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Orman Yolu Güzergahlarının Belirlenmesinde Farklı Tekniklerle Üretilmiş Sayısal Arazi Modellerinin Kullanılması Üzerine Bir Araştırma

Yıl 2021, Cilt 23, Sayı 2, 654 - 667, 16.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.24011/barofd.908019

Öz

Doğal yaşam alanlarındaki mühendislik çalışmaları, olabildiğince doğru veriler gerektirir. Ormanların ekolojik, ekonomik ve estetik koşulları üzerindeki doğrudan veya dolaylı etkilerini optimize etmek veya azaltmak için, çok boyutlu analizler ve mevcut verilerin kullanılmasıyla desteklenen güncel teknolojik önlemlere ihtiyaç vardır. Ormanlarda yol ağlarının yapımı sırasında ve sonrasında habitatlarda geri dönüşü olmayan sonuçlar gözlemlenebilir. Bu etkiler bozulma, kayıp ve parçalanma olmak üzere üç ana başlıkta toplanabilir. Orman üzerinde karşılaşılabilecek olumsuzlukların azaltılması için kuşkusuz teknolojiden yararlanmak gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi (K.S.Ü) Araştırma ve Geliştirme Ormanı sınırları içerisinde yol ağı planlamasında kullanılabilecek üç teknikle üretilmiş SAM (sayısal arazi modeli)’nin kazı-dolgu ve yol güzergâhı tespitinde durumları karşılaştırılmıştır. Değerlendirilen veriler, 1/25000 ölçekli topoğrafik harita, SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) ve RTK-GPS (Real Time Kinematic-Global Position System) tabanlı verilerdir. Üç teknikle üretilen SAM’lar kullanılarak, ArcGIS ortamında en düşük maliyetli güzergâh analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Sonuçlara göre 1/25000 ölçekli topoğrafik harita kaynaklı üretilen veri setine göre elde edilen toplam kazı 50,04 m3 olarak hesaplanmış ve dolgu miktarı 23,46 m3 olarak hesaplanmıştır. SRTM tabanlı yöntemde elde edilen toplam kazı 38,58 m3 ve dolgu miktarı 34,37 m3’tür. RTK-GPS yöntemine göre toplam kazı ve dolgu miktarı 89,95 m3 ve 27,23 m3’tür. Toplam 991,57 m uzunluğa sahip örnek yolda, maksimum kazı miktarı RTK-GPS> SRTM> 1/25000 ölçekli topoğrafik harita tabanlı olarak belirlenirken, toplam dolgu hacmi miktarları sırasıyla SRTM> 1/25000 ölçekli topoğrafik harita> RTK-GPS olarak belirlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Abdi, E., Majnounian, B., Darvishsefat, A., Mashayekhi, Z., Sessions, J. (2009). A GIS-MCE Based Model for Forest Road Planning. Journal of Forest Science, 55(4), 171–176.
  • Abdi, E., Sisakht, S.R., Goushbor, L., Soufi, H. (2012). Accuracy Assessment of GPS and Surveying Technique in Forest Road Mapping. Annals of Forest Research, 55(2), 309-317.
  • Acar, H.H., (2016). Environmental Sensitive Road Planning and Transportation Techniques in Forest Engineering. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University, 66(2), 710-726.
  • Acar, H.H., Dursun, E., Gulci, S., Gumus, S., (2017). Assessment of Road Network Planning By Using Gis-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Conversion of Coppice Forest to High Forest. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26(3): 2380-2388.
  • Adriaensen, F., Chardon, J.P., De Blust, G., Swinnen, E., Villalba, S., Gulinck, H., Matthysen, E. (2003). The Application of “Least-Cost” Modelling as a Functional Landscape Model. Landscape and Urban Planning, 64(4), 233-247.
  • Akay, A.E. (2004). A New Method of Designing Forest Roads. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 28(4), 273-279.
  • Akay, A.E., Sessions, J. (2005). Applying the Decision Support System, TRACER, to Forest Road Design. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 20(3), 184-191.
  • Akay, A.E., Oǧuz, H., Karas, I.R., Aruga, K. (2009). Using LiDAR Technology in Forestry Activities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 151(1), 117-125.
