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Yıl 2020, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 56 - 78, 30.07.2020

Öz

Kaynakça

  • AI Index Annual Report (2019). Artificial Intelligence Index Report 2019. https://hai.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj10986/f/ai_index_2019_report.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 17.03.2020)
  • Aldowah, H., Al-Samarraie, H., & Fauzy, W. M. (2019). Educational data mining and learning analytics for 21st century higher education: A review and synthesis. Telematics and Informatics, 37, 13-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2019.01.007
  • Au, O. T. S., Li, K., & Wong, T. M. (2018). Student persistence in open and distance learning: success factors and challenges. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 13(2), 191-202. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAOUJ-12-2018-0030
  • Bakeer, H. M. S., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2019). An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning TOEFL. International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR), 2(12), 9-15.
  • Baker, T., & Smith, L. (2019). Educ-AI-tion rebooted? Exploring the future of artificial intelligence in schools and colleges. https://media.nesta.org.uk/documents/Future_of_AI_and_education_v5_WEB.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 18.03.2020)
  • Bates, A.W. (2015) Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Designing Teaching and Learning. Vancouver BC: Tony Bates Associates Ltd.
  • Bini, S. A. (2018). Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Cognitive Computing: What Do These Terms Mean and How Will They Impact Health Care?. The Journal of Arthroplasty, 33(8), 2358–2361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.02.067
  • Chen, A. (2018). China’s schools are quietly using AI to mark students essays….but do the robots make the grade? https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2147833/chinas-schools-are-quietly-using-ai-mark-students-essays-do (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020).
  • Christensen C. M. & Raynor M. E. (2003). The innovator’s solution: Creating and sustaining successful growth. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.
  • EdSurge (2016). Decoding Adaptive. London: Pearson. https://www.pearson.com/content/dam/corporate/global/pearson-dot-com/files/innovation/Pearson-Decoding-Adaptive-v5-Web.pdf
  • Educause (2019). Educause Horizon Report 2019: Higher Education Edition. https://library.educause.edu/-/media/files/library/2019/4/2019horizonreport.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 17.03.2020)
  • Educause (2020). Educause Horizon Report 2020: Teaching and Learning Edition. https://library.educause.edu/resources/2020/3/2020-educause-horizon-report-teaching-and-learning-edition (Erişim Tarihi: 18.03.2020)
  • Ekowa, M., & Palmer, I. (2016). Predictive analytics in higher education.: Five guiding practices for ethical use. https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/reports/predictive-analytics-in-higher-education/ (Erişim Tarihi: 23. 03. 2020)
  • Fabian, W. (2019). The Artificial Industry and Global Changes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/cognitiveworld/2019/11/27/the-artificial-intelligence-industry-and-global-challenges/#34ce06603deb (Erişim Tarihi: 17.03.2020).
  • Fırat, M. & Yüzer, T. V. (2016). Learning Analytics: Assessment of Mass Data in Distance Education. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 7(2), 1-8.
  • Goel, A.K., & Polepeddi, L. (2017). Jill watson: A virtual teaching assistant for online education. Presented to the Learning Engineering for Online Learning Workshop, Harvard University. https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/59104/goelpolepeddi-harvardvolume-v7.1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (Erişim Tarihi: 22.03.2020)
  • Goksel, N., & Bozkurt, A. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Education: Current Insights and Future Perspectives. In S. Sisman-Ugur, & G. Kurubacak (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Learning in the Age of Transhumanism (pp. 224-236). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
  • Gregori, P., Martínez, V., & Moyano-Fernández, J. J. (2018). Basic actions to reduce dropout rates in distance learning. Evaluation and Program Planning, 66, 48–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2017.10.004
  • Hamza-Lup, F. G., & Goldbach, I. R. (2019). Survey on intelligent dialogue in e-learning systems. In Proceedings of the 11th International conference on mobile, hybrid, and on-line learning, (pp. 24-28). Athens, Greece.
  • Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
  • Holmes, W., & Anastopoulou, S. (2019, June). What do students at distance universities think about AI?. In Proceedings of the Sixth (2019) ACM Conference on Learning@ Scale (pp. 1-4). Chicago, IL, USA.
  • Hussain, M., Zhu, W., Zhang, W., & Abidi, S. M. R. (2018). Student engagement predictions in an e-Learning system and their impact on student course assessment scores. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6347186
  • Hussain, M., Zhu, W., Zhang, W., Abidi, S. M. R., & Ali, S. (2019). Using machine learning to predict student difficulties from learning session data. Artificial Intelligence Review, 52(1), 381-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10462-018-9620-8
  • Ivanov, S. (2016). Will robots substitute teachers? Yearbook of Varna University of Management, 9, 42-47.
