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Dış Ticarette Serbestleştirici ve Korumacı Politikaların Ekonomik Büyümeye Etkisi: Panel Veri Analizi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 23, Sayı 2, 257 - 287, 30.11.2021

Öz

Neredeyse tüme ulusların ekonomi politikalarında önemli bir yere sahip olan dış ticaret, ekonomi biliminin başlangıcından itibaren ilgi çekici olguların başında olagelmiştir. Dış ticarete dair görüşler, serbest ticaret ve korumacılık olmak üzere iki ayrı eksen etrafında şekillenmiştir. Serbest ticaretin büyüme ve refah etkileri yanında her ülke için benzer sonuçlar verip vermeyeceğine dair endişeler, korumacı görüşlerin giderek yaygın bir hal almasına sebep olmuştur. Bu sebeple, ülkeler açısından hangi dış ticaret politikasının olumlu etkisi olduğunu tespit etmek önemlidir. Özellikle gelişen ülkeler açısından dış ticaret politikası seçimi, ülkelerin kalkınma yolunu da doğrudan etkileyecektir. Bu çalışmada, MSCI Gelişen Piyasalar Endeksi’ndeki 20 ülke için ekonomik büyüme ve dış ticaret politikaları arasındaki ilişki analize konu edilmiştir. 2009-2019 yıllarını kapsayan analizde, dış ticaret politikalarının temsilcileri olarak Küresel Ticaret Alarmı dış ticareti serbestleştirici ve dış ticarete zarar verici politika sayısı verilerinden yararlanılmıştır. Sistem GMM yönteminden yararlanılan analizde, dış ticarete zarar verici politikaların ekonomik büyümeyi olumsuz etkilediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Dış ticareti serbestleştirici politikalar açısından anlamlı bir ilişki bulunamamıştır. Elde edilen bulgular, korumacılığın ana akım görüşlerle uyumlu şekilde gelişme yolundaki ülkelerde refahı azalttığını göstermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Abboushi, S. (2010), “Trade Protectionism: Reasons and Outcomes”, Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, 20 (5): 384-394.
  • Alesina, A., Spolaore, E. and Wacziarg, R. (2005), “Trade, Growth and the Size of Countries” in (eds.) P. Aghion and S. H. Durlauf, Handbook of Economic Growth Vol 1B, North-Holland, pp. 1499-1542.
  • Amiti, M., Redding, S. J. and Weinstein, D. (2019), “The Impact of the 2018 Trade War on U.S. Prices and Welfare”, NBER Working Paper 25672.
  • Baldwin, R. and Freeman, R, “Trade Conflict in the Age of Covid”, VoxEU 22 Mayıs 2020. Erişim 15 Mayıs 2021, https://voxeu.org/article/trade-conflict-age-covid-19.
  • Baltagi, B. H. (2014), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, Wiltshire: Wiley.
  • Beattie, A, “The Covid Protectionism That Stays Covert”, Financial Times 24 Mayıs 2021, Erişim 24 Mayıs 2021, https://www.ft.com/content/1e33c89a-8c56-4d19-b6f6-d05ba14cefd1?sharetype=blocked.
  • Ben-David, D. and Loewy, M. B. (1998), “Free Trade, Growth, and Convergence”, Journal of Economic Growth, 3 (2): 143-170. Benita, F. (2019), “Trade Openness, Economic Growth and the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 in Latin America”, Journal of International Development, 31 (5): 411-431.
  • Bernhofen, D. M. and Brown, J. C. (2005), “An Empirical Assessment of the Comparative Advantage Gains from Trade: Evidence from Japan”, The American Economic Review, 95 (1): 208-225.
  • Caldara, D., Iacoviello, M., Molligo, P., Prestipino, A. and Raffo, A. (2020), “The Economic Effects of Trade Policy Uncertainty”, Journal of Monetary Economics, 109: 38-59.
  • Chang, C. C. and Mendy, M. (2012), “Economic Growth and Openness in Africa: What is the Empirical Relationship?”, Applied Economics Letters, 19 (18): 1903-1907.
  • Chen, P. P. and Gupta, R. (2009), “An Investigaton of Openness and Economic Growth Using Panel Estimation”, Indian Journal of Economics, 89 (355): 483.
