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Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 749 - 771, 31.05.2021
https://doi.org/10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057

Öz

Tarihteki küresel salgınlar incelendiğinde, her salgının beraberinde yıkıcı sonuçlarla birlikte bir değişim dönüşüm fırsatı da sunduğu görülmektedir. İnsanlığın başlangıcından beri, küresel salgınlar ağır, kalıcı ve derin ekonomik ve toplumsal etkiler bırakmıştır. Yaşanılan tüm bu zorluk ve dönüşümlere rağmen insanlığın sınır tanımayan direşkenliği ve uyum yeteneği olağanüstüdür, tarihteki çeşitli örnekler ve kanıtlar buna tanıklık eder. Çalışmada Covid-19 dışında incelenmiş olan diğer salgınlar da göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, uluslararası ticaret ve ekonomik sonuçlar bağlamında ortak özellikler gözlenmiştir. Önde gelen ekonomiler anlaşmazlıklarını bir ölçüde azaltabildiği takdirde küresel ekonominin ve uluslararası ticaretin en zor şartlarda dahi sürdürülebilmesine olanak tanınabilecek anlaşmalara ve çözümlere varılabilecektir. Bu çözümlerin başında her ulusun öz tarımsal üretiminin ve gıda egemenliğinin güvence altına alınmasının olanaklı hale getirilmesi önemli bir yer tutmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Acemoğlu, D. & Robinson, J.A. (2014). Ulusların Düşüşü, Güç, Zenginlik ve Yoksulluğun Kökenleri, Çev. Faruk Rasim Velioğlu, Doğan Egmont Yayıncılık ve Yapımcılık Tic. A.Ş.: İstanbul).
  • Alpago, H. & Oduncu, D. (2020). ‘Koronavirüs Salgınının Sosyoekonomik Sonuçları’, IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (8). 99-114. 10.21733/ibad.716444.
  • Tabarrok, A. (2020). The Forgotten 1957 Pandemic and Recession, Marginal REVOLUTION, March 24, 2020, https://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2020/03/the-forgotten-1957-pandemic-and-recession.html, Erişim Tarihi: 26.07.2020.
  • Bell, C. & Lewis, M. (2005). The Economic Implications of Epidemics Old and New. SSRN Electronic Journal. 10.2139/ssrn.1112799, pp. 137-174.
  • Barquet N. & Domingo, P. (1997). ‘Smallpox: The Triumph over the Most Terrible of the Ministers of Death’, Annals of Internal Medicine, 127 (8), pp. 635-642.
  • Brainerd, E. & Siegler, M.V. (2003). The economic effects of the 1918 influenza epidemic. CEPR Discussion Paper No. 379, Centre for Economic Policy Research.
  • Cook, Noble. (2002). Sickness, Starvation, and Death in Early Hispaniola. Journal of Interdisciplinary History - J INTERDISCIPL HIST. 32. 349-386. 10.1162/002219502753364173.
  • Dávila, B. E. (2018). ‘En el centenario de la gripe española: un estado de la cuestión’ Revista de Demografía Histórica, ISSN 1696-702X, 36 (1), 2018, pp. 17-42
  • Dieppe, A. (2020). Global Productivity: Trends, Drivers, and Policies. Advance Edition. Washington, DC: World Bank. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  • Donaldson, D. & Keniston, D. (2016). Dynamics of a Malthusian Economy: India in the Aftermath of the 1918 Influenza. Chicago: Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economics, University of Chicago.
  • Dorel, F. (2006). La thèse du "génocide indien": guerre de position entre science et mémoire. Amnis: Revue de Civilisation Contemporaine de l'Université de Bretagne Occidentale, ISSN 1764-7193, Nº. 6, 2006 (Ejemplar dedicado a: La Guerra y sus víctimas (Europa-América Siglo XIX-Siglo XXI)). 10.4000/amnis.908.
  • EBRD. (2020). The EBRD’s coronavirus Solidarity Package, https://www.ebrd.com/what-we-do/coronavirus-solidarity, Erişim Tarihi: 09.08.2020
  • Franke, C. (2016). The Black Death, an Unforeseen Exchange: Europe’s Encounter with Pandemic Sparked an Age of Exploration, Washington Technology Magnet School, St. Paul), 2nd place, 2016 National History Day competition.
  • Furuse, Y., Suzuki, A. and Oshitani, H. (2010). “Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries,” Virology 7 (2010), pp. 52–55.
  • Garrett, T. (2007). Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Implications for a Modern-day Pandemic. Working paper CA0721.
  • Genç, Ö. (2011). Kara Ölüm: 1348 Veba Salgını Ve Ortaçağ Avrupa’sına Etkileri, Tarih Okulu, Mayıs - Ağustos 2011, sayı: X, ss. 123-150.
  • Häggqvist, H. (2019). Wartime and Post-war Economies (Sweden), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2019-09-18. DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.11402.