  • Kai S., Miguel J., Andres L., Paquette L., Baker RS., Molnar K., Watkins H., Moore M. (2017). Predicting student retention from behavior in an online orientation course. In Proceedings of 10th International conference on education data mining (pp. 250-255). Wuhan, China.
  • Kavitha, G. and Raj, L. (2017). Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics - Educational Assistance for Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Computer & Organization Trends, 41(1), 21-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.14445/22492593/IJCOT-V41P304
  • Liu, F., Wang, L., & Qian, Y. (2017). Analysis of MOOCs courses dropout rate based on students' studying behaviors. Advances in Social Science Education and Humanities Research, 83, 139–144. https://doi.org/10.2991/hss-17.2017.26
  • Marr, B. (2019). The seven biggest technology trends in 2020 everyone must get ready for now. https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/09/30/the-7-biggest-technology-trends-in-2020-everyone-must-get-ready-for-now/#54c7e5612261 (Erişim Tarihi: 12.04.2020)
  • Mayfield, E. (2013). Six ways the edX announcements gets automated essay grading wrong, ELiterate. https://eliterate.us/si-ways-the-edx-announcement-gets-automated-essay-grading-wrong/ (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • Muilenburg, L., & Berge, Z. L. (2001). Barriers to distance education: A factor‐analytic study. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), 7-22.
  • Ndukwe, I. G., Daniel, B. K., & Amadi, C. E. (2019). A Machine Learning Grading System Using Chatbots. Artificial Intelligence in Education, 365–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23207-8_67
  • Page, L. C., & Gehlbach, H. (2017). How an artificially intelligent virtual assistant helps students navigate the road to college. AERA Open, 3(4),1-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858417749220
  • Robinson, C., Yeomans, M., Reich, J., Hulleman, C., & Gehlbach, H. (2016, April). Forecasting student achievement in MOOCs with natural language processing. In Proceedings of the sixth international conference on learning analytics & knowledge (pp. 383-387). Edinburgh, UK.
  • Sharma, R. C., Kawachi, P., & Bozkurt, A. (2019). The landscape of artificial intelligence in open, online and distance education: Promises and concerns. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 1-2.
  • Simonson, M., Zvacek, S. M., & Smaldino, S. (2019). Teaching and Learning at a Distance: Foundations of Distance Education 7th Edition. Charlotte, North Carolina: IAP.
  • Simpson, O. (2017). Innovations in distance education student support: What are the chances? In: G. Ubachs, L., Konings, & M. Brown (Eds.). The Envisioning Report for Empowering Universities (pp. 52-55). https://empower.eadtu.eu/images/report/The_Envisioning_Report_for_Empowering_Universities_1st_edition_2017.pdf#page=56 (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • The Alchemy Project (2019). Alchemy: A Teaching and Learning Tool. https://ctlt-alchemy-2019.sites.olt.ubc.ca/teaching-learning/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020).
  • Thompson, N. (2017). Instagram’s Kevin Systrom wants to clean up the &#%@! Internet, Wired. https://www.wired.com/2017/08/instagram-kevin-systrom-wants-to-clean-up-the-internet/ (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • Uğur, S., & Kurubacak, G. (2019). Technology Management Through Artificial Intelligence in Open and Distance Learning. In Handbook of Research on Challenges and Opportunities in Launching a Technology-Driven International University (pp. 338-368). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
  • UN General Assembly (2018). Promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expressions. https://freedex.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/2015/files/2018/10/AI-and-FOE-GA.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • Utah State University (2017). Blind instructor now uses Amazon Alexa to manage her classroom. https://www.usu.edu/ais/news/2017/blind-instructor-now-uses-amazon-alexa-to-manage-her-classroom (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • Xiaogang, L (2018). A research on distance education systembased on artificial intelligence technology. In Proceedings of 2018 International Conference on Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICBDAI 2018) (pp. 98-103). Chengdu, China
  • Zawacki-Richter, O., Marín, V.I., Bond, M., & Gouverneur, F. (2019). Systematic review of research on artificial intelligence applications in higher education – where are the educators?. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 16-39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0171-0
  • Zeide, E. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: Applications, Promise and Perils, and Ethical Questions. Educause Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2019/8/artificial-intelligence-in-higher-education-applications-promise-and-perils-and-ethical-questions (Erişim Tarihi: 07.03.2020)
  • Zhao, S., Zhang, Y., Xiong, X., Botelho, A., & Heffernan, N. (2017, April). A memory-augmented neural model for automated grading. In Proceedings of the Fourth (2017) ACM Conference on Learning@ Scale (pp. 189-192). Cambridge Massachusetts, USA.
  • https://www.admithub.com/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • https://www.cognii.com/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • https://www.fishtree.com/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • https://www.pearsonmylabandmastering.com/global/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)