  • Clemens, M. A. and Williamson, J. G. (2004), “Why Did the Tariff-Growth Correlation Change after 1950?”, Journal of Economic Growth, 9 (1): 5-46.
  • Dreher, A. (2006), “Does Globalization Affect Growth?: Evidence From a New Index of Globalization”, Applied Economics, 38 (10): 1091-1110.
  • Dünya Kalkınma Göstergeleri Veri Tabanı (2021), https://data.worldbank.org/.
  • Edwards, S. (1998), “Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?”, The Economic Journal, 108 (447): 383-398.
  • Evans, G., “Australia’s China Problem”, Project Syndicate 3 Aralık 2020, Erişim 5 Mart 2020, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-china-strategy-australia-needs-by-gareth-evans-2020-12.
  • Evenett, S. J. (2019), “Protectionism, State Discrimination, and International Busines since the Onset of the Global Financial Crisis”, Journal of International Business Policy, 2 (1): 9-36.
  • Evenett, S. J. (2020), “Sicken Thy Neighbour: The Initial Trade Policy Response to Covid-19”, The World Economy, 43 (4): 828-839.
  • Findlay, R., and O’Rourke, K. H. (2009), Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millenium, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Frankel, J. A. and Romer, D. (1999), “Does Trade Cause Growth?”, The American Economic Review, 89 (3): 379-399.
  • Gallo, A. (2012), “Trade Policy and Protectionism in Argentina”, Economic Affairs, 32 (1): 55-59.
  • Gerber, J. (2017), International Economics, Essex: Pearson.
  • Global Trade Alert Veri Tabanı (2021), https://www.globaltradealert.org/.
  • Global Trade Alert (2020), The Global Trade Alert Database Handbook.
  • Gorodnichenko, Y., Mendoza, E. G. and Tesar, L. L. (2012), “The Finnish Great Depression: From Russia with Love”, The American Economic Review, 102 (4): 1619-1643.
  • Grossman, G. M. and Helpman, E. (1991), Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy, Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Hagen, E. E. (1958), “An Economic Justification of Protectionism”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 72 (4): 496-514.
  • Handley, K. (2014), “Exporting Under Trade Policy Uncertainty: Theory and Evidence”, Journal of International Economics, 94 (1): 50-66.
  • Johnson, H. G. (1965), “An Economic Theory of Protectionism, Tariff Bargaining, and the Formation of Custom Unions”, Journal of Political Economy, 73 (3): 256-283.
  • Jonsson, G. and Subramanian, A. (2001), “Dynamic Gains from Trade: Evidence from South Africa”, IMF Staff Papers, 48 (1): 197-224.
  • Kinzius, L., Sandkamp, A. and Yalcin, E. (2019), “Trade Protection and the Role of Non-Tariff Barriers”, Review of World Economics, 155 (4): 603-643.
  • Lewer, J. J. and Berg, H. V. d. (2003), “How Large is International Trade’s Effect on Economic Growth?”, Journal of Economic Surveys, 17 (3): 363-396.
  • Markham, C. R. (1893), “Pytheas, the Discoverer of Britain”, The Geographical Journal, 1 (6): 504-524.
  • Melitz, M. J. (2005), “When and How Should Infant Industries Be Protected?”, Journal of International Economics, 66 (1): 177-196.
  • Myint, H. (1958), “The ‘Classical Theory’ of International Trade and the Underdeveloped Countries”, The Economic Journal, 68 (270): 317-337.
  • Nurkse, R. (2009), “Patterns of Trade and Development” in (eds.) R. Kattel, J. A. Kregel, and E. S. Reinert, Ragnar Nurkse: Trade and Development, London: Anthem Press, pp. 397-434.
  • Olson, M. (1971), The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Osabuohien, E. S., Efobi, U. R. and Beecroft, I. (2014), “Free Trade, Protectionism and the Balance of Trade: New Empirical Insights” in (ed.) S. J. Evenett, Beggar-Thy-Neighbour: Crisis-Era Protectionism and Developing Countries The 15th GTA Report, London: CEPR Press, pp. 13-24.
  • Osabuohien, E. S., Beecroft, I. and Efobi, U. R. (2018), “Global Trade and Trade Protection in a Globalised World”, Transnational Corporations Review, 10 (1): 43-52.
