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Entegrasyondan Asimilasyona ve Zorunlu Göçe: Bulgaristan Komünist Partisi’nin Türk Azınlık Siyasetinin Bir Değerlendirmesi

Yıl 2022, Sayı 103, 31 - 58, 27.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10302

Öz

Bulgaristan’da komünizmin iktidara gelişinden Stalinist dönemin sonuna kadar geçen sürede azınlıklara yönelik yasal düzenlemeler sosyalist enternasyonalizm ilkelerinin etkisi altında şekillenmiş, Bulgaristan vatandaşları arasında sınıfsal dayanışma bilincinin geliştirilmesi amacıyla etnik ve kültürel farklılıkların muhafaza edilmesi öngörülmüştür. Gerçekte ise, azınlıklara sağlanan anayasal güvenceler ve verilen sözler, modern sosyalist toplum ve kimlik inşası uğruna, görmezden gelinmiştir. Stalinizm sonrası dönemde ise komünist ortodoksiden milliyetçiliğe doğru gerçekleşen ideolojik kayışın da etkisiyle ayrımcı politikalarda artış yaşanmış. Devlet eliyle sürdürülen ayrımcı politikalar Bulgaristan’daki etnik azınlıklar içinde en kalabalık ve kültürel farkındalığı en yüksek azınlık olan Türkler için geniş kapsamlı sonuçlar doğurmuştur. Sosyalist dönem boyunca Bulgar toplumunun yabancı bir unsuru olarak algılanan Türk azınlık, devletin entegrasyonist/asimilasyonist politikalarının öncelikli hedefi olmuş, istenilen sonuçlar alınamadığında ise Bulgaristan’dan zorla göç ettirilmiştir. Bu makale, devlet sosyalizmi döneminde Bulgar Komünist Partisi’nin Türk azınlığa dayattığı ayrımcı politika ve uygulamaları ele almakta ve sonuçlarını incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • 5-o Narodno sabranie. Konstitutsiya na Narodna Republika Balgariya, 1971. Svaleno ot Narodno sabranie na Republika Balgariya, 18 May 1971: https://parliament.bg/bg/19 (Accessed: 02.06.2021).
  • 6-toto Veliko Narodno Sabranie. Konstitutsiya na Narodna Republika Balgariya. Svaleno ot Narodno sabranie na Republika Balgariya. 06 Dekemvri 1947: https://parliament.bg/bg/18 (Accessed: 03.06.2021).
  • Aleksandrieva, Liljana, and Dejan Kiuranov. Balgarizirane na Balgaria (1984-1985). Nasilstvenata asimilatsia na Turtsite v Balgaria, ed. Rumen Avramov. Riva, 2019, pp. 69-90.
  • Asenov, Boncho. Vazroditelniyat protses i Darzhavna sigurnost. Sofia, 1996.
  • Atanasov, Georgi., 18th of January 1985. “Doklad na Georgi Atanasov.” Istinata za “Vazroditelniya Protses” dokumenti ot arhiva na CC of BCP, In III. Institut za izsledvane na Integratsiyata (III), 2003, pp. 7-20.
  • Avineri Shlomo. “Marxism and Nationalism.” Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 26, no. 3, 1991, pp. 637-657. doi:10.1177/002200949102600315
  • Avramov, Rumen. Ikonomika na “Vazroditelniya Protses”. Riva, 2016.
  • Baeva, Iskra, and Evgenia Kalinova. “Bulgarian Turks During the Transition Period.” Bulgaria and Europe: Shifting Identities, ed. Stefanos Katsikas, Anthem Press, 2011, pp. 63-78.
  • Bakalova, Maria. “The Bulgarian Turkish Names Conflict and Democratic Transition.” Innovation, vol. 19, no. 3-4, 2006. 233-246.
  • Bates, Daniel. “What’s in a name? Minorities, Idenity, and Politics in Bulgaria.” Identities, vol. 1 no. 2-3, 1994. pp. 201-225.
  • Bishku, Michale B. “Turkish-Bulgarian Relations: From Conflict and Distrust to Cooperation over Minority Issues and International Politics.” Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 2, 2003, pp. 77-94.
  • Blaut, James M. The National Question: Decolonizing the Theory of Nationalism. Zed Books, 1987.
