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Evaluation of Biomass Use In Terms of Energy, Environment, Health and Economy

Yıl 2017, Cilt 19, Sayı 1, 148 - 160, 01.06.2017

Öz

There is also an increase in the number and quality of products and services depend on population growth in the world. These increases, naturally, have further increased the importance of energy. The implementations of energy policies in the short and long term of many countries and investment in different energy sources have accelerated academic and commercial areas. Coal, petroleum and natural gas having in certain areas have increased orientation to nuclear, hydroelectric and renewable energy sources. Biomass which is renewable energy sources has a wide range of products. Wooden materials and industrial wastes, wood-based products and constructions that have completed their service life are also important biomass resources. The conversion of these sources into pellets or coal mines or direct burning bring about the problem of the release of harmful gases to the environment and human health. The chemical content and processing of biofuel which is used as an energy source have affected diversity and quantity of these gases. In this study, the use of biofuels as a source of energy and its contribution to the economy was examined. In addition, contribution has been made to the literature in this area by evaluating the smoke and gases arising as a result of burning biofuels in terms of health and environment.

Kaynakça

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  • o Antal, M. J., Friedman, H. L., Rogers, F. E. (1980). Kinetics of cellulose pyrolysis in nitrogen and steam. Combustion Science and Technology, 21(3-4), 141-152.
  • o Antal M. J., Varhegyi, G. (1995). Cellulose pyrolysis kinetics: the current state of knowledge. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 34(3), 703-717.
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  • o Bardana, E. J., Montanaro, A. (1997). Indoor air pollution and health. Marcel Dekker.127-153.
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  • o Brown, D. M., Stone, V., Findlay, P., MacNee, W., Donaldson, K. (2000). Increased inflammation and intracellular calcium caused by ultrafine carbon black is independent of transition metals or other soluble components. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 685–691.
  • o De Jong, W., Pirone, A., Wojtowicz, M. A. (2003). Pyrolysis of Miscanthus Giganteus and wood pellets: TG-FTIR analysis and reaction kinetics. Fuel, 82(9), 1139-1147.
  • o Demirbaş, A. (2008). Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey.Energy Policy, (36), 834–842.
  • o Enzensberger, W. 1961. On the surface finishing of particleboard with resin impregnated paper layers. Holz Roh Werkst, 19: 394–398.
  • o Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı (2012). 2011 Yılı Genel Enerji Dengesi Tablosu, http://www.enerji.gov.tr (Erişim Tarihi: 16.03.2017).
  • o Elektrik Üretim Anonim Şirketi. (EÜAŞ) (2012). Elektrik Üretimi Sektör Raporu 2012, www.enerji.gov.tr/yayinlar_raporlar/Sektor_Raporu_EUAS_2012.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 16.03.2017)
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  • o Gölçöl, C., Dursun, B. Alboyacı, B., Sunan, E. (2009). Importance of biomass energy as alternative to other sources in Turkey, Energy Policy,(37), 424–431.
  • o Gündüz, G., Saraçoğlu, N., Aydemir, D. (2016). Characterization and elemental analysis of wood pellets obtained from low-valued types of wood. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 38(15), 2211-2216.
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Biyokütle Kullanımının Enerji, Çevre, Sağlık ve Ekonomi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2017, Cilt 19, Sayı 1, 148 - 160, 01.06.2017