  • Potrafke, N., Ruthard, F., Wüthrich, K. and Ruthardt, F. (2020), “Protectionism and Economic Growth: Causal Evidence from the First Era of Globalization”, CESifo Working Paper Series 8759.
  • Pugel, T. A. (2016), International Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Raghutla, C. (2020), “The Effect of Trade Openness on Economic Growth: Some Empirical Evidence from Emerging Market Economies”, Journal of Public Affairs, 20 (3): 1-8.
  • Robinson, J. (1978), Contributions to Modern Economics, Great Britain: Academic Press.
  • Rodriguez, F., and Rodrik, D. (2000), “Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Cross-National Evidence”, NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 15: 261-325.
  • Rodrik, D. (1995), “Getting Interventions Right: How South Korea and Taiwan Grew Rich”, Economic Policy, 10 (20): 53-107.
  • Rodrik, D. (2000), “Institutions for High-Quality Growth: What They Are and How to Acquire Them”, Studies in Comparative International Development, 35 (3): 3-31.
  • Romer, P. (1994), “New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions”, Journal of Development Economics, 43 (1): 5-38.
  • Romer, P. M. (1990), “Endogenous Technological Change”, Journal of Political Economy, 98 (5): 71-102.
  • Roodman, D. (2009), “How to Do xtabond2: An Introduction to Difference and System GMM in STATA”, The STATA Journal, 9 (1): 86-136.
  • Sachs, J. D. and Warner, A. (1995), “Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration”, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1995 (1): 1-118.
  • Salvatore, D. (1993), “Protectionism and World Welfare: Introduction” in (ed.) D. Salvatore, Protectionism and World Welfare Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-14.
  • Salvatore, D. (2019), International Economics, New Jersey: Wiley.
  • Seyidoğlu, H. (2013), Uluslararası İktisat: Teori Politika ve Uygulama, İstanbul: Güzem Can Yayınları.
  • Snowdon, B. and Vane, H. R. (2005), Modern Macroeconomics: Its Origins, Development and Current State, Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Staiger, R. W. (2012), “Non-Tariff Measures and the WTO”, WTO Staff Working Paper ERSD-2012-01: 1-45.
  • Şen, G. (2021), “İnsanlar Fikirleri Olduğu İçin Değil, Olmadığı İçin Endişe Duymalılar” in (haz.) G. Şen, Daha İyi Bir Türkiye İçin Hangi Fikri Yıkalım?, İstanbul: Kronik Kitap, pp. 15-68.
  • Tatoğlu, F. Y. (2018), İleri Panel Veri Analizi, İstanbul: Beta Yayıncılık.
  • Tena-Junguito, A. (2010), “Bairoch Revisited: Tariff Structure and Growth in the Late Nineteenth Century”, European Review of Economic History, 14 (1): 111-143.
  • Tett, Gillian, “The ‘Cornwall Consensus’ is Here”, Financial Times, 10 Haziran 2021, Erişim 10 Haziran 2021, https://www.ft.com/content/aa45eccb-5e0e-477a-8278-db7df959e594.
  • Ulaşan, B. (2015), “Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Panel Evidence”, Applied Economics Letters, 22 (2): 163-167.
  • Ünsal, E. M. (2007), Uluslararası İktisat: Teori, Politika ve Açık Ekonomi Makro İktisadı, Ankara: İmaj Yayıncılık.
  • Yalcin, E., Felbermayr, G. and Kinzius, L. (2017), “Hidden Protectionism: Non-tariff Barriers and Implications for International Trade”, Ifo Centre for International Economics, 2017: 1-44.
  • Yeldan, A. E. (2021), “Üretkenlik Yorgunluğu İçindeki Türkiye İçin “Göreceli Üstünlükler” Kavramı Geçerli midir?”, in (haz.) G. Şen, Daha İyi Bir Türkiye İçin Hangi Fikri Yıkalım?, İstanbul: Kronik Kitap, pp. 94-99.
  • Yılmaz, Ş. E. (2016), Dış Ticaret Kuramlarının Evrimi, Ankara: Efil Yayınevi.
  • Yülek, M. (2019), Ulusların Yükselişi: İmalat, Ticaret, Sanayi Politikası ve Ekonomik Kalkınma, İstanbul: Kronik Kitap.

