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Madde Bağımlılığında Ahlaki Yargının Önemi

Yıl 2018, Cilt 19, Sayı 3, 70 - 77, 30.09.2018

Öz

Madde kullanımı gibi riskli davranışlar, bireylerin ahlaki gelişimi ve etik değerleri bakımından bu davranışlardan nasıl etkilendiği önemli tartışma konularından birisidir. Psikoaktif ya da uyuşturucu madde kullanımı bireyler için kimi zaman önemli bir halk sağlığı sorunu, kimi zaman ise güvenlik sorunu olarak tartışmaya açık bir durum olarak nitelendirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada madde bağımlılığında ahlaki yargının önemini incelemek amaçlanmıştır. Adölesanlarda ve genç yetişkinlerde görülen madde kullanımının veya madde kullanım bozukluğunun bireylerin ahlaki gelişimlerinden nasıl etkilendiğini ve ahlaki teorilere göre nasıl ele alındığını literatür temelli incelemek ve psikoaktif ya da uyuşturucu madde kullanıcılarının veya madde kullanım bozukluğunun sağaltım çalışmalarına (bireysel rehabilitasyon ve tedaviler, sosyal uyum sürecinde bireylerin topluma yeniden entegrasyonlarının sağlanması vb.) farklı bir bakış açısı oluşturarak katkıda bulunulabilmektir. Bireylerin ahlaki gelişim düzeyleri ile madde kullanımı, antisosyal davranışlar vb. gibi riskli davranışlarının yüksek düzeyde ilişkili olduğu düşünülmektedir. Riskli davranışlar bireyi doğrudan etkilediğinde kişisel bir tercih olarak kabul edilirken, antisosyal davranışlar gibi çevreyi ve toplumu direkt ya da dolaylı etkileyen davranışlar ahlaki olarak nitelendirilmektedir. Sonuç olarak, madde kullanım bozukluğu ve diğer riskli davranışların tedavi ve rehabilitasyonu sırasında bireyin istendik davranış değişikliği gösterebilmesi için gerekli olan kaynağın yine bireyin kendisinde saklı olduğu unutulmamalıdır. 

Kaynakça

  • 1. Higgins A, Power C, and Kohlberg L. The relationship of moral judgment to judgments of responsibility. Gewirtz G, Kurtines W. (editors). Morality, moral development, and moral behavior: basic issues in theory and research, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984: 74-106.2. Power FC, Higgins A, Kohlberg L. Lawrence Kohlberg’s approach to moral education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.3. Berkowitz MW, Guerra N, Nucci L. Sociomoral development and drug and alcohol abuse. Kurtines WM, Gewirtz JL. (editors). Handbook of moral behavior and development: Vol. 3. Application, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991; 35-534. Berkowitz MW, Begun AL, Zweben A, et al. Assessing how adolescents think about the morality of substance use. Drugs and Society 1995; 8: 111–124.5. Erikson EH. Childhood and society. New York: Norton, 1950.6. Hill JP, Holmbeck GN. Attachment and autonomy during adolescence. Annals of Child Development 1986; 3: 145–189.7. Windle M. A longitudinal study of antisocial behaviors in early adolescence as predictors of late adolescent substance use: gender and ethnic group differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1990; 99: 86–91.8. Dryfoos JG. Adolescents at risk: a summation of work in the field: programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health 1991; 12: 630–637.9. Kohlberg L. Essays on moral development: Vol. 2. The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1984. 10. Kohlberg L, Candee D. The relation of moral judgment to moral action. Kurtinez W, Gewirtz J. (editors). Morality, moral behavior, and moral development. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984; 52: 7311. Kohlberg L. Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. Rand McNally, 1969.12. Nucci L, Guerra N, Lee J. Adolescent judgment of the personal, prudential, and normative aspects of drug usage. Developmental Psychology, 1991; 27: 841–848.13. Szasz TS. The ethics of addiction. Journal of drug issues, 1972; 2(1): 42-49.14. Blasi A. Bridging moral cognition and moral action: a critical review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 1980; 88: 1–45.15. Einstein S. Intervention models for adaptation in a world of chemicals: A values approach. The International Journal of Addictions, 1985; 20: 795-802.16. Vaillant GE, Milofsky ES. The etiology of alcoholism: A prospective viewpoint. American Psychologist, 1982; 37: 494-503.17. Brook RC, Whitehead PC. Values of adolescent drug abusers. The International Journal of the Addictions, 1983; 18: 1-8.18. Jennings WS, Kilkenny R, Kohlberg L. Moral-development theory and practice for youthful offenders. Laufer W, Day J (editors). Personality theory, moral development, and criminal behavior Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983: 281-35519. Alterman AR, Druley KA, Connolly R, Bush D. (1978). A comparison of moral reasoning in drug addicts and nonaddicts. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 790-794.20. Haan N, Stroud J, Holstein C. (1973). Moral and ego stages in relationship to ego processes: A study of "hippies". Journal of Personality, 41, 596-61221. Kuther TL, Higgins-D'Alessandro ANN. Bridging the gap between moral reasoning and adolescent engagement in risky behavior. Journal of Adolescence, 2000; 23(4): 409-422.22. Vaughn L. Doing ethics: Moral reasoning and contemporary issues. 4.Baskı, New York: WW Norton & Company, 2015: 350-37923. Horney K. Neurosis and human growth. London: Routledge. 1951.24. May R. Freedom and destiny. New York, NY: Basic Books. 1981.25. Rogers CR. On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. London: Constable, 1961.26. Yalom ID. Existential psychotherapy. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1980.27. Robinson SR. Moral Reasoning and Authenticity in Paraprofessional and Professional and Recovering and Non-recovering Addiction Counselors. New Orleans: University of Holy Cross, School of Counseling Faculty, 2018.