Açık ve uzaktan öğrenme ortamlarında yapay zekâ: Sunduğu fırsatlar ve yarattığı endişeler

Yıl 2020, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 56 - 78, 30.07.2020

Öz

Yapay zekâ (YZ), makinelerin daha önce insan zekâsı ile ilişkilendirilen bilişsel görevleri başarabileceği fikrine dayanmaktadır. Etkileşimli kişiselleştirilmiş e-öğrenme platformlarını geliştirmek ve uygulamak için makine ve derin öğrenme algoritmalarını kullanarak büyük verilerden yararlanan bu teknolojinin yakın gelecekte açık ve uzaktan öğrenmede (AUÖ) yaygın olarak uygulanması beklenmektedir. AUÖ’de YZ’nin kullanımı uzaktan öğrenenler, öğretim üyeleri, personel ve kurumlar için büyük umutlar sunarken, etik konular ve zorluklar açısından beraberinde büyük sorumluluklar da getirmektedir. Bu nedenle, bu çalışmanın amacı YZ teknolojilerinin AUÖ’deki uygulamalarına ve sunduğu fırsatlara genel bir bakış açısı sunmak ve maliyet, gizlilik, algoritmik önyargı ve öğrenen veri kullanımı dahil YZ ile ilgili olası endişeleri tartışmaktır.

