Yıl 2019, Cilt 14 , Sayı 2, Sayfalar 229 - 237 2019-10-25

Glysemic Index and Insulin Resistance in Horses
Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci

Emre YILMAZ [1] , Mehmet GÜL [2]


Horses feed with forages low‐energy and high‐cellulose although they are physically active animals. Thus, they must

intake feed every 1‐2 hours. However, with the development of equestrian sport, the increase in energy needs, the

importance of feeding horses with diets with high starch and sugar content has emphasized. The elevating sugar/starch

concentration in horse’ diets, increased incidence of digestive and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity,

laminitis and osteochondrosis. In order to determine and control the glucose content of the diets consumed by the horses,

the Glycemic Index (GI) is emphasized. GI is used to classify feeds according to the standard feed compare the potential to

increase blood glucose level of the test feeds over a period of time and is an index expressed as a percentage. In horses,

glucose, oats, corn and grass are used as standard. The digestion and absorption of glucose derived from starch and sugars

are affected by many factors. Knowing these factors will provide a better understanding of the usability of GI. This review is

prepared to determine the factors affecting to GI, the diseases caused by higher GI, and the usability of GI in horses.

Atlar, fiziksel aktiviteleri yüksek olmasına rağmen mide yapılarından dolayı düşük enerjili ve selülozca zengin yemlerle beslenmekte ve ortalama 1‐2 saatte bir yem tüketmek zorundadırlar. Fakat atçılık sporunun gelişmesiyle birlikte, enerji ihtiyaçlarının artması, atların nişasta ve şeker içeriği yüksek rasyonlar ile beslenmesinin önemini ön plana çıkarmıştır. Atların, yemlerinde bulunan nişasta ve şeker konsantrasyonunun yükseltilmesi ile insülin direnci, obezite, laminitis ve osteokondrozis gibi sindirimsel ve metabolik rahatsızlıkların görülme insidensi de artmaktadır. Atların tükettikleri yemin nişasta ve şeker içeriğinin tespit edilip, kontrol edilebilmesi amacıyla Glisemik İndeks (Gİ) değeri üzerinde durulmaktadır. Gİ, yemlerin belli bir zaman diliminde, kan glikoz seviyesini artırma potansiyeli baz alınarak, yemlerin standart bir yeme göre sınıflandırılmasında kullanılan ve yüzdelik olarak ifade edilen bir indekstir. Atlarda, Gİ hesaplamasında standart olarak en çok glikoz, yulaf, mısır ve çayır otu kullanılmaktadır. Nişasta ve şekerlerden elde edilen glikozun sindirimini ve emilimini çok sayıda faktör etkilemektedir. Bu faktörlerin bilinmesi, Gİ’nin kullanılabilirliğini daha iyi anlamayı sağlayacaktır. Bu derleme, atlarda Gİ değerlerini etkileyen faktörleri, Gİ’nin yüksekliğinin atlarda meydana getirdiği rahatsızlıklar ve kullanılabilirliği hakkında bilgi vermek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır.