The Effect of Foreign Trade Policy on Economic Growth: Panel Data Analysis

Yıl 2021, Cilt 23, Sayı 2, 257 - 287, 30.11.2021

Öz

International trade, which has an important role in the economic policies of almost all nations, has been one of the most interesting phenomena since the beginning of economics. The opinions on foreign trade have been shaped around two axes: free trade and protectionism. Along with the effects of growth and welfare, concerns about whether it will be achieved similar results for each country have led to the increasing prevalence of protectionist views. For this reason, it is important to determine which foreign trade policy has a positive effect on countries. In particular, to choose the foreign trade policy will directly affect the development path of emerging countries. In this study, the relationship between economic growth and foreign trade policies is analysed for 20 countries in the MSCI Emerging Market Index. In the analysis covering the period of 2009-2019, the Global Trade Alert data on the number of policies of trade liberalising and harmful was used as the proxies of foreign trade policies. It was concluded that the harmful trade policies affect negatively economic growth in the analysis using system GMM method. It was found no significant relationship in terms of trade liberalising policies. The findings show that protectionism, in line with mainstream views, reduces welfare in emerging countries.

Kaynakça

  • Abboushi, S. (2010), “Trade Protectionism: Reasons and Outcomes”, Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, 20 (5): 384-394.
  • Alesina, A., Spolaore, E. and Wacziarg, R. (2005), “Trade, Growth and the Size of Countries” in (eds.) P. Aghion and S. H. Durlauf, Handbook of Economic Growth Vol 1B, North-Holland, pp. 1499-1542.
  • Amiti, M., Redding, S. J. and Weinstein, D. (2019), “The Impact of the 2018 Trade War on U.S. Prices and Welfare”, NBER Working Paper 25672.
  • Baldwin, R. and Freeman, R, “Trade Conflict in the Age of Covid”, VoxEU 22 Mayıs 2020. Erişim 15 Mayıs 2021, https://voxeu.org/article/trade-conflict-age-covid-19.
  • Baltagi, B. H. (2014), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, Wiltshire: Wiley.
  • Beattie, A, “The Covid Protectionism That Stays Covert”, Financial Times 24 Mayıs 2021, Erişim 24 Mayıs 2021, https://www.ft.com/content/1e33c89a-8c56-4d19-b6f6-d05ba14cefd1?sharetype=blocked.
  • Ben-David, D. and Loewy, M. B. (1998), “Free Trade, Growth, and Convergence”, Journal of Economic Growth, 3 (2): 143-170. Benita, F. (2019), “Trade Openness, Economic Growth and the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 in Latin America”, Journal of International Development, 31 (5): 411-431.
  • Bernhofen, D. M. and Brown, J. C. (2005), “An Empirical Assessment of the Comparative Advantage Gains from Trade: Evidence from Japan”, The American Economic Review, 95 (1): 208-225.
  • Caldara, D., Iacoviello, M., Molligo, P., Prestipino, A. and Raffo, A. (2020), “The Economic Effects of Trade Policy Uncertainty”, Journal of Monetary Economics, 109: 38-59.
  • Chang, C. C. and Mendy, M. (2012), “Economic Growth and Openness in Africa: What is the Empirical Relationship?”, Applied Economics Letters, 19 (18): 1903-1907.
  • Chen, P. P. and Gupta, R. (2009), “An Investigaton of Openness and Economic Growth Using Panel Estimation”, Indian Journal of Economics, 89 (355): 483.
  • Clemens, M. A. and Williamson, J. G. (2004), “Why Did the Tariff-Growth Correlation Change after 1950?”, Journal of Economic Growth, 9 (1): 5-46.
  • Dreher, A. (2006), “Does Globalization Affect Growth?: Evidence From a New Index of Globalization”, Applied Economics, 38 (10): 1091-1110.
  • Dünya Kalkınma Göstergeleri Veri Tabanı (2021), https://data.worldbank.org/.
  • Edwards, S. (1998), “Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?”, The Economic Journal, 108 (447): 383-398.
  • Evans, G., “Australia’s China Problem”, Project Syndicate 3 Aralık 2020, Erişim 5 Mart 2020, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-china-strategy-australia-needs-by-gareth-evans-2020-12.
