, 21-43.
  • Franceschini, M. D. (2013). Franceschini, Architecture and Archaeoastronomy in Hadrian’s Villa near Tivoli, Rome. Nexus Network Journal, 15(3), 457-485.
  • Friese, W. (2006). Unter göttlicher Aufsicht. Vereinslokale im Asklepieion von Pergamon. Hephaistos, 24, 101-111.
  • Gallina, M. A. (2011). Si vero furno [...] cum caccabos fecerit" (Mem. 7a). Spunti per la rilettura di una tecnica nella lunga durata. Archeologia dell’Architettura, XIV, 9-31.
  • Halfmann, H. (2004). Pergamener im Römischen Senat. Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 54, 519-527.
  • Hannah, R. (2009). The Pantheon as a Timekeeper. British Sundial Society Bulletin, 21(4), 2-5.
  • Heilmeyer, W. D. (1990). Über das Licht im Pantheon. In H. Wolf-Dieter & H. Wolfram (Eds.), Licht und Architektur (pp. 107-111). Tübingen, Germany: Schriften des Seminars für Klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität Berlin.
  • Hetland, L. M. (2009). Zur Datierung des Pantheon. In G. Gerd, H. Michael, & W. Mark (Eds.), The Pantheon in Rome (pp. 107-117). Bern, Switzerland: Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek.
  • Holt, E. (2015). Mobility and Meaning in the Nuragic Culture of Bronze Age Sardinia (ca. 1700–900 BC). British Archaeological Reports, S2771, 193-202.
  • Huelsen, C. (1910). Die Thermen des Agrippa: Ein Beitrag zur Topographie des Marsfeldes in Rom. Rom, Italy: Verlag von Loescher & Co.
  • Koldewey, R. (1914). The Excavations at Babylon. England: MacMillan and Co.
  • Kraus, T., & Leonard, V. M. (1973). Lebendiges Pompeji: Pompeji und Herculaneum, Anlitz und Schicksal zweier antiker Städte. Cologne, Germany: DuMont.
  • Krencker, D. M., Krüger, E., Lehmann, H., & Wachtler, H. (1929). Die Trierer Kaiserthermen Abteilung I: Ausgrabungsbericht und Grundsätzliche Untersuchungen Römischer Thermen. Mönchengladbach, Germany: Dr. Filser Verlag.
  • Lancaster, L. C. (2005). Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lancaster, L. C. (2015). Innovative Vaulting in the Architecture of the Roman Empire: 1st to 4th Centuries CE. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lézine, A. (1968). Carthage-Utique: Études d'Architecture et d'Urbanisme. Paris, France: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
  • Lucore, S. K. (2013). “Bathing in Hieronian Sicily”. Ed. K. L. Sandra & T. Monika. Greek Baths and Bathing Culture: New Discoveries and Approaches 151-181 (2013). Leuven, Belgium: Peeters.
  • Macdonald, W. L. (1982). The Architecture of the Roman Empire I: An Introductory Study. London, England: Yale University Press.
  • Mallowan, M. E. L., & Rose, J. C. (1935). Excavations at Tall Arpachiyah. Iraq, 2(1), 1-178.
  • Mallowan, M. E. L. (1937). The Excavations at Tall Chagar Bazar and an Archaeological Survey of the Habur Region. Second Campaign. Iraq, 4(2), 91-117.
  • Maner, Ç. (2013). Corbelled Vaults in Hittite and Mycenaean Fortification Architecture. In L. Bombardieri, A. D’Agostino, G. Guarducci, V. Orsi, S. Valentini (Eds.), Identity and Connectivity (pp. 419-426). Oxford, England: Information Press.
  • Mark, R., & Hutchinson, P. (1986). On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon. The Art Bulletin, 68(1), 24-34.
  • Masi, F., Ioannis, S., & Paolo, V. (2018). On the origin of the cracks in the dome of the Pantheon in Rome. Engineering Failure Analysis, 92, 587-596.
  • Mau, A. (1908). Pompeji in Leben und Kunst. Leipzig, Germany: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
  • Maravelia, A. A. (2002). The Orientations of the Nine Tholos Tombs at Mycenae. Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33(27), 63-66.
  • Melaragno, M. (1991). An Introduction to Shell Structures: The Art and Science of Vaulting. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Melis, P. (2003). The Nuragic Civilization. Sassari, Italy: Carlo Delfino editore.
  • Moore, C. W. (1960). Hadrian’s Villa. Perspecta, 6, 16-27.