  • Bojkov, Victor. “Bulgaria’s Turks in the 1980s: a Minority Endangered.” Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 6 no. 3, 2004, pp. 343-369.
  • Büchsenschütz, Ulrich. Minderheitenpolitik in Bulgarien: Die Politik der Bulgarischen Kommunistischen Partei (BKP) gegenüber den Juden, Roma, Pomaken und Türken 1944-1989. Digital Library Eastern Europe, 2004.
  • Crampton, Richard J. Bulgaria. Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Dalekova, M., 7th of June 1989. Sreshta na Politburo of CC of BCP. In I. z.
  • integratsiata, Istinata za “Vazroditelnia protses.” Dokumenti ot arhiva na Politburo i CC of BCP. Institut za izsledvane na integratsiata, 2003, pp. 85-127.
  • Dayıoğlu, Ali. Toplama Kampından Meclise: Bulgaristan’da Müslüman ve Türk Azınlığı. İletişim Yayınları, 2005.
  • Dechev, Stefan. “Balgarskata istoriografiya i proto ideologiyata na t. nar. Vazroditelen protses.” Nasilstvenata asimilatsiya na turtsite v Balgariya 1984-1989 : razmisli varhu ideologiyata, istoriyata, posleditsite, ed. Rumen Avramov. Tsentar za akademichni izsledvaniya, 2019, pp. 15-42.
  • Dimitrov, Martin K., and Joseph Sassoon. “State Security, Information, and Repression: A Comparison of Communist Bulgaria and Ba‘thist Iraq.” Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, 2014, pp. 3-31.
  • Dimitrov, Vesselin. In Search of a Homogenous Nation: the Assimilation of Bulgaria’s Turkish Minority, 1984-1985, 23 December 2000. Retrieved from
  • Heinonline: https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/jemie2000&div=6&id=&page= (Accessed: 01.06.2021).
  • Eminov, Ali. “The education of Turkish Speakers in Bulgaria.” Ethnic Groups, vol. 5, no. 2, 1983, pp. 129-150.
  • Eminov, Ali. The Elimination of Turkish language instruction in Bulgaria. Wayne State College, 1989. Retrieved from https://ia803101.us.archive.org/19/items/ERIC_ED317459/ERIC_ED317459.pdf (Accessed: 31.05.2021).
  • Eminov, Ali. “Nationality Policy in the USSR and in Bulgaria: Some Observations.” The Anthropology of East Europe Review: Newsletter of the East European Anthropology Group, vol. 9, no 2, Fall 1990.
  • Eminov, Ali. Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria. Routledge, 1997.
  • Eminov, Ali. “Turks and Tatars in Bulgaria and the Balkans.” Nationalities Papers, vol. 28, no. 1, 2000, pp. 129-164.
  • Engström, Jenny. Democratisation and the Prevention of Violent Conflict: Lessons Learned from Bulgaria and Macedonia. Routledge, 2009.
  • Ezergailis, Andrievs. “The Nationality Question in Bolshevik Ideology.” Bulletin of Baltic Studies, vol. 2, no. 5, 1971, pp. 3-19.
  • Gruev, Mikhail, and Aleksey Kalionski. Vazroditelniyat Protses. Myusyulmanskite obshtnosti i komunisticheskiyat rezhim. Institut za izsledvane na blizkoto minalo, 2008.
  • Gustavsson, Sven. “Socialism and Nationalism. Trends and Tendencies in the Language, Nationality and Minority. Policy of the Socialist Countries in Post-War Europe.” Sociolinguistica, vol. 4, no. 1, 1990, pp. 50-83. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110245097.50
  • Hechter, Michael. Internal Colonialism: Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536-1966. California Press, 1975.
  • Ivanov, Mihail, and İbrahim Jalamov. “Turskata obshtnost v Balgaria i neyniyat periodichen pechat (1878-1997).” Balgarsko mediaznanie. Entsiklopedichno
  • izdanie za mediyanauka i mediyapublitsistika, ed. Rosen Milev, Tom 2. Balkanmediya, 1998, pp. 556-600.
  • Ivanova, Evgenija. Othvarlenite priobshteni ili protsesat, narechen‚ vazroditelen. Institut za iztochnoevropeyska Humanistika, 2002.
  • Jalamov, İbrahim. İstoria na Turskata obştnost v Bulgaria. IMIR, 2002.