Importance of Moral Reasoning in Drug Abuse

Yıl 2018, Cilt 19, Sayı 3, 70 - 77, 30.09.2018

Öz

Risky behavior such as substance use and how it affects from one’s moral development and ethical values have always been a critical discussion point in literature. Psychoactive or narcotic drug usage mostly has been considered as a public health problem or a security problem for individuals. This paper aims to examine the importance of moral reasoning in drug abuse. The goal is to contribute the psychoactive and narcotic drug abusers’ rehabilitation (individual rehabilitation and treatments) and social integration process by creating a new perspective including how adolescents’ and young adults’ drug abuse affects from their moral developments and how moral theories explain aforesaid problem by examination of literature. According to literature it has been thought which there a high connection between individuals’ moral is reasoning development and risky behaviors such as substance abuse, antisocial behaviors etc. While risky behaviors affect individual directly they have been accepted as a personal preference, choices which affects environment or community have been accepted as moral behaviors. To sum up it should not be forgotten that in order to execute a successful treatment and rehabilitation process the resource which in need lays inside the individual.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Higgins A, Power C, and Kohlberg L. The relationship of moral judgment to judgments of responsibility. Gewirtz G, Kurtines W. (editors). Morality, moral development, and moral behavior: basic issues in theory and research, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984: 74-106.2. Power FC, Higgins A, Kohlberg L. Lawrence Kohlberg’s approach to moral education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.3. Berkowitz MW, Guerra N, Nucci L. Sociomoral development and drug and alcohol abuse. Kurtines WM, Gewirtz JL. (editors). Handbook of moral behavior and development: Vol. 3. Application, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991; 35-534. Berkowitz MW, Begun AL, Zweben A, et al. Assessing how adolescents think about the morality of substance use. Drugs and Society 1995; 8: 111–124.5. Erikson EH. Childhood and society. New York: Norton, 1950.6. Hill JP, Holmbeck GN. Attachment and autonomy during adolescence. Annals of Child Development 1986; 3: 145–189.7. Windle M. A longitudinal study of antisocial behaviors in early adolescence as predictors of late adolescent substance use: gender and ethnic group differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1990; 99: 86–91.8. Dryfoos JG. Adolescents at risk: a summation of work in the field: programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health 1991; 12: 630–637.9. Kohlberg L. Essays on moral development: Vol. 2. The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1984. 10. Kohlberg L, Candee D. The relation of moral judgment to moral action. Kurtinez W, Gewirtz J. (editors). Morality, moral behavior, and moral development. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984; 52: 7311. Kohlberg L. Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. Rand McNally, 1969.12. Nucci L, Guerra N, Lee J. Adolescent judgment of the personal, prudential, and normative aspects of drug usage. Developmental Psychology, 1991; 27: 841–848.13. Szasz TS. The ethics of addiction. Journal of drug issues, 1972; 2(1): 42-49.14. Blasi A. Bridging moral cognition and moral action: a critical review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 1980; 88: 1–45.15. Einstein S. Intervention models for adaptation in a world of chemicals: A values approach. The International Journal of Addictions, 1985; 20: 795-802.16. Vaillant GE, Milofsky ES. The etiology of alcoholism: A prospective viewpoint. American Psychologist, 1982; 37: 494-503.17. Brook RC, Whitehead PC. Values of adolescent drug abusers. The International Journal of the Addictions, 1983; 18: 1-8.18. Jennings WS, Kilkenny R, Kohlberg L. Moral-development theory and practice for youthful offenders. Laufer W, Day J (editors). Personality theory, moral development, and criminal behavior Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983: 281-35519. Alterman AR, Druley KA, Connolly R, Bush D. (1978). A comparison of moral reasoning in drug addicts and nonaddicts. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 790-794.20. Haan N, Stroud J, Holstein C. (1973). Moral and ego stages in relationship to ego processes: A study of "hippies". Journal of Personality, 41, 596-61221. Kuther TL, Higgins-D'Alessandro ANN. Bridging the gap between moral reasoning and adolescent engagement in risky behavior. Journal of Adolescence, 2000; 23(4): 409-422.22. Vaughn L. Doing ethics: Moral reasoning and contemporary issues. 4.Baskı, New York: WW Norton & Company, 2015: 350-37923. Horney K. Neurosis and human growth. London: Routledge. 1951.24. May R. Freedom and destiny. New York, NY: Basic Books. 1981.25. Rogers CR. On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. London: Constable, 1961.26. Yalom ID. Existential psychotherapy. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1980.27. Robinson SR. Moral Reasoning and Authenticity in Paraprofessional and Professional and Recovering and Non-recovering Addiction Counselors. New Orleans: University of Holy Cross, School of Counseling Faculty, 2018.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Tıp
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Mehmet Aykut ERK
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, BAĞIMLILIK VE ADLİ BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ, BAĞIMLILIK ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-4362-2729
Türkiye


Sunay FIRAT (Sorumlu Yazar)
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, BAĞIMLILIK VE ADLİ BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ, BAĞIMLILIK ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-9960-0836
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2018
Kabul Tarihi 27 Temmuz 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 19, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

AMA Erk M. A. , Fırat S. Madde Bağımlılığında Ahlaki Yargının Önemi. Bağımlılık Dergisi. 2018; 19(3): 70-77.