  • Henige, D. (1978). On the Contact Population of Hispaniola: History as Higher Mathematics. Hispanic American Historical Review 1 May 1978; 58 (2): 217–237. doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/00182168-58.2.217.
  • IMF. (2019). Global Financial Stability Report: Lower for Longer, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, October.
  • James, S. & Sargent, T. (2007). The Economic Impact of an Influenza Pandemic, Department of Finance of Canada Working Paper 2007/4.
  • Jordà, Ò., Singh, S. R. & Taylor, A.M. (2020). Longer-Run Economic Consequences of Pandemics, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper 2020-09.
  • Malanima P. (2012). ‘The economic consequences of the Black Death’, L'impatto della "Peste Antonina", Ed. Elio Lo Cascio, (Edipuglia: Bari, 2012), pp. 311-328.
  • Nunn, N. Qian, N. (2010). ‘The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food, and Ideas’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24 (2), Spring 2010, pp. 163–188.
  • Obrizan, M., Karlsson, M., Matvieiev, M. (2020). The Macroeconomic Impact of the 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic in Sweden, MPRA Paper 98910, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • OECD. (2020a). OECD Employment Outlook 2020: Worker Security and the COVID-19 Crisis, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/1686c758-en.
  • OECD. (2020b). Composite leading indicator, https://data.oecd.org/chart/65Lb, Erişim Tarihi: 17.09.2020
  • Oxford, J.,Sefton, A., Jackson, R., Innes, W., Daniels, R., Johnson, N. (2001). Early herald wave outbreaks of influenza in 1916 prior to the pandemic of 1918. International Congress Series. 1219. 10.1016/S0531-5131(01)00336-3, pp. 155-161.
  • Özden K. & Özmat M. (2014) ‘Salgın ve Kent: 1347 Veba Salgınının Avrupa’da Sosyal, Politik ve Ekonomik Sonuçları’, İdealkent, sayı: 12 (Nisan 2014), ss. 60-87
  • Pamuk, Ş. (2007). “The Black Death and the origins of the ‘Great Divergence’”, European Review of Economic History, pp. 289-317.
  • PBS. (2020). A science odyssey: people and discoveries. Worldwide flu pandemic strikes, 1918–1919. Erişilebilir: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm18fl.html. Erişim tarihi: 17.07.2020.
  • Pirenne, H. (2009). Ortaçağ Avrupa’sının Ekonomik ve Sosyal Tarihi, Çev: Uygur Kocabaşoğlu, (İletişim Yayınları: İstanbul, 2009).
  • Richards, A. (2020). How Low Can It Go? Asian Flu of 1957-58 Foretells “Recession” in 2020, Alambic Investment Management, L.P. March 2020.
  • Rogers, K. (2020). 1957 flu pandemic, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. https://www.britannica.com/event/1957-flu-pandemic, Erişim tarihi: 23 Temmuz 2020.
  • Saunders-Hastings, P. R., & Krewski, D. (2016). Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission. Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 5(4), 66.
  • Stepek, J. (2020). What Can The 1957 Stockmarket Crash Teach Us About The Coronavirus Crisis?, MoneyWeek, 11 April 2020. https://moneyweek.com/investments/stockmarkets/601152/what-can-the-1957-stockmarket-crash-teach-us-about-the-coronavirus, Erişim Tarihi: 26.07.2020.
  • Trilla, A., Trilla, G., Daer, C. (2008). The 1918 “‘Spanish Flu’ in Spain”, Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 47. 10.1086/590567, pp. 668-73.
  • TÜBA. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemi Değerlendirme Raporu, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Yayınları, TÜBA Raporları No: 34. 17 Nisan 2020, Ankara.
  • Vollmer, S. & Wójcik, J. (2017). The long-term consequences of the global 1918 influenza pandemic: A systematic analysis of 117 IPUMS international census data sets. PGDA Working Paper No. 141.
  • World Bank. (2020). Global Economic Prospects, June 2020. Washington, DC: World Bank. DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1553-9.
  • WTO. (2020). World Trade Statistical Review 2020, The World Trade Organization.
  • Yoneyama, T. & Krishnamoorthy, M. (2010). Influence of the Cold War Upon Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958. Proceedings 6th IEEE International Conference on E-Science (E-Science 2010). 12. 10.1109/eScience.2010.25.