Kaynakça

  • AI Index Annual Report (2019). Artificial Intelligence Index Report 2019. https://hai.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj10986/f/ai_index_2019_report.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 17.03.2020)
  • Aldowah, H., Al-Samarraie, H., & Fauzy, W. M. (2019). Educational data mining and learning analytics for 21st century higher education: A review and synthesis. Telematics and Informatics, 37, 13-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2019.01.007
  • Au, O. T. S., Li, K., & Wong, T. M. (2018). Student persistence in open and distance learning: success factors and challenges. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 13(2), 191-202. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAOUJ-12-2018-0030
  • Bakeer, H. M. S., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2019). An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning TOEFL. International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR), 2(12), 9-15.
  • Baker, T., & Smith, L. (2019). Educ-AI-tion rebooted? Exploring the future of artificial intelligence in schools and colleges. https://media.nesta.org.uk/documents/Future_of_AI_and_education_v5_WEB.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 18.03.2020)
  • Bates, A.W. (2015) Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Designing Teaching and Learning. Vancouver BC: Tony Bates Associates Ltd.
  • Bini, S. A. (2018). Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Cognitive Computing: What Do These Terms Mean and How Will They Impact Health Care?. The Journal of Arthroplasty, 33(8), 2358–2361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.02.067
  • Chen, A. (2018). China’s schools are quietly using AI to mark students essays….but do the robots make the grade? https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2147833/chinas-schools-are-quietly-using-ai-mark-students-essays-do (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020).
  • Christensen C. M. & Raynor M. E. (2003). The innovator’s solution: Creating and sustaining successful growth. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.
  • EdSurge (2016). Decoding Adaptive. London: Pearson. https://www.pearson.com/content/dam/corporate/global/pearson-dot-com/files/innovation/Pearson-Decoding-Adaptive-v5-Web.pdf
  • Educause (2019). Educause Horizon Report 2019: Higher Education Edition. https://library.educause.edu/-/media/files/library/2019/4/2019horizonreport.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 17.03.2020)
  • Educause (2020). Educause Horizon Report 2020: Teaching and Learning Edition. https://library.educause.edu/resources/2020/3/2020-educause-horizon-report-teaching-and-learning-edition (Erişim Tarihi: 18.03.2020)
  • Ekowa, M., & Palmer, I. (2016). Predictive analytics in higher education.: Five guiding practices for ethical use. https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/reports/predictive-analytics-in-higher-education/ (Erişim Tarihi: 23. 03. 2020)
  • Fabian, W. (2019). The Artificial Industry and Global Changes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/cognitiveworld/2019/11/27/the-artificial-intelligence-industry-and-global-challenges/#34ce06603deb (Erişim Tarihi: 17.03.2020).
  • Fırat, M. & Yüzer, T. V. (2016). Learning Analytics: Assessment of Mass Data in Distance Education. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 7(2), 1-8.
  • Goel, A.K., & Polepeddi, L. (2017). Jill watson: A virtual teaching assistant for online education. Presented to the Learning Engineering for Online Learning Workshop, Harvard University. https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/59104/goelpolepeddi-harvardvolume-v7.1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (Erişim Tarihi: 22.03.2020)
  • Goksel, N., & Bozkurt, A. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Education: Current Insights and Future Perspectives. In S. Sisman-Ugur, & G. Kurubacak (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Learning in the Age of Transhumanism (pp. 224-236). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
  • Gregori, P., Martínez, V., & Moyano-Fernández, J. J. (2018). Basic actions to reduce dropout rates in distance learning. Evaluation and Program Planning, 66, 48–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2017.10.004
  • Hamza-Lup, F. G., & Goldbach, I. R. (2019). Survey on intelligent dialogue in e-learning systems. In Proceedings of the 11th International conference on mobile, hybrid, and on-line learning, (pp. 24-28). Athens, Greece.
  • Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
  • Holmes, W., & Anastopoulou, S. (2019, June). What do students at distance universities think about AI?. In Proceedings of the Sixth (2019) ACM Conference on Learning@ Scale (pp. 1-4). Chicago, IL, USA.
  • Hussain, M., Zhu, W., Zhang, W., & Abidi, S. M. R. (2018). Student engagement predictions in an e-Learning system and their impact on student course assessment scores. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6347186
  • Hussain, M., Zhu, W., Zhang, W., Abidi, S. M. R., & Ali, S. (2019). Using machine learning to predict student difficulties from learning session data. Artificial Intelligence Review, 52(1), 381-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10462-018-9620-8
  • Ivanov, S. (2016). Will robots substitute teachers? Yearbook of Varna University of Management, 9, 42-47.
  • Kai S., Miguel J., Andres L., Paquette L., Baker RS., Molnar K., Watkins H., Moore M. (2017). Predicting student retention from behavior in an online orientation course. In Proceedings of 10th International conference on education data mining (pp. 250-255). Wuhan, China.