  • Kalinova, Evgenia, and Iskra Baeva. Bulgarian Transition, 1939-2002. Paradigma, 2002.
  • Kamil, İbrahim. “Bulgaristan’dan Türkiye’ye Gerçekleşen 1950-1951 Göçünün Nedenleri.” Balkan Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, vol. 5, no. 2, 2016, pp. 31-65.
  • Karpat, Kemal. The Turks of Bulgaria: The history, culture and political fate of a minority. University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.
  • Kamusella, Tomasz D. Bulgaria’s Denial of its Ottoman Past and Turkish Identity. Retrieved from New Eastern Europe: https://neweasterneurope.eu/2019/03/24/bulgarias-denial-of-its-ottoman-past- and-turkish-identity/ (Accessed: 03.07.2021).
  • Kofos, Evangelos. “Balkan Minorities under Communist Regimes.” Balkan Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, 1961, pp. 23-46.
  • Kostanick, Huey L. “Turkish Resettlement of Refugees from Bulgaria, 1950-1953.” Middle East Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, 1955, pp. 41-52.
  • Lubanska, Magdalena. Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (Anti)Syncretism. De Gruyter Open, 2015.
  • Mahon, Milena. “The Turkish Minority Under Communist Bulgaria - Politics of Ethnicity and Power.” Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, vol. 1, no. 2, 1999, pp. 149-162.
  • Marinov, Tchavdar. “Ot “internatsionalizam” kam natsionalizam. Komunisticheskiyat rezhim, makedonskiat vapros i politikata kam etnicheskite i religioznite obshtnosti.” Istoria na Narodna Republika Balgariya. Rezhim i Obshtestvoto, ed. I. Znepolski. CIELA, 2009, pp. 481-516.
  • Ministerstvo na vatresnite raboti, 10 Noemvri 1959. “Spravka otnosno: Dopusnatite izvrashteniya v razferedzavaneto sred turskoto naselenie v Razgradski okrag.” KRDOPBGDSRSBNA, Darzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na imenata - Vazroditelniyat Protses (1945-1985) Tom 1, KRDOPBGDSRSBNA, 2013, pp. 259-263.
  • Ministerstvo na vatreshnite raboti, Dekemvri 1945. Raport na nachalnika na VI grupa , „B“ v Balgariya, Sofia, 12 Dekemvri 1945. Ot KRDOPBGDSRSBNA, Darzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na Imenata - Vazroditelniyat Protses (1945 - 1985) KRDOPBGDSRSBNA. 2013, pp. 31-38.
  • Ministerstvo na voynata, Generalen Shtab 1947. Turskiyat maltsinstven i izselnicheski vapros, Sofia, 30 June 1947 (М, ф. 3, оп. 3, а. е. 55, л. 1-68). In, Durzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na Imenata - Vazroditelniyat Proces (1945 - 1985) KRDOPBGDSRSBNA. 2013, pp. 39-111).
  • Ministterstvo na vatreshnite raboti,. Februari 1982. Informatsiyata otnosno harakterni momenti ot obstanovkata v stranata vav vrazka s predstojashtoto poseshtenie na darzhavna glava na Turciya, M, f. Az, op. 12, a. e. 414, l. 113-17. In, Darzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na Imenata - Vazroditelniyat Protses (1945 - 1985) KRDOPBGDSRSBNA. 2013, pp. 827-831.
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From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy

Yıl 2022, Sayı 103, 31 - 58, 27.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10302

Öz

Minority regulations in Bulgaria from the communist takeover to the end of the Stalinist era were shaped under the influence of socialist internationalist policies, which envisaged the preservation of ethnic and cultural differences for generating class solidarity among the Bulgarian citizens. However, in practice, the constitutional safeguards and promises given to them were often ignored by the state for the sake of constructing a modern socialist society. The discrimination increased further during the post-Stalinist years in parallel with the regime’s ideological shift away from communist orthodoxy towards nationalism. The statesponsored discriminatory policies had far-reaching consequences for the Turks, the largest and most culturally aware of all ethnic minorities. Perceived as an alien element of the Bulgarian society, throughout the entire socialist period, Turkish minority was subjected to integrationist/assimilationist policies and forcibly expelled from the country at times when these policies did not produce the desired results. This article focuses on the discriminatory policies and practices forced upon the Turkish minority by the Bulgarian Communist Party during the era of state socialism, and intends to inquire into their results.

