Al-Afwah, whose real name was Salâ’e b. ‘Amr b. Mâlik b. ‘Avf b. al-Hâris b. ‘Avf b. Munabbih b. Evd b. Sa’b b. Sa‘d el-‘Asîre was a member of the Madh'hij tribe. His kunya was Abu Rebî‘a. For Al-Afwah, there are also those who call al-Azdi. The poet was one of the well-known cavalrymen of the Arabs, which naturally reveals that he was a warrior. He spent most of his life in battles, in which he emerged victorious most of the time. Since he was a wise poet, the elegance of his words has survived till today. Scholars voiced many opinions regarding his poetry. Due to his choice of words and descriptions in his poems, Afwah’s poems and poetry eclipsed others. Informed by his father, Ibn al-Kalbī (d. after 204/819) says, “Afwah was one of the leading and most prominent poets of the Jahiliyyah period. He was the chieftain of his tribe and commanded them in battle. His tribe loved him and followed his instructions. He was also considered one of the rulers of Arabs.” Abû Hilāl al-‘Askarî (d. after 400/1009) says, “Afwah was the first to liken the hooves of the horses to stones.” Afwah was considered a major Arab poet. He lived during the late Jahiliyyah Period. He was rumored to have died in 570 or 560. Based on both rumors, it can be said that he lived around half a century before the Hegira. The word “fakhr” means that a person cares about his past; exalts, values and prefers somebody over others; and boasts with some characteristics. As a term, “fakhr” refers to the type of poem in which the poets boast with themselves, their tribes, ancestors, lineage, beliefs, religion, sect, disposition, their literary and political prowess, talents and virtues, and even with their personal items and wealth such as swords, armors, horses and especially camels, or with their long life and life experience. The opinions are divided among Arabic literature scholars regarding the acceptance of “fakhr” as a standalone theme in poetry. While Abû Hilal al-Askarî is discussing theme of poetry, he considers the fakhr and the dirge in the praise. On the other hand, Ibn Sallâm al-Jumahî (d. after 231/846) considers it in the basic poetry subjects; likewise, Ibn Rashiq al-Qayrawani (d. after 456/1064) also sees it as one of the main subjects of honorary poetry. Although it is frowned upon for a civilized person to praise others and especially oneself, in the moral landscape of the Jahiliyyah Period, self-praise of the poets was not opposed. Afwah’s “fakhr” poetry was generally based on his and his tribe’s achievements in warfare and his performance in the battlefield. In such poems, Afwah describes the warriors of his tribe with reference to their horse-riding skills, sword mastery, and courage. Outside of the battle, he refers to his and his tribe’s moral qualities, how he gives credit where credit is due, yet how he claims his rights even when he had to oppose strong and highborn people, how Northern Arabs were in the wrong and as a result, they were taught how to battle and how to ride horses, and how the tribe of Ewd would never take a hostile action lightly. The poet describes that not everybody can join and keep up with them for they are very courageous, they fought other tribes and took their women captive yet no other tribe ever took their women captive, they are determined to take revenge on Benî ‘Âmir tribe, which is their enemy, they prefer paying ransom to spilling blood, those who wish to learn how his tribe attacks the enemy, should ask this to their tribe or to their enemies, they left the leaders of hostile tribes begging for food, and they have left their wives in tears. Again, when describing their battles with the Northern Arabs, Afwah speaks of his and his tribe’s benevolence, generosity, and their sacrifices to protect their neighbors and he remarks that he charged into the battlefield on his horse with no fear. A major subject of the Arabic poetry in the Jahiliyyah period, “fakhr” was featured prominently in Afwah’s poems. As he praises himself and his tribe, Afwah highlights virtues such as courage, benevolence, charitableness, horse-riding, and use of other weapons of war, and combat experience. Afwah reveals their outstanding achievements in their battles with Northern Arabs and the despair they have inflicted upon their enemies. In his poems, the poet also draws attention to the sites of their battles with their enemies.
Asıl adı Salâ’e b. ‘Amr b. Mâlik b. ‘Avf b. el-Hâris b. ‘Avf b. Munebbih b. Evd b. Sa’b b. Sa‘d el-‘Aşîre olan Efveh, Mezhic kabilesindendir. O yakın dönem Câhiliye devrinde yaşamıştır. Fahr kelimesi, sözlükte kişinin atalarını sayması, bir kimseyi başka birine kıyasla yüceltmesi, değerli görmesi, tercih etmesi, birtakım özelliklerle övünmek anlamlarına gelir. Terim olarak fahr, şairlerin kendilerinden, kabile, soy, nesep, inanç, din, mezhep ve meşreplerinden edebî ve siyasî güçleriyle şiirdeki ustalık, yetenek ve faziletlerinden, hatta kılıç, zırh, at ve özellikle deve gibi şahsi mal ve eşyalarından veya uzun ömürleriyle hayat tecrübelerinden övünerek söz ettikleri şiir türünü ifade eder. Fahrın müstakil bir şiir teması olarak kabul edilmesiyle ilgili Arap Edebiyatçıları arasında görüş farklılıkları vardır. Efveh, fahr şiirlerini genel olarak savaşlarda kendisinin ve kavminin kazandığı başarılar ve savaş meydanlarında sergilediği performans üzerine bina etmiştir. Bu tür şiirlerinde Efveh, kavminin savaşçılarının ata binme yeteneği, kılıç kullanma becerisi ve cesaretlerine dair betimlemelerde bulunmuş, savaş dışında yine kendisinin ve kavminin sahip olduğu bazı ahlâkî nitelikleri, hak sahibine hakkını verdiğini fakat haklı olduğu durumda da muhatabı güçlü ve soylu da olsa hakkını alma kararlığını, Kuzey Araplarının yanlış yaptığını ve bunun sonucunda kendilerine nasıl savaşılacağının, ata nasıl binileceğinin öğretildiğini ve düşmanca saldırı karşısında Evd kabilesinin asla yumuşak bir tavır takınmayacağını zikreder.
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 20 Haziran 2019
|APA||ŞEN, A , DEMİR, E . (2019). Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması. Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi , 0 (12) , 195-221 . DOI: 10.18498/amailad.579971|
|MLA||ŞEN, A , DEMİR, E . "Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması". Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi 0 (2019 ): 195-221 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/amailad/issue/45383/579971>|
|Chicago||ŞEN, A , DEMİR, E . "Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması". Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi 0 (2019 ): 195-221|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması AU - Ahmet ŞEN , Erdoğan DEMİR Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.18498/amailad.579971 DO - 10.18498/amailad.579971 T2 - Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 195 EP - 221 VL - 0 IS - 12 SN - 2667-7326-2667-6710 M3 - doi: 10.18498/amailad.579971 UR - https://doi.org/10.18498/amailad.579971 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması %A Ahmet ŞEN , Erdoğan DEMİR %T Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması %D 2019 %J Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi %P 2667-7326-2667-6710 %V 0 %N 12 %R doi: 10.18498/amailad.579971 %U 10.18498/amailad.579971|
|ISNAD||ŞEN, Ahmet , DEMİR, Erdoğan . "Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması". Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi 0 / 12 (Haziran 2019): 195-221 . https://doi.org/10.18498/amailad.579971|
|AMA||ŞEN A , DEMİR E . Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması. Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi. 2019; 0(12): 195-221.|
|Vancouver||ŞEN A , DEMİR E . Câhiliye Dönemi Şairlerinden El-Efveh El-Evdî'de Fahr Teması. Amasya İlahiyat Dergisi. 2019; 0(12): 221-195.|