  • Akay, A.E., Sivrikaya, F., Gülci, S. (2014). Analyzing Riparian Forest Cover Changes along the Firniz River in the Mediterranean City of Kahramanmaras in Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and assessment, 186, 2741–2747.
  • Akay, A.O., Demir, M., Akgul, M. (2018). Assessment of Risk Factors in Forest Road Design and Construction Activities with Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach in Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and assessment, 190,561.
  • Akgul, M., Demir, M., Ozturk, T., Topatan, H., Budak, Y.E. (2016a). Investigation of Recreational Vehicles Maneuverability on Forest Roads by Computer-Aided Driving Analysis. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 11(2), 111-119.
  • Akgül, M., Yurtseven, H., Demir, M., Akay, A.E., Gülci, S., Öztürk, T. (2016b). İnsansız Hava Araçları ile Yüksek Hassasiyette Sayısal Yükseklik Modeli Üretimi ve Ormancılıkta Kullanım Olanakları. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University, 66(1), 104-118.
  • Akgul, M., Yurtseven, H., Gülci, S., Akay, A.E. (2018). Evaluation of UAV- and GNSS-Based DEMs for Earthwork Volume. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 43(4), 1893–1909.
  • Akturk, E., Altunel, A.O. (2019). Accuracy Assessment of a Low-Cost UAV Derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in a Highly Broken and Vegetated Terrain. Measurement, 136:382-386.
  • Aricak, B. (2015). Using Remote Sensing Data to Predict Road Fill Areas and Areas Affected by Fill Erosion with Planned Forest Road Construction: A Case Study in Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate (Turkey). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 417.
  • Arıcak, B., Acar, H. H. (2008). The Modeling of Filling and Construction Impact Areas in Building Forest Roads by Using Quickbird Satellite Image. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 8(2),144-156.
  • Aslan, Ş.T.A. (2005). Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemi Olanakları ile Bazı Havza Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi. KSÜ Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi, 8(2),128-134.
  • Boston, K. (2016). The Potential Effects of Forest Roads on the Environment and Mitigating their Impacts. Current Forestry Reports, 2,215-222.
  • Chung, W., Sessions, J. (2001). Designing a Forest Road Network using Heuristic Optimization Techniques. Appalachian Hardwood: Managing Change, Corvallis, Oregon.
  • Demir, M. (2007). Impacts, Management and Functional Planning Criterion of Forest Road Network System in Turkey. Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice, 41(1), 56-68.
  • Eker, M., Coban, H.O. (2010). Impact of Road Network on the Structure of a Multifunctional Forest Landscape Unit in Southern Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31(1-2), 157-68.
  • Erdaş, O., (1997). Orman Yolları, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi, Yayın No:187, 298 s., Trabzon.
  • Grigolato, S., Mologni, O., Cavalli, R. (2017). GIS Applications in Forest Operations and Road Network Planning: An Overview over the Last Two Decades. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 38(2), 175-186.
  • Gülci, N., Akay, A.E., Erdaş, O., Gülci, S. (2015a). Üretim İşlerinin Planlanmasında RTK-GPS Tabanlı Sayısal Yükseklik Modelinin Kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 65(2), 59-68.
  • Gülci, S., Akay, A.E. (2015). Assessment of Ecological Passages along Road Networks within the Mediterranean Forest using GIS-Based Multi Criteria Evaluation Approach. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187, 779.
  • Gülci, S., Akay, A.E., Oguz, H., Gülci, N. (2017a). Assessment of the Road Impacts on Coniferous Species within the Road-Effect Zone Using NDVI Analysis Approach. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 26(2a),1654-1662.