Kaynakça

  • 5-o Narodno sabranie. Konstitutsiya na Narodna Republika Balgariya, 1971. Svaleno ot Narodno sabranie na Republika Balgariya, 18 May 1971: https://parliament.bg/bg/19 (Accessed: 02.06.2021).
  • 6-toto Veliko Narodno Sabranie. Konstitutsiya na Narodna Republika Balgariya. Svaleno ot Narodno sabranie na Republika Balgariya. 06 Dekemvri 1947: https://parliament.bg/bg/18 (Accessed: 03.06.2021).
  • Aleksandrieva, Liljana, and Dejan Kiuranov. Balgarizirane na Balgaria (1984-1985). Nasilstvenata asimilatsia na Turtsite v Balgaria, ed. Rumen Avramov. Riva, 2019, pp. 69-90.
  • Asenov, Boncho. Vazroditelniyat protses i Darzhavna sigurnost. Sofia, 1996.
  • Atanasov, Georgi., 18th of January 1985. “Doklad na Georgi Atanasov.” Istinata za “Vazroditelniya Protses” dokumenti ot arhiva na CC of BCP, In III. Institut za izsledvane na Integratsiyata (III), 2003, pp. 7-20.
  • Avineri Shlomo. “Marxism and Nationalism.” Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 26, no. 3, 1991, pp. 637-657. doi:10.1177/002200949102600315
  • Avramov, Rumen. Ikonomika na “Vazroditelniya Protses”. Riva, 2016.
  • Baeva, Iskra, and Evgenia Kalinova. “Bulgarian Turks During the Transition Period.” Bulgaria and Europe: Shifting Identities, ed. Stefanos Katsikas, Anthem Press, 2011, pp. 63-78.
  • Bakalova, Maria. “The Bulgarian Turkish Names Conflict and Democratic Transition.” Innovation, vol. 19, no. 3-4, 2006. 233-246.
  • Bates, Daniel. “What’s in a name? Minorities, Idenity, and Politics in Bulgaria.” Identities, vol. 1 no. 2-3, 1994. pp. 201-225.
  • Bishku, Michale B. “Turkish-Bulgarian Relations: From Conflict and Distrust to Cooperation over Minority Issues and International Politics.” Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 2, 2003, pp. 77-94.
  • Blaut, James M. The National Question: Decolonizing the Theory of Nationalism. Zed Books, 1987.
  • Bojkov, Victor. “Bulgaria’s Turks in the 1980s: a Minority Endangered.” Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 6 no. 3, 2004, pp. 343-369.
  • Büchsenschütz, Ulrich. Minderheitenpolitik in Bulgarien: Die Politik der Bulgarischen Kommunistischen Partei (BKP) gegenüber den Juden, Roma, Pomaken und Türken 1944-1989. Digital Library Eastern Europe, 2004.
  • Crampton, Richard J. Bulgaria. Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Dalekova, M., 7th of June 1989. Sreshta na Politburo of CC of BCP. In I. z.
  • integratsiata, Istinata za “Vazroditelnia protses.” Dokumenti ot arhiva na Politburo i CC of BCP. Institut za izsledvane na integratsiata, 2003, pp. 85-127.
  • Dayıoğlu, Ali. Toplama Kampından Meclise: Bulgaristan’da Müslüman ve Türk Azınlığı. İletişim Yayınları, 2005.
  • Dechev, Stefan. “Balgarskata istoriografiya i proto ideologiyata na t. nar. Vazroditelen protses.” Nasilstvenata asimilatsiya na turtsite v Balgariya 1984-1989 : razmisli varhu ideologiyata, istoriyata, posleditsite, ed. Rumen Avramov. Tsentar za akademichni izsledvaniya, 2019, pp. 15-42.
  • Dimitrov, Martin K., and Joseph Sassoon. “State Security, Information, and Repression: A Comparison of Communist Bulgaria and Ba‘thist Iraq.” Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, 2014, pp. 3-31.
  • Dimitrov, Vesselin. In Search of a Homogenous Nation: the Assimilation of Bulgaria’s Turkish Minority, 1984-1985, 23 December 2000. Retrieved from
  • Heinonline: https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/jemie2000&div=6&id=&page= (Accessed: 01.06.2021).