The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on International Trade

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 749 - 771, 31.05.2021
https://doi.org/10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057

Öz

Examination of global epidemics in history shows that, despite destructive consequences, each epidemic offers a change-transformation opportunity. Since the beginning of humanity, global epidemics have had heavy, lasting and profound economic and social impacts. Despite all these difficulties and transformations, humanity's unlimited resilience and ability to adapt is extraordinary, and various examples and evidence in history testify to this. Considering the other epidemics examined in the study, besides Covid-19, common features were observed in the context of international trade and economic results. If the leading economies can reduce their disagreements to some extent, agreements and solutions that will allow the continuation of the global economy and international trade even under the most difficult conditions will be reached. At the beginning of these solutions, it may be possible for every nation to secure its own agricultural production and food sovereignty.

Kaynakça

  • Acemoğlu, D. & Robinson, J.A. (2014). Ulusların Düşüşü, Güç, Zenginlik ve Yoksulluğun Kökenleri, Çev. Faruk Rasim Velioğlu, Doğan Egmont Yayıncılık ve Yapımcılık Tic. A.Ş.: İstanbul).
  • Alpago, H. & Oduncu, D. (2020). ‘Koronavirüs Salgınının Sosyoekonomik Sonuçları’, IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (8). 99-114. 10.21733/ibad.716444.
  • Tabarrok, A. (2020). The Forgotten 1957 Pandemic and Recession, Marginal REVOLUTION, March 24, 2020, https://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2020/03/the-forgotten-1957-pandemic-and-recession.html, Erişim Tarihi: 26.07.2020.
  • Bell, C. & Lewis, M. (2005). The Economic Implications of Epidemics Old and New. SSRN Electronic Journal. 10.2139/ssrn.1112799, pp. 137-174.
  • Barquet N. & Domingo, P. (1997). ‘Smallpox: The Triumph over the Most Terrible of the Ministers of Death’, Annals of Internal Medicine, 127 (8), pp. 635-642.
  • Brainerd, E. & Siegler, M.V. (2003). The economic effects of the 1918 influenza epidemic. CEPR Discussion Paper No. 379, Centre for Economic Policy Research.
  • Cook, Noble. (2002). Sickness, Starvation, and Death in Early Hispaniola. Journal of Interdisciplinary History - J INTERDISCIPL HIST. 32. 349-386. 10.1162/002219502753364173.
  • Dávila, B. E. (2018). ‘En el centenario de la gripe española: un estado de la cuestión’ Revista de Demografía Histórica, ISSN 1696-702X, 36 (1), 2018, pp. 17-42
  • Dieppe, A. (2020). Global Productivity: Trends, Drivers, and Policies. Advance Edition. Washington, DC: World Bank. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  • Donaldson, D. & Keniston, D. (2016). Dynamics of a Malthusian Economy: India in the Aftermath of the 1918 Influenza. Chicago: Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economics, University of Chicago.
  • Dorel, F. (2006). La thèse du "génocide indien": guerre de position entre science et mémoire. Amnis: Revue de Civilisation Contemporaine de l'Université de Bretagne Occidentale, ISSN 1764-7193, Nº. 6, 2006 (Ejemplar dedicado a: La Guerra y sus víctimas (Europa-América Siglo XIX-Siglo XXI)). 10.4000/amnis.908.
  • EBRD. (2020). The EBRD’s coronavirus Solidarity Package, https://www.ebrd.com/what-we-do/coronavirus-solidarity, Erişim Tarihi: 09.08.2020
  • Franke, C. (2016). The Black Death, an Unforeseen Exchange: Europe’s Encounter with Pandemic Sparked an Age of Exploration, Washington Technology Magnet School, St. Paul), 2nd place, 2016 National History Day competition.
  • Furuse, Y., Suzuki, A. and Oshitani, H. (2010). “Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries,” Virology 7 (2010), pp. 52–55.
  • Garrett, T. (2007). Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Implications for a Modern-day Pandemic. Working paper CA0721.
  • Genç, Ö. (2011). Kara Ölüm: 1348 Veba Salgını Ve Ortaçağ Avrupa’sına Etkileri, Tarih Okulu, Mayıs - Ağustos 2011, sayı: X, ss. 123-150.
  • Häggqvist, H. (2019). Wartime and Post-war Economies (Sweden), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2019-09-18. DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.11402.