  • Gülci, S., Yüksel, K., Gülci, N. (2017b). Elevation Error Comparison of Commonly Used Digital Elevation Models (DEM) for Natural Resource Management with Ground Control Points. Middle East Journal of Science, 3(1), 9-19.
  • Gümüş, S., Acar H.H., Tunay, M., Ateşoğlu, A. (2003). Calculation of Cut and Fill Volumes By GIS in Forest Roads Projecting. XII World Forestry Congress, A, 152-153 p, 21 - 28 Sept 2003, Quebec, Canada.
  • Gümüş, S., Acar, H.H., Toksoy, D. (2008). Functional Forest Road Network Planning by Consideration of Environmental Impact Assessment for Wood Harvesting. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 142, 109–116.
  • Hayati, E., Majnounian, B., Abdi, E., Sessions J., Makhdoum, M. (2013). An Expert-Based Approach to Forest Road Network Planning by Combining Delphi and Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 1767–1776.
  • Heinimann, H.R. (2017). Forest Road Network and Transportation Engineering - State and Perspectives. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 38(2), 155-173.
  • Lepoglavec, K., Potočnik, I., Pentek, T., Poje, A., Mihelič, M. (2012). »RoadEng« Software Package for Designing Forest Roads. New For Mech, 32, 39-51.
  • Lugo, A.E., Gucinski, H. (2000). Function, Effects, and Management of Forest Roads. Forest Ecology and Management, 133(3), 249-262.
  • Najafi, A., Richards, E.W. (2013). Designing a Forest Road Network Using Mixed Integer Programming. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 34(1), 17-30.
  • Nelson, A., Reuter, H.I., Gessler, P. (2009). Dem Production methods and sources. Developments in Soil Science, 33, 65-85.
  • OGM. (2008). Orman Yolları Planlanması ve İnşaat İşlerinin Yürütülmesi, 292 Sayılı Tebliğ. Ankara.
  • OGM. (2012). Başkonuş Orman İletme Şefliği Fonksiyonel Orman Amenajman Planı (IV. Yenileme), Orman Genel Müdürlüğü. 573 s. Ankara.
  • Öztürk, T. (2009). Orman Yolu Planlarının Oluşturulmasında Netpro Yol Modülünün Kullanılması. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Mühendislik Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(3), 11-21.
  • Şentürk, N., Akgül, M., Öztürk, T., Akay, A.O. (2018). Orman Yollarında Kazı-Dolgu Miktarlarının Hesaplanmasında Topoğrafik Harita Tabanlı Geleneksel Yöntem ile Bilgisayar Destekli Yöntemin Karşılaştırılması. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 618–626.
  • Tampekis, S., Sakellariou, S., Samara, F., Sfougaris, A., Jaeger, D., Christopoulou, O. (2015). Mapping the Optimal Forest Road Network based on the Multicriteria Evaluation Technique: The Case Study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 87, 687.
  • Tunay, M. (2006). The Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Forest Road Construction in Calabrian Pine Forest Areas of Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology, 27(3):529-35.
  • Tunay, M., Acar H.H., Ateşoğlu, A. (2001). Orman Yollari Projelendirmede Kazi-Dolduru Hacimlerinin Bilgisayar Ortaminda Hesabi. ZKÜ Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 3(3), 45-58.
  • Türk, Y. (2019). Forest Road Design with Cad Software: A Case Study in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 28(3), 1743-1751.
  • Wilson, J.P. (2012). Digital Terrain Modeling. Geomorphology, 137,107–121.
  • Yu, C., Lee, J., Munro-Stasiuk, M.J. (2003). Extensions to Least-Cost Path Algorithms for Roadway Planning. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17(4), 361-376.
  • Yurtseven, H. (2019). Comparison of GNSS-, TLS- and Different Altitude UAV-Generated Datasets on the Basis of Spatial Differences. International Journal of Geo-Information, 8(4), 175.
  • Zhang, H., Zheng, J., Dorr, G., Zhou, H., Ge, Y. (2014). Testing of GPS Accuracy for Precision Forestry Applications. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39, 237–245.