  • Nossov, K. S. (2008). Hittite Fortifications c.1650-700 BC. New York, USA: Osprey Publishing.
  • Nicoletta, L., & Paola, V. (2016). The Urban Set of the Pantheon and the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome, Between Architectural and Astronomical Symbolism. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, 16(4), 249-255.
  • Nuzzolo, M. (2015). The Bent Pyramid of Snefru at Dahshur. A project failure or an intentional architectural framework?. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 44, 259-284.
  • Palyvou, C. (2009). Prehistoric dome architecture in the Aegean. In M. Saverio, & D. Letizia (Eds.), Earthen Domes et Habitats: Villages of Northern Syria. An architectural tradition shared by East and West (pp. 39-49). Pisa, Italy: Edizioni Est.
  • Pappalardo, U. (1999). Die Suburbanen Thermen von Herculaneum. Antike Welt, 30(3), 209-219.
  • Paterson, A. (1913). Assyrian Sculptures: Place of Sinacherib. Holland: The Hague.
  • Petrie, W. M. F. (1980). Kahun, Gurob and Hawara: with Twenty–Eight Plates. London, England: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co.
  • Platner, S. B. (1911). The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome. Boston, USA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Radt, W. (1988). Pergamon: Geschichte und Bauten, Funde und Erforschung einer antiken Metropole. Köln, Germany: DuMont.
  • Rasch, J. J. (1985). Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur: Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion. Architectura, 15, 117-139.
  • Richardson, L. (1992). A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Riethmüller, J. W. (2014). The Asklepieion of Pergamon. In P. Felix & S. Andreas (Eds.), Pergamon: A Hellenistic Capital in Anatolia (pp. 492-505). İstanbul, Turkey: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Sear, F. (1998). Roman Architecture. Oxford, England: Routledge.
  • Seeher, J. (2006). Der Althethitische Getreidesilokomplex. Boğazköy Berichte, 8, 45-84.
  • Tuchelt, K. (1974). Bemerkungen zu den Capito-Thermen in Milet. In A. M. Mansel (Ed.), Mansel’e Ağarmağan (pp. 147-169). Ankara, Turkey: Türk Tarih Kurumu.
  • Tuck, S. L. (2015). A History of Roman Art. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell.
  • Tunca, Ö., & Katrien, R. (2009). The corbelled dome in the archaeology of the ancient Near East. In M. Saverio, & D. Letizia (Eds.), Earthen Domes et Habitats: Villages of Northern Syria. An architectural tradition shared by East and West (pp. 33-37). Pisa, Italy: Edizioni Est.
  • Woolley, C. L. (1934). Ur Excavations II, The Royal Cemetery: a report on the Predynastic and Sargonid graves excavated between 1926 and 1931. London, England: Publications of the Joint Expedition of the British Museum and the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania to Mesopotamia.
  • Wulf-Rheidt, U. (2012). Still higher and more audacious: The architecture of the imperial palaces on the Palatine in Rome. In O. Robert, H. Renata, & H. Lothar (Eds.), Masons at Work: Architecture and Construction in the Pre-Modern World. Pennsylvania, USA: University of Pennsylvania.
  • Xanthoudides, S. (1924). The Vaulted Tombs of Mesará. London, England: University Press of Liverpool.
  • Van Deman, E. B. (1912). Methods of Determining the Date of Roman Concrete Monuments. American Journal of Archaeology, 16(2), 230-251.
  • Yon, M. (2006). The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra. Indiana, USA: Eisenbrauns
  • Ziegenaus, O., Gioia, D. L., Virginia, G., & Christoph, B. (1968). Altertümer von Pergamon, XI(1): Das Asklepieion: 1. Teil Der Südliche Temenosbezirk in Hellenistischer und Frührömischer Zeit. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
  • Zupančič, D. (2010). Corbelled Chambers of Red Pyramid in Dahshur. The Journal of the International Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Symmetry, 1(4), 320-323.

