Yıl 2019, Cilt , Sayı 91, Sayfalar 1 - 25 2019-10-22

Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited
Türksoy, Türk Keneşi ve Kültürel Diplomasi: İşlevselciliğin Yeniden Tahayyülü

Erman Akıllı [1]


This paper’s aim is to read the process that crowned with the practice of cultural diplomacy thanks to TURKSOY and Turkic Council in Central Asia (especially in between Turkic republics and in general Turkic World) through Karl Deutch’s “transactionalist” approach. In his book, “Political Community and the North Atlantic Area” Deutsch explains the transactionalist theory as a study that would enable “possible ways in which men someday might abolish war.” So, the question is “How can men learn to act together to eliminate war/conflict as a social institution?”. Therefore, also, this article is an attempt to answer this question with cultural diplomacy and cultural diplomacy implementations through international organizations such as TURKSOY and Turkic Council in the Turkic World.

Bu makalenin amacı, TÜRKSOY ve Türk Keneşi sayesinde Orta Asya’da (özellikle Türk cumhuriyetleri arasında ve genel olarak Türk Dünyası’nda) kültürel diplomasi pratiğiyle taçlandırılan etkileşim sürecinin Karl Deutch’un “işlevselcilik” yaklaşımıyla incelenmesidir. “Siyasal Toplum ve Kuzey Atlantik Bölgesi” adlı kitabında Deutsch, işlevselcilik yaklaşımını “bir gün (insanlığın) savaşı ortadan kaldırmasını mümkün kılacak” bir çalışma olarak açıklamaktadır. Öyleyse, burada sorulması gereken temel soru insanların, sosyal bir yapı içerisinde birlikte hareket ederek savaş/çatışma ihtimalini ortadan kaldırmayı nasıl öğreneceği sorusudur. Bu bağlamda, çalışmada Türk Dünyası’nda TÜRKSOY ve Türk Konseyi gibi uluslararası kuruluşlar aracılığıyla kültürel diplomasi ve kültürel diplomasi uygulamaları ile bu sorunun cevaplanması da amaçlamaktadır.
  • Adler, Emanuel (1997). “Imagined (Security) Communities: Cognitive Regions in International Relations”. Millennium: Journal of International Relations 26 (2): 249-277.
  • Adler, Emanuel & Michael Barnett (Ed.) (1998). Security Communities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Akıllı, Erman (2016). Türkiye’de Devlet Kimliği ve Dış Politika. 2nd Edition. Ankara: Nobel Yay.
  • Ateş, Şerif, Ş. Köktürk & M. Barut (Ed.) (2016). Kültürel Diplomaside Sınırların Dışında Düşünmek. İstanbul: Yunus Emre Enstitüsü Kültürel Diplomasi Akademisi Yay.
  • Barlas Bozkuş, Şeyda (2011). “Kültür Diplomasisinin Sınırları: Türk Kültür ve Sanatının Uluslararası Platformlarda Tanıtımı (1980-2010)”. Global Media Journal 2 (3): 1-19. http://globalmediajournaltr.yeditepe.edu.tr/makaleler/GMJ_3._sayi_Guz_2011/PDF/Bozkus.pdf (Accessed: 14.03.2019).
  • Beyer, Cornelia (2005). “A Presentation of Emanuel Adler’s Concepts of Integration”. Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations 4 (3): 1-20.
  • Bound, Kirsten, R. Briggs, J. Holden & S. Jones (2007). Cultural Diplomacy. London: Demos.
  • Chartrand, Harry Hillman (1992). “International Cultural Affairs: A Fourteen Country Survey”. Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 22 (2). http://www.compilerpress.ca/Cultural%20Economics/Works/ICR%201992.htm (Accessed: 20.07.2018)
  • Cummings, Milton C. (2009). Cultural Diplomacy and the United States Government: A Survey. Washington: Americans for the Arts. https://www.americansforthearts.org/sites/default/files/MCCpaper.pdf (Accessed: 14.03.2019).
  • Dedeoğlu, Beril (2004). “Yeniden Güvenlik Topluluğu: Benzerliklerin Karşılıklı Bağımlılığından Farklılıkların Birlikteliğine”. Uluslararası İlişkiler 1 (4): 1-21.
  • Dedeoğlu, Beril (2016). Uluslararası Güvenlik ve Strateji. 3rd Edition. İstanbul: Derin Yay.
  • Deutsch, W. Karl (1953). Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality. Cambridge: The Technology Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Deutsch, W. Karl (1957). Political Community and the North Atlantic Area: International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Deutsch, W. Karl (1966). The Nerves of Government. New York: The Free Press.
  • Durdular, Ercan (2017). “Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic-Speaking Countries (TurkPA): Beyond Parliamentary Diplomacy”. Perceptions 22 (1): 115-142.
  • Feigenbaum, Harvey B. (2001). “Globalization and Cultural Diplomacy”. Center for Arts and Culture Art, Culture & the National Agenda Issue Paper. Washington: George Washington University. 1-29.
  • Fisher, Ali (2009). “Four Seasons in One Day: The Crowded House of Public Diplomacy in the UK”. Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. Ed. Taylor P. and Snow N. New York: Routledge. 252-261.
  • Geertz, Clifford (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
  • Gienow-Hecht, C. E. Jessica & Mark C. Donfried (2010). Searching for a Cultural Diplomacy. New York: Berghahn Books.
  • Gould-Davies, Nigel (2003). “The Logic of Soviet Cultural Diplomacy”. Diplomatic History 27 (2): 193-214.
  • Guozuo, Zhang (2017). Research Outline for China’s Cultural Soft Power. Singapore: Springer.
  • Güzelipek, Yiğit Anıl (2017). “‘Kosova ABD’nin 51. Eyaleti’ Söyleminin Medeniyetler Çatışması ve (Neo) Realizm Özelinde Karşılaştırmalı Tahlili”. Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi 7 (13): 761-779.
  • "History of Organization, The Cooperation Council of The Turkic Speaking States" (Turkic Council). https://www.turkkon.org/en/organizasyon-tarihcesi (Accessed: 20.07.2018)
  • Jepperson, Ronald L., Alexander Wendt & Peter J. Katzenstein. “Norms, Identity and Culture in National Security”. The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. Ed. Peter J. Katzenstein. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.
  • Kitsou, Sofia (2011). The Power of Culture in Diplomacy: The Case of U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in France and Germany. Ionian University. http:// www.exchangediplomacy.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/3.-Sofia-Kitsou_The-Power-of-Culture-in-Diplomacy-The-Case-of-U.S.-Cultural-Diplomacy-in-France-and-Germany.pdf (Accessed: 16.02.2018).
  • Kowert, Paul A. (1998). “National Identity: Inside and Out”. Security Studies 8 (2-3): 1-34.
  • Kozymka, Irena (2014). The Diplomacy of Culture: The Role of UNESCO in Sustaining Cultural Diversity. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Lillis, Joanna (2012). “Uzbekistan Leader Warns of Water Wars in Central Asia”. Eurasia Net. https://eurasianet.org/s/uzbekistan-leader-warns-of-waterwars-in-central-asia (Accessed: 20.07.2018).
  • Nye, Joseph. S. (1990). Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books.
  • Nye, Joseph. S. (2002). The Paradox of American Power. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • “Orhun Process Exchange Program is Now at Service of the Turkic Academic World!”.TurkicCouncil.http://www.turkkon.org/en-US/Haber-Arsivi/301/1130/3822 (Accessed: 20.07.2018).
  • Osgood, Robert (1953). Ideals and Self-Interests in America’s Foreign Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Purtaş, Fırat (2013a). “Türk Dış Politikasının Yükselen Değeri: Kültürel Diplomasi”. Gazi Akademik Bakış 7 (13): 1-14.
  • Purtaş, Fırat (2013b). “Kültürel Diplomasi ve Türksoy”. Medeniyet ve Kültür Araştırmaları Merkezi. http://mekam.org/mekam/kulturel-diplomasi-veturksoy (Accessed: 21.02.2018).
  • Purtaş, Fırat (2017). “Cultural Diplomacy Initiatives of Turkic Republics”. Perceptions 22 (1): 91-114.
  • Sancar, G. Aslı (2012). Kamu Diplomasisi ve Uluslararası Halkla İlişkiler. İstanbul: Beta Yay.
  • Smith, Anthony (1991). “The Nation: Invented, Imagined, Reconstructed”. Journal of International Studies 20 (3): 353-368.
  • Schneider, Cynthia P. (2009). “The Unrealized Potential of Cultural Diplomacy: “Best Practices” and What Could Be, If Only…”. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 39 (4): 260-279.
  • Sönmezoğlu, Faruk, Deniz Ülke Arıboğan ve Beril Dedeoğlu (Ed.) (2010). “Kültürel Diplomasi”. Uluslararası İlişkiler Sözlüğü. 4th Edition. İstanbul: Der Yay.
  • “The Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States”. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turk-konseyi-en.en.mfa (Accessed: 20.07.2018).
  • Turkic Council Annual Report 2017. Turkic Council. https://www.turkkon.org/ assets/pdf/yayinlar/turk-konseyi-2017-faaliyet-raporu-8-en.pdf (Accessed: 14.03.2019).
  • Ulusoy, Hasan (2012). “Revisiting Security Communities After the Cold War: The Constructivist Perspective”. SAM. http://sam.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Hasan-Ulusoy3.pdf (Accessed: 14.03.2019).
  • Vlahos, Michael (1991). “Culture and Foreign Policy”. Foreign Policy 82: 59-78.
  • Von Maltzahn, Nadia (2015). The Syria-Iran Axis: Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations in the Middle East. New York: I. B. Tauris.
  • Wendt, Alexander (1992). “Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics”. International Organization 46 (2): 391-425.
  • Wendt, Alexander (1994). “Collective Identity Formation and the International State”. American Political Science Review 88 (2): 384-396.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0001-7782-0881
Yazar: Erman Akıllı

Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 22 Ekim 2019

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { bilig635870, journal = {Bilig}, issn = {1301-0549}, address = {}, publisher = {Ahmet Yesevi Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {}, pages = {1 - 25}, doi = {10.12995/bilig.9101}, title = {Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited}, key = {cite}, author = {Akıllı, Erman} }
APA Akıllı, E . (2019). Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited. Bilig , (91) , 1-25 . DOI: 10.12995/bilig.9101
MLA Akıllı, E . "Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited". Bilig (2019 ): 1-25 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bilig/issue/49613/635870>
Chicago Akıllı, E . "Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited". Bilig (2019 ): 1-25
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited AU - Erman Akıllı Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.12995/bilig.9101 DO - 10.12995/bilig.9101 T2 - Bilig JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 25 VL - IS - 91 SN - 1301-0549- M3 - doi: 10.12995/bilig.9101 UR - https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.9101 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Bilig Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited %A Erman Akıllı %T Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited %D 2019 %J Bilig %P 1301-0549- %V %N 91 %R doi: 10.12995/bilig.9101 %U 10.12995/bilig.9101
ISNAD Akıllı, Erman . "Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited". Bilig / 91 (Ekim 2019): 1-25 . https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.9101
AMA Akıllı E . Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited. Bilig. 2019; (91): 1-25.
Vancouver Akıllı E . Turksoy, Turkic Council and Cultural Diplomacy: Transactionalism Revisited. Bilig. 2019; (91): 25-1.