Öz

Dünyadaki nüfus artışına bağlı olarak ürün ve hizmetlerin sayısında ve kalitesinde de artışlar görülmektedir. Bu artışlarla birlikte enerjiye duyulan ihtiyaç da fazlalaşmıştır. Birçok ülkenin kısa ve uzun vadede enerji politikaları uygulaması ve farklı enerji kaynaklarına yatırım yapması akademik ve ticari alanlara da ivme kazandırmıştır. Enerji kaynağı olarak kullanılan kömür, petrol ve doğalgazın belirli alanlarda bulunması, nükleer, hidroelektrik ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarına yönelimi arttırmıştır. Yenilenebilir enerji kaynakları içinde yer alan biyokütle, geniş bir ürün yelpazesine sahiptir. Odunsu materyaller ve endüstriyel atıkların yanında servis ömrünü tamamlamış ahşap bazlı ürün ve yapılar da önemli biyokütle kaynaklarıdır. Bu kaynakların pelet veya kömüre dönüştürülmesi veya doğrudan yakılması, çevreye ve insan sağlığına zararlı gazların salınımı sorununu ortaya çıkarmıştır. Enerji kaynağı olarak kullanılacak biyoyakıtın kimyasal içeriği ve işlem görmüş olması bu gazların çeşitliliği ve miktarında etkili olmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, biyoyakıtların enerji kaynağı olarak kullanılması ve ekonomiye katkıları incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, yakılması sonucu ortaya çıkan duman ve gazların çevre ve sağlık açısından değerlendirilmesi yapılarak bu alanda yapılacak çalışmalar için literatür oluşturulmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • o Amann, M., Lutz, M. (2000). The revision of the air quality legislation in the European Union related to ground-level ozone. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 78, 41-62.
  • o Antal, M. J., Friedman, H. L., Rogers, F. E. (1980). Kinetics of cellulose pyrolysis in nitrogen and steam. Combustion Science and Technology, 21(3-4), 141-152.
  • o Antal M. J., Varhegyi, G. (1995). Cellulose pyrolysis kinetics: the current state of knowledge. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 34(3), 703-717.
  • o Atkinson, R. (2000). Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 2063–2101.
  • o Bardana, E. J., Montanaro, A. (1997). Indoor air pollution and health. Marcel Dekker.127-153.
  • o Beér, J. M. (2000). Combustion technology developments in power generation in response to environmental challenges. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 26(4), 301-327.
  • o Boffetta, P., Sarccı, R., Kogevinas, M., Wilbourn, J. Vainio, H. (1998). Occupational Carcinogens. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, 2, 4th Edition, ILO.
  • o Boman, B. C., Forsberg, A. B., Järvholm, B. G. (2003). Adverse health effects from ambient air pollution in relation to residential wood combustion in modern society. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 29, 251–260.
  • o Brown, D. M., Stone, V., Findlay, P., MacNee, W., Donaldson, K. (2000). Increased inflammation and intracellular calcium caused by ultrafine carbon black is independent of transition metals or other soluble components. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 685–691.
  • o De Jong, W., Pirone, A., Wojtowicz, M. A. (2003). Pyrolysis of Miscanthus Giganteus and wood pellets: TG-FTIR analysis and reaction kinetics. Fuel, 82(9), 1139-1147.
  • o Demirbaş, A. (2008). Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey.Energy Policy, (36), 834–842.
  • o Enzensberger, W. 1961. On the surface finishing of particleboard with resin impregnated paper layers. Holz Roh Werkst, 19: 394–398.
  • o Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı (2012). 2011 Yılı Genel Enerji Dengesi Tablosu, http://www.enerji.gov.tr (Erişim Tarihi: 16.03.2017).
  • o Elektrik Üretim Anonim Şirketi. (EÜAŞ) (2012). Elektrik Üretimi Sektör Raporu 2012, www.enerji.gov.tr/yayinlar_raporlar/Sektor_Raporu_EUAS_2012.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 16.03.2017)
  • o Feldmann, J., Grümping, R., Hirner, A. V. (1994). Determination of volatile metal and metalloid compounds in gases from domestic waste deposits with GC/ICP-MS. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 350(4-5), 228-234.
  • o Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., Pitts, J. N. (1997). Tropospheric air pollution: ozone, airborne toxics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particles. Science, 276, 1045-1051.
  • o Fitzpatrick, E. M., Jones, J. M., Pourkashanian, M., Ross, A. B., Williams, A., Bartle, K. D. (2008). Mechanistic aspects of soot formation from the combustion of pine wood. Energy Fuel, 22, 3771-3778.
  • o Gölçöl, C., Dursun, B. Alboyacı, B., Sunan, E. (2009). Importance of biomass energy as alternative to other sources in Turkey, Energy Policy,(37), 424–431.
  • o Gündüz, G., Saraçoğlu, N., Aydemir, D. (2016). Characterization and elemental analysis of wood pellets obtained from low-valued types of wood. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 38(15), 2211-2216.