A GLIMPSE INTO THE ORIGINS OF ROMAN CONCRETE DOMES

Yıl 2022, Sayı 11, 30 - 52, 20.06.2022

Öz

Structures have been covered with concrete domes for ages. Before building concrete domes, the technique of corbelling was developed gradually during the Roman Empire. This technique was key to building arches and vaults. Domes appeared significantly thanks to arch and vault architecture. However, corbelled domes were insufficient for large spans. Also, lime mortar or adobe were not durable against moisture. Although timber provided a large span, it was vulnerable to fire and fungi. Romans solved those problems by inventing concrete domes. Pozzolana was one of the more important raw materials, it played an important role in this innovation. Consequently, typology and technique used in concrete domes spread all over the Mediterranean basin. So, this development was a quick response to the needs of ancient societies. These concrete domes were very common from the first century BCE until the end of the first half of the second century CE. Although there are comprehensive studies on domes, the origins and evolution of the concrete domes were not researched thoroughly by scholars until very recently. In this article, we will focus on the origin of concrete domes as well as the origin of the dome architecture to understand the appearance of concrete domes.

Kaynakça

  • Adam, J. P. (1994). Roman Building: Materials and Techniques. London: Routledge.
  • Aliberti, L., Marco, C., & Miguel, A. A. R. (2015). New Contributions on the Dome of the Pantheon in Rome: Comparison Between the Ideal Model and the Survey Model. International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, XL-5/W4, 291-297.
  • Altin, M. (2001). The structural analysis of domes: From Pantheon until Reichstag. In P. B. Lourenço & P. Roca (Eds.), Historical Constructions (pp. 197-208). Guimarães: Portugal: University of Minho.
  • Anderson, J. C. (1985). The Date of the Thermae Traiani and the Topography of the Oppius Mons. American Journal of Archaeology, 89(3), 499-509.
  • Ashby, T. (1907). The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna Part III Section I. Papers of the British School at Rome, 4(1), 3-157.
  • Bachmann, M., & Josef, S. (2013). Erhalt und Instandsetzung mit einfachen Mitteln: Der südliche Rundturm der Roten Halle in Pergamon. Bautechnik, 90(9), 593-601.
  • Ball, L. F. (2003). The Domus Aurea and the Roman Architectural Revolution. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bennett, J. (2005). Trajan: Optimus Princeps. London, England: Routledge.
  • Boëthius, A., & Ward-Perkins, J. B. (1970). Etruscan and Roman Architecture. London, England: Penguin.
  • Brödner, E. (1983). Die Römischen Thermen und das Antike Badewesen. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Campus, A. (2016). Il complesso delle Terme “di Nerone” a Pisa. Studi Classici e Orientali, 62, 205-235.
  • Clark, R. J. (1996). The Avernian Sibyl’s cave: from military tunnel to Mediaeval spa. Classica et Mediaevalia, XLVII, 217-245.
  • Cowan, H. J. (1977). A History of Masonry and Concrete Domes in Building Construction. Building and Environment, 12, 1-24.
  • Cygielman, M. (2009). Tholos tombs in Etruria. In M. Saverio & D. Letizia (Eds.), Earthen Domes et Habitats: Villages of Northern Syria. An architectural tradition shared by East and West (pp. 51-60). Pisa, Italy: Edizioni Est.
  • Deiss, J. J. (1966). Herculaneum: Italy’s Buried Treasure. New York, USA: Crowell.
  • Delbrueck, R. (1912). Hellenistische Bauten in Latium: II Baubeschreibungen. Strassburg, France: Verlag von Karl J. Trübner.
  • Deubner, O. (1938). Das Asklepieion von Pergamon: Kurze Vorläufige Beschreibung. Berlin, Germany: Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft.
  • Emery, W. B. (1958). Excavations at Sakkara: Great Tombs of the First Dynasty III. London, England: Egypt Exploration Society.
  • Eschebach, H. (1979). Die Stabianer Thermen in Pompeji. Berlin, Germany: Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft.
  • Eschebach, L. (1991). Die Forumsthermen in Pompeji, Regio VII, Insula 5. Antike Welt, 22(4), 257-287.
  • Fabiani, F., Salvatore B., Antonio C., & Giuseppe C. (2018). Indagini archeologiche alle Terme “di Nerone” a Pisa: ricerca, didattica, valorizzazione. The Journal of Fasti Online, 410, 1-19.