  • Kavitha, G. and Raj, L. (2017). Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics - Educational Assistance for Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Computer & Organization Trends, 41(1), 21-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.14445/22492593/IJCOT-V41P304
  • Liu, F., Wang, L., & Qian, Y. (2017). Analysis of MOOCs courses dropout rate based on students' studying behaviors. Advances in Social Science Education and Humanities Research, 83, 139–144. https://doi.org/10.2991/hss-17.2017.26
  • Marr, B. (2019). The seven biggest technology trends in 2020 everyone must get ready for now. https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/09/30/the-7-biggest-technology-trends-in-2020-everyone-must-get-ready-for-now/#54c7e5612261 (Erişim Tarihi: 12.04.2020)
  • Mayfield, E. (2013). Six ways the edX announcements gets automated essay grading wrong, ELiterate. https://eliterate.us/si-ways-the-edx-announcement-gets-automated-essay-grading-wrong/ (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • Muilenburg, L., & Berge, Z. L. (2001). Barriers to distance education: A factor‐analytic study. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), 7-22.
  • Ndukwe, I. G., Daniel, B. K., & Amadi, C. E. (2019). A Machine Learning Grading System Using Chatbots. Artificial Intelligence in Education, 365–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23207-8_67
  • Page, L. C., & Gehlbach, H. (2017). How an artificially intelligent virtual assistant helps students navigate the road to college. AERA Open, 3(4),1-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858417749220
  • Robinson, C., Yeomans, M., Reich, J., Hulleman, C., & Gehlbach, H. (2016, April). Forecasting student achievement in MOOCs with natural language processing. In Proceedings of the sixth international conference on learning analytics & knowledge (pp. 383-387). Edinburgh, UK.
  • Sharma, R. C., Kawachi, P., & Bozkurt, A. (2019). The landscape of artificial intelligence in open, online and distance education: Promises and concerns. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 1-2.
  • Simonson, M., Zvacek, S. M., & Smaldino, S. (2019). Teaching and Learning at a Distance: Foundations of Distance Education 7th Edition. Charlotte, North Carolina: IAP.
  • Simpson, O. (2017). Innovations in distance education student support: What are the chances? In: G. Ubachs, L., Konings, & M. Brown (Eds.). The Envisioning Report for Empowering Universities (pp. 52-55). https://empower.eadtu.eu/images/report/The_Envisioning_Report_for_Empowering_Universities_1st_edition_2017.pdf#page=56 (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • The Alchemy Project (2019). Alchemy: A Teaching and Learning Tool. https://ctlt-alchemy-2019.sites.olt.ubc.ca/teaching-learning/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020).
  • Thompson, N. (2017). Instagram’s Kevin Systrom wants to clean up the &#%@! Internet, Wired. https://www.wired.com/2017/08/instagram-kevin-systrom-wants-to-clean-up-the-internet/ (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • Uğur, S., & Kurubacak, G. (2019). Technology Management Through Artificial Intelligence in Open and Distance Learning. In Handbook of Research on Challenges and Opportunities in Launching a Technology-Driven International University (pp. 338-368). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
  • UN General Assembly (2018). Promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expressions. https://freedex.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/2015/files/2018/10/AI-and-FOE-GA.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2020).
  • Utah State University (2017). Blind instructor now uses Amazon Alexa to manage her classroom. https://www.usu.edu/ais/news/2017/blind-instructor-now-uses-amazon-alexa-to-manage-her-classroom (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • Xiaogang, L (2018). A research on distance education systembased on artificial intelligence technology. In Proceedings of 2018 International Conference on Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICBDAI 2018) (pp. 98-103). Chengdu, China
  • Zawacki-Richter, O., Marín, V.I., Bond, M., & Gouverneur, F. (2019). Systematic review of research on artificial intelligence applications in higher education – where are the educators?. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 16-39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0171-0
  • Zeide, E. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: Applications, Promise and Perils, and Ethical Questions. Educause Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2019/8/artificial-intelligence-in-higher-education-applications-promise-and-perils-and-ethical-questions (Erişim Tarihi: 07.03.2020)
  • Zhao, S., Zhang, Y., Xiong, X., Botelho, A., & Heffernan, N. (2017, April). A memory-augmented neural model for automated grading. In Proceedings of the Fourth (2017) ACM Conference on Learning@ Scale (pp. 189-192). Cambridge Massachusetts, USA.
  • https://www.admithub.com/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • https://www.cognii.com/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • https://www.fishtree.com/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)
  • https://www.pearsonmylabandmastering.com/global/ (Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2020)

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Dilek ŞENOCAK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5966-1976
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Temmuz 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 6, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Şenocak, D. (2020). Açık ve uzaktan öğrenme ortamlarında yapay zekâ: Sunduğu fırsatlar ve yarattığı endişeler . Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (3) , 56-78 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/auad/issue/56247/765722