  • Henige, D. (1978). On the Contact Population of Hispaniola: History as Higher Mathematics. Hispanic American Historical Review 1 May 1978; 58 (2): 217–237. doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/00182168-58.2.217.
  • IMF. (2019). Global Financial Stability Report: Lower for Longer, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, October.
  • James, S. & Sargent, T. (2007). The Economic Impact of an Influenza Pandemic, Department of Finance of Canada Working Paper 2007/4.
  • Jordà, Ò., Singh, S. R. & Taylor, A.M. (2020). Longer-Run Economic Consequences of Pandemics, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper 2020-09.
  • Malanima P. (2012). ‘The economic consequences of the Black Death’, L'impatto della "Peste Antonina", Ed. Elio Lo Cascio, (Edipuglia: Bari, 2012), pp. 311-328.
  • Nunn, N. Qian, N. (2010). ‘The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food, and Ideas’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24 (2), Spring 2010, pp. 163–188.
  • Obrizan, M., Karlsson, M., Matvieiev, M. (2020). The Macroeconomic Impact of the 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic in Sweden, MPRA Paper 98910, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • OECD. (2020a). OECD Employment Outlook 2020: Worker Security and the COVID-19 Crisis, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/1686c758-en.
  • OECD. (2020b). Composite leading indicator, https://data.oecd.org/chart/65Lb, Erişim Tarihi: 17.09.2020
  • Oxford, J.,Sefton, A., Jackson, R., Innes, W., Daniels, R., Johnson, N. (2001). Early herald wave outbreaks of influenza in 1916 prior to the pandemic of 1918. International Congress Series. 1219. 10.1016/S0531-5131(01)00336-3, pp. 155-161.
  • Özden K. & Özmat M. (2014) ‘Salgın ve Kent: 1347 Veba Salgınının Avrupa’da Sosyal, Politik ve Ekonomik Sonuçları’, İdealkent, sayı: 12 (Nisan 2014), ss. 60-87
  • Pamuk, Ş. (2007). “The Black Death and the origins of the ‘Great Divergence’”, European Review of Economic History, pp. 289-317.
  • PBS. (2020). A science odyssey: people and discoveries. Worldwide flu pandemic strikes, 1918–1919. Erişilebilir: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm18fl.html. Erişim tarihi: 17.07.2020.
  • Pirenne, H. (2009). Ortaçağ Avrupa’sının Ekonomik ve Sosyal Tarihi, Çev: Uygur Kocabaşoğlu, (İletişim Yayınları: İstanbul, 2009).
  • Richards, A. (2020). How Low Can It Go? Asian Flu of 1957-58 Foretells “Recession” in 2020, Alambic Investment Management, L.P. March 2020.
  • Rogers, K. (2020). 1957 flu pandemic, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. https://www.britannica.com/event/1957-flu-pandemic, Erişim tarihi: 23 Temmuz 2020.
  • Saunders-Hastings, P. R., & Krewski, D. (2016). Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission. Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 5(4), 66.
  • Stepek, J. (2020). What Can The 1957 Stockmarket Crash Teach Us About The Coronavirus Crisis?, MoneyWeek, 11 April 2020. https://moneyweek.com/investments/stockmarkets/601152/what-can-the-1957-stockmarket-crash-teach-us-about-the-coronavirus, Erişim Tarihi: 26.07.2020.
  • Trilla, A., Trilla, G., Daer, C. (2008). The 1918 “‘Spanish Flu’ in Spain”, Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 47. 10.1086/590567, pp. 668-73.
  • TÜBA. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemi Değerlendirme Raporu, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Yayınları, TÜBA Raporları No: 34. 17 Nisan 2020, Ankara.
  • Vollmer, S. & Wójcik, J. (2017). The long-term consequences of the global 1918 influenza pandemic: A systematic analysis of 117 IPUMS international census data sets. PGDA Working Paper No. 141.
  • World Bank. (2020). Global Economic Prospects, June 2020. Washington, DC: World Bank. DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1553-9.
  • WTO. (2020). World Trade Statistical Review 2020, The World Trade Organization.
  • Yoneyama, T. & Krishnamoorthy, M. (2010). Influence of the Cold War Upon Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958. Proceedings 6th IEEE International Conference on E-Science (E-Science 2010). 12. 10.1109/eScience.2010.25.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ercan TAŞKIN
KÜTAHYA DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8499-1013
Türkiye