A Study on Using Digital Terrain Models Produced by Different Techniques in Determining Forest Road Routes

Yıl 2021, Cilt 23, Sayı 2, 654 - 667, 16.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.24011/barofd.908019

Öz

Engineering research on natural habitats requires as accurate data as possible. In order to optimize or reduce the direct or indirect impact on the ecological, economic and aesthetic conditions of the forest, the latest technological measures, supported by multi-dimensional analysis and the use of available data, are required. During and after the construction of road networks in forest, irreversible results can be observed in habitats. These effects can be summarized into the three main concepts of degradation, loss and fragmentation. There is no doubt that technology must be used to reduce possible negative effects on forest. In the study, three different DTMs (digital terrain models), which can be used in road network planning within the boundaries of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University (K.S.U) Research and Development Forest, was compared according to the effectiveness of these DTMs in excavation-embankment and determining the road route. The evaluated data sets were 1/25000 scaled topographic map-based, SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission)-based and RTK-GPS (Real-Time Kinematic - Global Position System)-based data. The least cost route analysis was performed in the GIS ArcGIS 10.1 software environment, using DTMs produced with the three techniques. The results indicated that the total amount of excavation obtained in the method based on the contour map was calculated as 50.04 m3 and the amount of embankment as 23.46 m3. The total excavation obtained in the SRTM-based method was 38.58 m3 and the amount of embankment was 34.37 m3. According to the RTK-GPS method, the total amount of excavation and embankment was 89.95 m3 and 27.23 m3, respectively. On the sample road with a total length of 991.57 m, the maximum excavation amount was determined as RTK-GPS> SRTM> 1/25000 scaled topographic map based method DTM, while the total embankment amounts were determined as SRTM> 1/25000 scaled topographic map> RTK-GPS based method. 