  • Evenett, S. J. (2019), “Protectionism, State Discrimination, and International Busines since the Onset of the Global Financial Crisis”, Journal of International Business Policy, 2 (1): 9-36.
  • Evenett, S. J. (2020), “Sicken Thy Neighbour: The Initial Trade Policy Response to Covid-19”, The World Economy, 43 (4): 828-839.
  • Findlay, R., and O’Rourke, K. H. (2009), Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millenium, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Frankel, J. A. and Romer, D. (1999), “Does Trade Cause Growth?”, The American Economic Review, 89 (3): 379-399.
  • Gallo, A. (2012), “Trade Policy and Protectionism in Argentina”, Economic Affairs, 32 (1): 55-59.
  • Gerber, J. (2017), International Economics, Essex: Pearson.
  • Global Trade Alert Veri Tabanı (2021), https://www.globaltradealert.org/.
  • Global Trade Alert (2020), The Global Trade Alert Database Handbook.
  • Gorodnichenko, Y., Mendoza, E. G. and Tesar, L. L. (2012), “The Finnish Great Depression: From Russia with Love”, The American Economic Review, 102 (4): 1619-1643.
  • Grossman, G. M. and Helpman, E. (1991), Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy, Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Hagen, E. E. (1958), “An Economic Justification of Protectionism”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 72 (4): 496-514.
  • Handley, K. (2014), “Exporting Under Trade Policy Uncertainty: Theory and Evidence”, Journal of International Economics, 94 (1): 50-66.
  • Johnson, H. G. (1965), “An Economic Theory of Protectionism, Tariff Bargaining, and the Formation of Custom Unions”, Journal of Political Economy, 73 (3): 256-283.
  • Jonsson, G. and Subramanian, A. (2001), “Dynamic Gains from Trade: Evidence from South Africa”, IMF Staff Papers, 48 (1): 197-224.
  • Kinzius, L., Sandkamp, A. and Yalcin, E. (2019), “Trade Protection and the Role of Non-Tariff Barriers”, Review of World Economics, 155 (4): 603-643.
  • Lewer, J. J. and Berg, H. V. d. (2003), “How Large is International Trade’s Effect on Economic Growth?”, Journal of Economic Surveys, 17 (3): 363-396.
  • Markham, C. R. (1893), “Pytheas, the Discoverer of Britain”, The Geographical Journal, 1 (6): 504-524.
  • Melitz, M. J. (2005), “When and How Should Infant Industries Be Protected?”, Journal of International Economics, 66 (1): 177-196.
  • Myint, H. (1958), “The ‘Classical Theory’ of International Trade and the Underdeveloped Countries”, The Economic Journal, 68 (270): 317-337.
  • Nurkse, R. (2009), “Patterns of Trade and Development” in (eds.) R. Kattel, J. A. Kregel, and E. S. Reinert, Ragnar Nurkse: Trade and Development, London: Anthem Press, pp. 397-434.
  • Olson, M. (1971), The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Osabuohien, E. S., Efobi, U. R. and Beecroft, I. (2014), “Free Trade, Protectionism and the Balance of Trade: New Empirical Insights” in (ed.) S. J. Evenett, Beggar-Thy-Neighbour: Crisis-Era Protectionism and Developing Countries The 15th GTA Report, London: CEPR Press, pp. 13-24.
  • Osabuohien, E. S., Beecroft, I. and Efobi, U. R. (2018), “Global Trade and Trade Protection in a Globalised World”, Transnational Corporations Review, 10 (1): 43-52.
  • Potrafke, N., Ruthard, F., Wüthrich, K. and Ruthardt, F. (2020), “Protectionism and Economic Growth: Causal Evidence from the First Era of Globalization”, CESifo Working Paper Series 8759.
  • Pugel, T. A. (2016), International Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Raghutla, C. (2020), “The Effect of Trade Openness on Economic Growth: Some Empirical Evidence from Emerging Market Economies”, Journal of Public Affairs, 20 (3): 1-8.
  • Robinson, J. (1978), Contributions to Modern Economics, Great Britain: Academic Press.
  • Rodriguez, F., and Rodrik, D. (2000), “Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Cross-National Evidence”, NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 15: 261-325.