Özden Sevgi AKINCI (Sorumlu Yazar)
KÜTAHYA DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9250-4446
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mayıs 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { alanyaakademik816057, journal = {Alanya Akademik Bakış}, eissn = {2651-4192}, address = {}, publisher = {Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, number = {2}, pages = {749 - 771}, doi = {10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057}, title = {Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri}, key = {cite}, author = {Taşkın, Ercan and Akıncı, Özden Sevgi} }
APA Taşkın, E. & Akıncı, Ö. S. (2021). Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri . Alanya Akademik Bakış , 5 (2) , 749-771 . DOI: 10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057
MLA Taşkın, E. , Akıncı, Ö. S. "Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri" . Alanya Akademik Bakış 5 (2021 ): 749-771 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/alanyaakademik/issue/62638/816057>
Chicago Taşkın, E. , Akıncı, Ö. S. "Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri". Alanya Akademik Bakış 5 (2021 ): 749-771
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri AU - Ercan Taşkın , Özden Sevgi Akıncı Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057 DO - 10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057 T2 - Alanya Akademik Bakış JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 749 EP - 771 VL - 5 IS - 2 SN - -2651-4192 M3 - doi: 10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057 UR - https://doi.org/10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Alanya Akademik Bakış Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri %A Ercan Taşkın , Özden Sevgi Akıncı %T Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri %D 2021 %J Alanya Akademik Bakış %P -2651-4192 %V 5 %N 2 %R doi: 10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057 %U 10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057
ISNAD Taşkın, Ercan , Akıncı, Özden Sevgi . "Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri". Alanya Akademik Bakış 5 / 2 (Mayıs 2021): 749-771 . https://doi.org/10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057
AMA Taşkın E. , Akıncı Ö. S. Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri. Alanya Akademik Bakış. 2021; 5(2): 749-771.
Vancouver Taşkın E. , Akıncı Ö. S. Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri. Alanya Akademik Bakış. 2021; 5(2): 749-771.
IEEE E. Taşkın ve Ö. S. Akıncı , "Covid-19 Küresel Salgınının Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri", Alanya Akademik Bakış, c. 5, sayı. 2, ss. 749-771, May. 2021, doi:10.29023/alanyaakademik.816057