Kaynakça

  • Abdi, E., Majnounian, B., Darvishsefat, A., Mashayekhi, Z., Sessions, J. (2009). A GIS-MCE Based Model for Forest Road Planning. Journal of Forest Science, 55(4), 171–176.
  • Abdi, E., Sisakht, S.R., Goushbor, L., Soufi, H. (2012). Accuracy Assessment of GPS and Surveying Technique in Forest Road Mapping. Annals of Forest Research, 55(2), 309-317.
  • Acar, H.H., (2016). Environmental Sensitive Road Planning and Transportation Techniques in Forest Engineering. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University, 66(2), 710-726.
  • Acar, H.H., Dursun, E., Gulci, S., Gumus, S., (2017). Assessment of Road Network Planning By Using Gis-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Conversion of Coppice Forest to High Forest. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26(3): 2380-2388.
  • Adriaensen, F., Chardon, J.P., De Blust, G., Swinnen, E., Villalba, S., Gulinck, H., Matthysen, E. (2003). The Application of “Least-Cost” Modelling as a Functional Landscape Model. Landscape and Urban Planning, 64(4), 233-247.
  • Akay, A.E. (2004). A New Method of Designing Forest Roads. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 28(4), 273-279.
  • Akay, A.E., Sessions, J. (2005). Applying the Decision Support System, TRACER, to Forest Road Design. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 20(3), 184-191.
  • Akay, A.E., Oǧuz, H., Karas, I.R., Aruga, K. (2009). Using LiDAR Technology in Forestry Activities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 151(1), 117-125.
  • Akay, A.E., Sivrikaya, F., Gülci, S. (2014). Analyzing Riparian Forest Cover Changes along the Firniz River in the Mediterranean City of Kahramanmaras in Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and assessment, 186, 2741–2747.
  • Akay, A.O., Demir, M., Akgul, M. (2018). Assessment of Risk Factors in Forest Road Design and Construction Activities with Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach in Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and assessment, 190,561.
  • Akgul, M., Demir, M., Ozturk, T., Topatan, H., Budak, Y.E. (2016a). Investigation of Recreational Vehicles Maneuverability on Forest Roads by Computer-Aided Driving Analysis. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 11(2), 111-119.
  • Akgül, M., Yurtseven, H., Demir, M., Akay, A.E., Gülci, S., Öztürk, T. (2016b). İnsansız Hava Araçları ile Yüksek Hassasiyette Sayısal Yükseklik Modeli Üretimi ve Ormancılıkta Kullanım Olanakları. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University, 66(1), 104-118.
  • Akgul, M., Yurtseven, H., Gülci, S., Akay, A.E. (2018). Evaluation of UAV- and GNSS-Based DEMs for Earthwork Volume. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 43(4), 1893–1909.
  • Akturk, E., Altunel, A.O. (2019). Accuracy Assessment of a Low-Cost UAV Derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in a Highly Broken and Vegetated Terrain. Measurement, 136:382-386.
  • Aricak, B. (2015). Using Remote Sensing Data to Predict Road Fill Areas and Areas Affected by Fill Erosion with Planned Forest Road Construction: A Case Study in Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate (Turkey). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 417.
  • Arıcak, B., Acar, H. H. (2008). The Modeling of Filling and Construction Impact Areas in Building Forest Roads by Using Quickbird Satellite Image. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 8(2),144-156.
  • Aslan, Ş.T.A. (2005). Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemi Olanakları ile Bazı Havza Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi. KSÜ Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi, 8(2),128-134.
  • Boston, K. (2016). The Potential Effects of Forest Roads on the Environment and Mitigating their Impacts. Current Forestry Reports, 2,215-222.
  • Chung, W., Sessions, J. (2001). Designing a Forest Road Network using Heuristic Optimization Techniques. Appalachian Hardwood: Managing Change, Corvallis, Oregon.
  • Demir, M. (2007). Impacts, Management and Functional Planning Criterion of Forest Road Network System in Turkey. Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice, 41(1), 56-68.
  • Eker, M., Coban, H.O. (2010). Impact of Road Network on the Structure of a Multifunctional Forest Landscape Unit in Southern Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31(1-2), 157-68.
  • Erdaş, O., (1997). Orman Yolları, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi, Yayın No:187, 298 s., Trabzon.
  • Grigolato, S., Mologni, O., Cavalli, R. (2017). GIS Applications in Forest Operations and Road Network Planning: An Overview over the Last Two Decades. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 38(2), 175-186.
  • Gülci, N., Akay, A.E., Erdaş, O., Gülci, S. (2015a). Üretim İşlerinin Planlanmasında RTK-GPS Tabanlı Sayısal Yükseklik Modelinin Kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 65(2), 59-68.
  • Gülci, S., Akay, A.E. (2015). Assessment of Ecological Passages along Road Networks within the Mediterranean Forest using GIS-Based Multi Criteria Evaluation Approach. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187, 779.
  • Gülci, S., Akay, A.E., Oguz, H., Gülci, N. (2017a). Assessment of the Road Impacts on Coniferous Species within the Road-Effect Zone Using NDVI Analysis Approach. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 26(2a),1654-1662.