  • Rodrik, D. (1995), “Getting Interventions Right: How South Korea and Taiwan Grew Rich”, Economic Policy, 10 (20): 53-107.
  • Rodrik, D. (2000), “Institutions for High-Quality Growth: What They Are and How to Acquire Them”, Studies in Comparative International Development, 35 (3): 3-31.
  • Romer, P. (1994), “New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions”, Journal of Development Economics, 43 (1): 5-38.
  • Romer, P. M. (1990), “Endogenous Technological Change”, Journal of Political Economy, 98 (5): 71-102.
  • Roodman, D. (2009), “How to Do xtabond2: An Introduction to Difference and System GMM in STATA”, The STATA Journal, 9 (1): 86-136.
  • Sachs, J. D. and Warner, A. (1995), “Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration”, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1995 (1): 1-118.
  • Salvatore, D. (1993), “Protectionism and World Welfare: Introduction” in (ed.) D. Salvatore, Protectionism and World Welfare Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-14.
  • Salvatore, D. (2019), International Economics, New Jersey: Wiley.
  • Seyidoğlu, H. (2013), Uluslararası İktisat: Teori Politika ve Uygulama, İstanbul: Güzem Can Yayınları.
  • Snowdon, B. and Vane, H. R. (2005), Modern Macroeconomics: Its Origins, Development and Current State, Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Staiger, R. W. (2012), “Non-Tariff Measures and the WTO”, WTO Staff Working Paper ERSD-2012-01: 1-45.
  • Şen, G. (2021), “İnsanlar Fikirleri Olduğu İçin Değil, Olmadığı İçin Endişe Duymalılar” in (haz.) G. Şen, Daha İyi Bir Türkiye İçin Hangi Fikri Yıkalım?, İstanbul: Kronik Kitap, pp. 15-68.
  • Tatoğlu, F. Y. (2018), İleri Panel Veri Analizi, İstanbul: Beta Yayıncılık.
  • Tena-Junguito, A. (2010), “Bairoch Revisited: Tariff Structure and Growth in the Late Nineteenth Century”, European Review of Economic History, 14 (1): 111-143.
  • Tett, Gillian, “The ‘Cornwall Consensus’ is Here”, Financial Times, 10 Haziran 2021, Erişim 10 Haziran 2021, https://www.ft.com/content/aa45eccb-5e0e-477a-8278-db7df959e594.
  • Ulaşan, B. (2015), “Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Panel Evidence”, Applied Economics Letters, 22 (2): 163-167.
  • Ünsal, E. M. (2007), Uluslararası İktisat: Teori, Politika ve Açık Ekonomi Makro İktisadı, Ankara: İmaj Yayıncılık.
  • Yalcin, E., Felbermayr, G. and Kinzius, L. (2017), “Hidden Protectionism: Non-tariff Barriers and Implications for International Trade”, Ifo Centre for International Economics, 2017: 1-44.
  • Yeldan, A. E. (2021), “Üretkenlik Yorgunluğu İçindeki Türkiye İçin “Göreceli Üstünlükler” Kavramı Geçerli midir?”, in (haz.) G. Şen, Daha İyi Bir Türkiye İçin Hangi Fikri Yıkalım?, İstanbul: Kronik Kitap, pp. 94-99.
  • Yılmaz, Ş. E. (2016), Dış Ticaret Kuramlarının Evrimi, Ankara: Efil Yayınevi.
  • Yülek, M. (2019), Ulusların Yükselişi: İmalat, Ticaret, Sanayi Politikası ve Ekonomik Kalkınma, İstanbul: Kronik Kitap.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İktisat
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Doğan KEŞAP (Sorumlu Yazar)
RECEP TAYYİP ERDOĞAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7338-0698
Türkiye


Ali Rıza SANDALCILAR
RECEP TAYYİP ERDOĞAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9185-6968
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Kasım 2021
Kabul Tarihi 21 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 23, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Keşap, D. & Sandalcılar, A. R. (2021). Dış Ticarette Serbestleştirici ve Korumacı Politikaların Ekonomik Büyümeye Etkisi: Panel Veri Analizi . Bilgi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 23 (2) , 257-287 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bilgisosyal/issue/65975/961500

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