  • 1. NRC, 2007. Energy. Nutrient Requirements of Horses: Sixth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp:33‐43. 2. Kaczmarek K., Janicki B., Głowska, M., 2016. Insulin resistance in the horse: a review. J Appl Anim Res, 44, 424–430. 3. Ludwing DS., 2002. The glycemic index: physiological mechanism relating to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. JAMA, 287, 2414‐2423. 4. Harris P., Geor RJ., 2009. Primer on dietary carbohydrates and utility of the glycemic index in equine nutrition. Vet Clin Nor Am: Equi Pract, 25, 23‐37. 5. Kronfeld D., Rodiek A., Stull C., 2004. Glycemic indices, glycemic loads, and glycemic dietetics. J Equi Vet Sci, 24, 399‐404. 6. Lui JL., Lan‐Pidhainy X., Brummer Y., Tosh SM., Wood PJ., Wolever TMS., 2009. Effect of blood sampling schedule on the ability to discriminate between postprandial glycemic responses. Nutr, 25, 1064‐1066. 7. Yeh ST., 2002. Using trapezoidal rule for the area under a curve calculation. Proceedings of the 27th Annual SAS® User Group International (SUGI’02). 8. Bamford NJ., Potter SJ., Harris PA., Bailey SR., 2014. Breed differences in insulin sensitivity and insulinemic responses to oral glucose in horses Dom Anim Endocrin, 47, 101‐107. 9. Kahn CR., 1978. Insulin resistance, insulin insensitivity, and insulin unresponsiveness: a necessary distinction. Metabolism, 27, 1893‐1902. 10. Jenkins DJA., Wolever TMS., Taylor RH., Barker H., Fielden H., Baldwin JM., Bowling AC., Newman HC., Jerkins AL., Goff DV., 1981. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am I Gin Nutr, 34, 362‐366. 11. Williams CA., Kronfeld DS., Staniar WB., Harris PA., 2001. Plasma glucose and insulin responses of Thoroughbred mares fed a meal high in starch and sugar or fat and fiber. J Anim Sci, 79, 2196‐ 2201. 12. Rapson JL., Schott HC., Nielsen BD., McCutcheon LJ., Harris PA., Geor RJ., 2018. Effects of age and diet on glucose and insulin dynamics in the horse. Equi Vet J, 50, 690‐696. 13. Wagner A., DeLano K., Jenkins B., McIntosh B., Girard I., Medina B., 2018. PSXVI‐2 Impact of DigestaWell® NRG on the insulinemic and glycemic responses of performance horses. J Anim Sci, 96, 253‐253. 14. Owens T., Gargano V., Mansilla W., Merkies K., Shoveller A. 2018. Effects of steaming or soaking hay on acute glycemic response in Standardbred racehorses. J Anim Sci, 96, 56‐56. 15. Hoffman RM., 2009. Carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic disorders in horses. R Bras Zootec, 38, 270‐276. 16. Radulian G., Rusu E., Dragomir A., Posea M. 2009. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets. Nutr J, 8, 5. 17. Rodiek A., 2006. Glycemic index of practical horse feeds. Agricultural Research Institute Publication, California Agricultural Technology Institute, California State Univ, Fresno, 00‐2‐034‐1B. 18. Vervuert I., Coenen M., 2006. Factors affecting glycaemic index of feds for horses. Proceedings of the 3rd European Equine Nutrition & Health Congress, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium. 19. Bailey SR., Bamford NJ., 2013. Metabolic responses of horses and ponies to high and low glycaemic feeds: implications for laminitis. Anim Produc Sci, 53, 1182. 20. June V., Soderholm V., Hintz HF., Butler WR., 1992. Glucose tolerance in the horse, pony and donkey. J Equi Vet Sci, 12, 103‐105. 21. Holdstock NB., Allen VL., Fowden AL., 2012. Pancreatic endocrine function in newborn pony foals after induced or spontaneous delivery at term. Equi Vet J, 44, Suppl, 30‐37. 22. Desai M., Crowther NJ., Ozanne SE., Lucas A., Hales CN., 1995. Adult glucose and lipid metabolism may be programmed during fetal life. Biochem Soc Transact, 23, 331‐335. 23. Fowden AL., Ellis L., Rossdale PD., 1982. Pancreatic beta cell function in the neonatal foal. J Repro Fertil, 32, 529‐535. 24. Fowden AL., Gardner DS., Ousey JC., Giussani DA., Forhead AJ., 2005. Maturation of pancreatic beta cell function in the fetal horse during late gestation. J Endocrinol, 186, 467‐473. 25. Nielsen BD., O'Connor‐Robison CI., Spooner HS., Shelton J., 2010. Glycemic and insulinemic responses are affected by age of horse and method of feed processing. J Equi Vet Sci, 30, 249‐258. 26. Jellyman JK., Valenzuela OA., Allen VL., Holdstock NB., Fowden AL., 2014. Sex‐associated differences in pancreatic β cell function in healthy preweaning pony foals. Equi Vet J, 46, 722‐728. 27. Powell DM., Reedy SE., Sessions DR., Fitzgerald BP., 2002. Effect of short‐term exercise training on insulin sensitivity in obese and lean mares. Equi Vet J, Suppl. (34), 81‐84. 28. Lawrence LM., Soderholm LV., Roberts A., Williams J., Hintz H.,1993. Feeding status affects glucose metabolism in exercising horses. J Nutr, 123, 2152‐2157. 29. George LA., Staniar WB., Cubitt TA., Treiber KH., Harris PA., Geor RJ., 2011. Evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and glucose dynamics in Thoroughbred Catalano PM., 2010. Obesity, insulin resistance, and pregnancy outcome. J Repr, 140, 365‐71. 31. Chambrier C., Laville M., Rhzioual‐Berrada K., Odeon M., Bouletreau P., Beylot M., 2000. Insulin sensitivity of glucose and fat metabolism in severe sepsis. Clin Sci (London), 99,321‐328. 32. Jose‐Cunilleras E., Hinchcliff KW., Nout YS., Geor RJ., 2008. Glucose metabolism in five septic neonatal foals. J Vet Em and Critic Care, 18, 404‐ 408. 33. Carslake HB., Argo CM., Pinchbeck GL., Dugdale AHA., McGowan CM., 2018. Insulinaemic and glycaemic responses to three forages in ponies. Vet J, 235, 83‐89. 34. Dipnaik K., Kokare P., 2017. Ratio of amylose and amylopectin as indicators of glycaemic index and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starches of long, medium and short grain rice. J Res Med Sci, 5, 4502‐4505. 35. Vervuert I., Coenen M., Bichmann M., 2004. Comparision of the effects of fructose and glucose supplementation on metabolic responses in resting and exercising horses. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med, 51, 171–1777. 36. Ozaki RKF., Speridiao PDGL., Soares ACF., Morais MBD. 2018. Intestinal fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Jornal Pediatr, 94, 609‐615. 37. Bochnia M., Schürer C., Gottschalk J., Einspanier A., Hillegeist D., Wensch‐Dorendorf M., Greef JM., Glatter M., Zeyner A., 2017. Effects of isoenergetic quantities of a low‐starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre vs. oat grains on the glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies. J Anim Phy and Anim Nutr, 101, 43‐50. 38. Summers SA., 2006. Ceramides in insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. Prog Lipid Res, 45, 42‐ 72. 39. De Oliveira Lopes C., Barcelos MDFP., de Goes Vieira CN., de Abreu WC., Ferreira EB., Pereira RC., de Angelis‐Pereira MC., 2019. Effects of sprouted and fermented quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) on glycemic index of diet and biochemical parameters of blood of Wistar rats fed high carbohydrate diet. J Food Sci Technol, 56, 40‐48. 40. Beythien E., Wulf M., Ille N., Aurich J., Aurich C., 2017. Effects of sex, pregnancy and season on insulin secretion and carbohydrate metabolism in horses. Anim Repro Sci, 184, 86‐93. 41. Tadros EM., Frank N., 2013. Endocrine disorders and laminitis. Equi Vet Educ, 25,152‐162. 42. Lindase SS., Nostell KE., Müller CE., Jensen‐Waern M., Bröjer JT., 2016. Effects of diet‐induced weight gain and turnout to pasture on insulin sensitivity in moderately insulin resistant horses. Am J Vet Res, 77, 300‐309. 43. Longland AC., Byrd BM., 2006. Pasture nonstructural carbohydrates and equine laminitis. J Nutr, 136, 2099S‐2102S. 44. Huntington P., Pollitt C., Mcgowan C., 2009. Recent research into laminitis. Adv in Equi Nutr, 6, 293. 45. Boado A., Lopez‐Sanroman FJ., 2016. Prevalence and characteristics of osteochondrosis in 309 Spanish Purebred horses. Vet J, 207, 112‐117.
Birincil Dil tr
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Yayımlanma Tarihi güz
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0003-1004-6531
Yazar: Emre YILMAZ
Kurum: ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-5721-8778
Yazar: Mehmet GÜL (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 25 Ekim 2019