  • Feldman, M. H. (2006). Assur Tomb 45 and the Birth of the Assyrian Empire. The American Schools of Oriental Research, 343, 21-43.
  • Franceschini, M. D. (2013). Franceschini, Architecture and Archaeoastronomy in Hadrian’s Villa near Tivoli, Rome. Nexus Network Journal, 15(3), 457-485.
  • Friese, W. (2006). Unter göttlicher Aufsicht. Vereinslokale im Asklepieion von Pergamon. Hephaistos, 24, 101-111.
  • Gallina, M. A. (2011). Si vero furno [...] cum caccabos fecerit" (Mem. 7a). Spunti per la rilettura di una tecnica nella lunga durata. Archeologia dell’Architettura, XIV, 9-31.
  • Halfmann, H. (2004). Pergamener im Römischen Senat. Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 54, 519-527.
  • Hannah, R. (2009). The Pantheon as a Timekeeper. British Sundial Society Bulletin, 21(4), 2-5.
  • Heilmeyer, W. D. (1990). Über das Licht im Pantheon. In H. Wolf-Dieter & H. Wolfram (Eds.), Licht und Architektur (pp. 107-111). Tübingen, Germany: Schriften des Seminars für Klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität Berlin.
  • Hetland, L. M. (2009). Zur Datierung des Pantheon. In G. Gerd, H. Michael, & W. Mark (Eds.), The Pantheon in Rome (pp. 107-117). Bern, Switzerland: Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek.
  • Holt, E. (2015). Mobility and Meaning in the Nuragic Culture of Bronze Age Sardinia (ca. 1700–900 BC). British Archaeological Reports, S2771, 193-202.
  • Huelsen, C. (1910). Die Thermen des Agrippa: Ein Beitrag zur Topographie des Marsfeldes in Rom. Rom, Italy: Verlag von Loescher & Co.
  • Koldewey, R. (1914). The Excavations at Babylon. England: MacMillan and Co.
  • Kraus, T., & Leonard, V. M. (1973). Lebendiges Pompeji: Pompeji und Herculaneum, Anlitz und Schicksal zweier antiker Städte. Cologne, Germany: DuMont.
  • Krencker, D. M., Krüger, E., Lehmann, H., & Wachtler, H. (1929). Die Trierer Kaiserthermen Abteilung I: Ausgrabungsbericht und Grundsätzliche Untersuchungen Römischer Thermen. Mönchengladbach, Germany: Dr. Filser Verlag.
  • Lancaster, L. C. (2005). Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lancaster, L. C. (2015). Innovative Vaulting in the Architecture of the Roman Empire: 1st to 4th Centuries CE. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lézine, A. (1968). Carthage-Utique: Études d'Architecture et d'Urbanisme. Paris, France: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
  • Lucore, S. K. (2013). “Bathing in Hieronian Sicily”. Ed. K. L. Sandra & T. Monika. Greek Baths and Bathing Culture: New Discoveries and Approaches 151-181 (2013). Leuven, Belgium: Peeters.
  • Macdonald, W. L. (1982). The Architecture of the Roman Empire I: An Introductory Study. London, England: Yale University Press.
  • Mallowan, M. E. L., & Rose, J. C. (1935). Excavations at Tall Arpachiyah. Iraq, 2(1), 1-178.
  • Mallowan, M. E. L. (1937). The Excavations at Tall Chagar Bazar and an Archaeological Survey of the Habur Region. Second Campaign. Iraq, 4(2), 91-117.
  • Maner, Ç. (2013). Corbelled Vaults in Hittite and Mycenaean Fortification Architecture. In L. Bombardieri, A. D’Agostino, G. Guarducci, V. Orsi, S. Valentini (Eds.), Identity and Connectivity (pp. 419-426). Oxford, England: Information Press.
  • Mark, R., & Hutchinson, P. (1986). On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon. The Art Bulletin, 68(1), 24-34.
  • Masi, F., Ioannis, S., & Paolo, V. (2018). On the origin of the cracks in the dome of the Pantheon in Rome. Engineering Failure Analysis, 92, 587-596.
  • Mau, A. (1908). Pompeji in Leben und Kunst. Leipzig, Germany: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
  • Maravelia, A. A. (2002). The Orientations of the Nine Tholos Tombs at Mycenae. Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33(27), 63-66.
  • Melaragno, M. (1991). An Introduction to Shell Structures: The Art and Science of Vaulting. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Melis, P. (2003). The Nuragic Civilization. Sassari, Italy: Carlo Delfino editore.
  • Moore, C. W. (1960). Hadrian’s Villa. Perspecta, 6, 16-27.
  • Nossov, K. S. (2008). Hittite Fortifications c.1650-700 BC. New York, USA: Osprey Publishing.
  • Nicoletta, L., & Paola, V. (2016). The Urban Set of the Pantheon and the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome, Between Architectural and Astronomical Symbolism. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, 16(4), 249-255.