  • Gülci, S., Yüksel, K., Gülci, N. (2017b). Elevation Error Comparison of Commonly Used Digital Elevation Models (DEM) for Natural Resource Management with Ground Control Points. Middle East Journal of Science, 3(1), 9-19.
  • Gümüş, S., Acar H.H., Tunay, M., Ateşoğlu, A. (2003). Calculation of Cut and Fill Volumes By GIS in Forest Roads Projecting. XII World Forestry Congress, A, 152-153 p, 21 - 28 Sept 2003, Quebec, Canada.
  • Gümüş, S., Acar, H.H., Toksoy, D. (2008). Functional Forest Road Network Planning by Consideration of Environmental Impact Assessment for Wood Harvesting. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 142, 109–116.
  • Hayati, E., Majnounian, B., Abdi, E., Sessions J., Makhdoum, M. (2013). An Expert-Based Approach to Forest Road Network Planning by Combining Delphi and Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 1767–1776.
  • Heinimann, H.R. (2017). Forest Road Network and Transportation Engineering - State and Perspectives. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 38(2), 155-173.
  • Lepoglavec, K., Potočnik, I., Pentek, T., Poje, A., Mihelič, M. (2012). »RoadEng« Software Package for Designing Forest Roads. New For Mech, 32, 39-51.
  • Lugo, A.E., Gucinski, H. (2000). Function, Effects, and Management of Forest Roads. Forest Ecology and Management, 133(3), 249-262.
  • Najafi, A., Richards, E.W. (2013). Designing a Forest Road Network Using Mixed Integer Programming. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 34(1), 17-30.
  • Nelson, A., Reuter, H.I., Gessler, P. (2009). Dem Production methods and sources. Developments in Soil Science, 33, 65-85.
  • OGM. (2008). Orman Yolları Planlanması ve İnşaat İşlerinin Yürütülmesi, 292 Sayılı Tebliğ. Ankara.
  • OGM. (2012). Başkonuş Orman İletme Şefliği Fonksiyonel Orman Amenajman Planı (IV. Yenileme), Orman Genel Müdürlüğü. 573 s. Ankara.
  • Öztürk, T. (2009). Orman Yolu Planlarının Oluşturulmasında Netpro Yol Modülünün Kullanılması. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Mühendislik Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(3), 11-21.
  • Şentürk, N., Akgül, M., Öztürk, T., Akay, A.O. (2018). Orman Yollarında Kazı-Dolgu Miktarlarının Hesaplanmasında Topoğrafik Harita Tabanlı Geleneksel Yöntem ile Bilgisayar Destekli Yöntemin Karşılaştırılması. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 618–626.
  • Tampekis, S., Sakellariou, S., Samara, F., Sfougaris, A., Jaeger, D., Christopoulou, O. (2015). Mapping the Optimal Forest Road Network based on the Multicriteria Evaluation Technique: The Case Study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 87, 687.
  • Tunay, M. (2006). The Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Forest Road Construction in Calabrian Pine Forest Areas of Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology, 27(3):529-35.
  • Tunay, M., Acar H.H., Ateşoğlu, A. (2001). Orman Yollari Projelendirmede Kazi-Dolduru Hacimlerinin Bilgisayar Ortaminda Hesabi. ZKÜ Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 3(3), 45-58.
  • Türk, Y. (2019). Forest Road Design with Cad Software: A Case Study in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 28(3), 1743-1751.
  • Wilson, J.P. (2012). Digital Terrain Modeling. Geomorphology, 137,107–121.
  • Yu, C., Lee, J., Munro-Stasiuk, M.J. (2003). Extensions to Least-Cost Path Algorithms for Roadway Planning. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17(4), 361-376.
  • Yurtseven, H. (2019). Comparison of GNSS-, TLS- and Different Altitude UAV-Generated Datasets on the Basis of Spatial Differences. International Journal of Geo-Information, 8(4), 175.
  • Zhang, H., Zheng, J., Dorr, G., Zhou, H., Ge, Y. (2014). Testing of GPS Accuracy for Precision Forestry Applications. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39, 237–245.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Orman Mühendisliği
Bölüm Biodiversity, Environmental Management and Policy, Sustainable Forestry
Yazarlar

Sercan GÜLCİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kahramanmaraş Sürçü İmam Üniversitesi
0000-0003-3349-517X
Türkiye


Mustafa AKGÜL
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA, ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ, ORMAN MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-6387-5080
Türkiye


Neşe GÜLCİ
KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ, ORMAN MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2605-734X
Türkiye


Murat DEMİR
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA, ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ, ORMAN MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-0041-5970
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi
Proje Numarası 2016 / 372M
Teşekkür Bu çalışma, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi (No:2016/372M) tarafından desteklenen çalışma verilerini içermektedir. Arazi çalışmalarına katılan Orman Mühendisi Harun Önen’e teşekkür ederiz. Yazarlar, bu makalenin iyileştirilmesinde sunmuş oldukları görüş ve katkılarından dolayı derginin editörüne ve hakemlerine teşekkür etmektedirler.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 23, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Gülci, S. , Akgül, M. , Gülci, N. & Demir, M. (2021). Orman Yolu Güzergahlarının Belirlenmesinde Farklı Tekniklerle Üretilmiş Sayısal Arazi Modellerinin Kullanılması Üzerine Bir Araştırma . Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi , 23 (2) , 654-667 . DOI: 10.24011/barofd.908019


Bartin Orman Fakultesi Dergisi Editorship,

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