Bibtex @derleme { ataunivbd522351, journal = {Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {1306-6137}, eissn = {2147-9615}, address = {}, publisher = {Atatürk Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {14}, pages = {229 - 237}, doi = {}, title = {Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci}, key = {cite}, author = {YILMAZ, Emre and GÜL, Mehmet} }
APA YILMAZ, E , GÜL, M . (2019). Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi , 14 (2) , 229-237 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ataunivbd/issue/49777/522351
MLA YILMAZ, E , GÜL, M . "Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci". Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 14 (2019 ): 229-237 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ataunivbd/issue/49777/522351>
Chicago YILMAZ, E , GÜL, M . "Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci". Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 14 (2019 ): 229-237
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci AU - Emre YILMAZ , Mehmet GÜL Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 229 EP - 237 VL - 14 IS - 2 SN - 1306-6137-2147-9615 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci %A Emre YILMAZ , Mehmet GÜL %T Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci %D 2019 %J Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi %P 1306-6137-2147-9615 %V 14 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD YILMAZ, Emre , GÜL, Mehmet . "Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci". Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 14 / 2 (Ekim 2019): 229-237 .
AMA YILMAZ E , GÜL M . Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi. 2019; 14(2): 229-237.
Vancouver YILMAZ E , GÜL M . Atlarda Glisemik İndeks ve İnsülin Direnci. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi. 2019; 14(2): 237-229.