  • Nuzzolo, M. (2015). The Bent Pyramid of Snefru at Dahshur. A project failure or an intentional architectural framework?. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 44, 259-284.
  • Palyvou, C. (2009). Prehistoric dome architecture in the Aegean. In M. Saverio, & D. Letizia (Eds.), Earthen Domes et Habitats: Villages of Northern Syria. An architectural tradition shared by East and West (pp. 39-49). Pisa, Italy: Edizioni Est.
  • Pappalardo, U. (1999). Die Suburbanen Thermen von Herculaneum. Antike Welt, 30(3), 209-219.
  • Paterson, A. (1913). Assyrian Sculptures: Place of Sinacherib. Holland: The Hague.
  • Petrie, W. M. F. (1980). Kahun, Gurob and Hawara: with Twenty–Eight Plates. London, England: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co.
  • Platner, S. B. (1911). The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome. Boston, USA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Radt, W. (1988). Pergamon: Geschichte und Bauten, Funde und Erforschung einer antiken Metropole. Köln, Germany: DuMont.
  • Rasch, J. J. (1985). Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur: Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion. Architectura, 15, 117-139.
  • Richardson, L. (1992). A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Riethmüller, J. W. (2014). The Asklepieion of Pergamon. In P. Felix & S. Andreas (Eds.), Pergamon: A Hellenistic Capital in Anatolia (pp. 492-505). İstanbul, Turkey: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Sear, F. (1998). Roman Architecture. Oxford, England: Routledge.
  • Seeher, J. (2006). Der Althethitische Getreidesilokomplex. Boğazköy Berichte, 8, 45-84.
  • Tuchelt, K. (1974). Bemerkungen zu den Capito-Thermen in Milet. In A. M. Mansel (Ed.), Mansel’e Ağarmağan (pp. 147-169). Ankara, Turkey: Türk Tarih Kurumu.
  • Tuck, S. L. (2015). A History of Roman Art. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell.
  • Tunca, Ö., & Katrien, R. (2009). The corbelled dome in the archaeology of the ancient Near East. In M. Saverio, & D. Letizia (Eds.), Earthen Domes et Habitats: Villages of Northern Syria. An architectural tradition shared by East and West (pp. 33-37). Pisa, Italy: Edizioni Est.
  • Woolley, C. L. (1934). Ur Excavations II, The Royal Cemetery: a report on the Predynastic and Sargonid graves excavated between 1926 and 1931. London, England: Publications of the Joint Expedition of the British Museum and the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania to Mesopotamia.
  • Wulf-Rheidt, U. (2012). Still higher and more audacious: The architecture of the imperial palaces on the Palatine in Rome. In O. Robert, H. Renata, & H. Lothar (Eds.), Masons at Work: Architecture and Construction in the Pre-Modern World. Pennsylvania, USA: University of Pennsylvania.
  • Xanthoudides, S. (1924). The Vaulted Tombs of Mesará. London, England: University Press of Liverpool.
  • Van Deman, E. B. (1912). Methods of Determining the Date of Roman Concrete Monuments. American Journal of Archaeology, 16(2), 230-251.
  • Yon, M. (2006). The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra. Indiana, USA: Eisenbrauns
  • Ziegenaus, O., Gioia, D. L., Virginia, G., & Christoph, B. (1968). Altertümer von Pergamon, XI(1): Das Asklepieion: 1. Teil Der Südliche Temenosbezirk in Hellenistischer und Frührömischer Zeit. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
  • Zupančič, D. (2010). Corbelled Chambers of Red Pyramid in Dahshur. The Journal of the International Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Symmetry, 1(4), 320-323.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Uygar Ozan USANMAZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7013-3023
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Haziran 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 18 Kasım 2021
Kabul Tarihi 2 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 11

Kaynak Göster

APA Usanmaz, U. O. (2022). A GLIMPSE INTO THE ORIGINS OF ROMAN CONCRETE DOMES . Akdeniz Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , (11) , 30-52 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/aksos/issue/70389/1025338

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Akdeniz Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi (AKSOS)