  • o Gürdil, G. A. K., Baz, Y. Ö., Demirel, Ç., Demirel, B. (2015). Yakıt Peleti ve Briketi İçin Güncellenmiş Avrupa Birliği Standartları ve İlgili Parametreler. Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 29(2), 147-156.
  • o Gustafson, P., Barregard, L., Strandberg, B., Sällsten, G. (2007). The impact of domestic wood burning on personal, indoor and outdoor levels of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9(1), 23-32.
  • o Gustafson, P., Östman, C., Sällsten, G. (2008). Indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in homes with or without wood burning for heating. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(14), 5074-5080.
  • o Hill, S. J., Hartley, J., Ebdon, L. (1992). Determination of trace metals in volatile organic solvents using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 7(1), 23-28.
  • o Höhr, D., Steinfartz, Y., Schins, R. P. F., Knaapen, A. M., Martra, G., Fubini, B., Borm, P. J. A. (2002). The surface area rather than the surface coating determines the acute inflammatory response after instillation of fine and ultrafine TiO2 in the rat. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 205, 239–244.
  • o Ibrahim, S., Polyzois, D., Hassan, S. K. (2000). Development of glass fiber reinforced plastic poles for transmission and distribution lines. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 27(5), 850-858.
  • o Jan Erik Mattsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Department of Agricultural Engineering, PO Box 66, SE-23066, Alnarp, Sweden.
  • o Johansson, L. S., Leckner, B., Gustavsson, L., Cooper, D., Tullin, C., Potter, A. (2004). Emission characteristics of modern and old-type residential boilers fired with wood logs and wood pellets. Atmospheric environment, 38(25), 4183-4195.
  • o Kamal, M. S., Razzak, S. A., Hossain, M. M. (2016). Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)–A review. Atmospheric Environment, 140, 117-134.
  • o Kansal, A. (2009). Sources and reactivity of NMHCs and VOCs in the atmosphere: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166, 17–26.
  • o Karayılmazlar, S., Saraçoğlu, N., Çabuk, Y., Kurt, R. (2011). Biyokütlenin Türkiye’de Enerji Üretiminde Değerlendirilmesi. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(19), 63-75.
  • o Kesselmeier, J. (1999). Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC): an overview on emission, physiology and ecology. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 33, 23–88.
  • o Klass, D. L. (1998). Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals. Academic Press. San Diego.
  • o Koziński, J. A., Saade, R. (1998). Effect of biomass burning on the formation of soot particles and heavy hydrocarbons. An experimental study. Fuel, 77(4), 225-237.
  • o Kozinski, J. A., Zheng, G. (1998). Patterns of Metals and PACs During Heating of Biologically Treated Deinking Byproducts. Combustion Science and Technology, 138(1-6): 363-380.
  • o Kumar, P., Barrett, D. M., Delwiche, M. J., Stroeve, P. (2009). Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(8), 3713-3729.
  • o Lakshmanan, P., Delannoy, L., Richard, V., Methivier, C., Potvin, C., Louis, C. (2010). Total oxidation of propene over Au/xCeO2-Al2O3 catalysts: influence of the CeO2 loading and the activation treatment. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 96, 117-125.
  • o Larson, T. V., Koenig, J. Q. (1994). Wood smoke: emissions and noncancer respiratory effects. Annual Review Public Health, 15, 133–156.
  • o Lavric, E. D., Konnov, A. A., De Ruyck, J. (2004). Dioxin levels in wood combustion—a review. Biomass and Bioenergy, 26(2), 115-145.
  • o Lea-Langton, A. R., Baeza-Romero, M. T., Boman, G. V., Brooks, B., Wilson, A. J. M., Atika, F., Bartle, K. D., Jones, J. M., Williams, A. (2015). A study of smoke formation from wood combustion. Fuel Processing Technology, 137, 327-332.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fen
Bölüm Biomaterial Engineering, Bio-based Materials, Wood Science
Yazarlar

Eser SÖZEN
0000-0003-4798-7124
Türkiye


Gökhan GÜNDÜZ
BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Deniz AYDEMİR
BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7484-2126
Türkiye


Ersin GÜNGÖR
BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Haziran 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 19, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Sözen, E. , Gündüz, G. , Aydemir, D. & Güngör, E. (2017). Biyokütle Kullanımının Enerji, Çevre, Sağlık ve Ekonomi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi . Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi , 19 (1) , 148-160 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/barofd/issue/27137/306215


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