  • Eminov, Ali. “The education of Turkish Speakers in Bulgaria.” Ethnic Groups, vol. 5, no. 2, 1983, pp. 129-150.
  • Eminov, Ali. The Elimination of Turkish language instruction in Bulgaria. Wayne State College, 1989. Retrieved from https://ia803101.us.archive.org/19/items/ERIC_ED317459/ERIC_ED317459.pdf (Accessed: 31.05.2021).
  • Eminov, Ali. “Nationality Policy in the USSR and in Bulgaria: Some Observations.” The Anthropology of East Europe Review: Newsletter of the East European Anthropology Group, vol. 9, no 2, Fall 1990.
  • Eminov, Ali. Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria. Routledge, 1997.
  • Eminov, Ali. “Turks and Tatars in Bulgaria and the Balkans.” Nationalities Papers, vol. 28, no. 1, 2000, pp. 129-164.
  • Engström, Jenny. Democratisation and the Prevention of Violent Conflict: Lessons Learned from Bulgaria and Macedonia. Routledge, 2009.
  • Ezergailis, Andrievs. “The Nationality Question in Bolshevik Ideology.” Bulletin of Baltic Studies, vol. 2, no. 5, 1971, pp. 3-19.
  • Gruev, Mikhail, and Aleksey Kalionski. Vazroditelniyat Protses. Myusyulmanskite obshtnosti i komunisticheskiyat rezhim. Institut za izsledvane na blizkoto minalo, 2008.
  • Gustavsson, Sven. “Socialism and Nationalism. Trends and Tendencies in the Language, Nationality and Minority. Policy of the Socialist Countries in Post-War Europe.” Sociolinguistica, vol. 4, no. 1, 1990, pp. 50-83. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110245097.50
  • Hechter, Michael. Internal Colonialism: Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536-1966. California Press, 1975.
  • Ivanov, Mihail, and İbrahim Jalamov. “Turskata obshtnost v Balgaria i neyniyat periodichen pechat (1878-1997).” Balgarsko mediaznanie. Entsiklopedichno
  • izdanie za mediyanauka i mediyapublitsistika, ed. Rosen Milev, Tom 2. Balkanmediya, 1998, pp. 556-600.
  • Ivanova, Evgenija. Othvarlenite priobshteni ili protsesat, narechen‚ vazroditelen. Institut za iztochnoevropeyska Humanistika, 2002.
  • Jalamov, İbrahim. İstoria na Turskata obştnost v Bulgaria. IMIR, 2002.
  • Kalinova, Evgenia, and Iskra Baeva. Bulgarian Transition, 1939-2002. Paradigma, 2002.
  • Kamil, İbrahim. “Bulgaristan’dan Türkiye’ye Gerçekleşen 1950-1951 Göçünün Nedenleri.” Balkan Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, vol. 5, no. 2, 2016, pp. 31-65.
  • Karpat, Kemal. The Turks of Bulgaria: The history, culture and political fate of a minority. University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.
  • Kamusella, Tomasz D. Bulgaria’s Denial of its Ottoman Past and Turkish Identity. Retrieved from New Eastern Europe: https://neweasterneurope.eu/2019/03/24/bulgarias-denial-of-its-ottoman-past- and-turkish-identity/ (Accessed: 03.07.2021).
  • Kofos, Evangelos. “Balkan Minorities under Communist Regimes.” Balkan Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, 1961, pp. 23-46.
  • Kostanick, Huey L. “Turkish Resettlement of Refugees from Bulgaria, 1950-1953.” Middle East Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, 1955, pp. 41-52.
  • Lubanska, Magdalena. Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (Anti)Syncretism. De Gruyter Open, 2015.
  • Mahon, Milena. “The Turkish Minority Under Communist Bulgaria - Politics of Ethnicity and Power.” Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, vol. 1, no. 2, 1999, pp. 149-162.
  • Marinov, Tchavdar. “Ot “internatsionalizam” kam natsionalizam. Komunisticheskiyat rezhim, makedonskiat vapros i politikata kam etnicheskite i religioznite obshtnosti.” Istoria na Narodna Republika Balgariya. Rezhim i Obshtestvoto, ed. I. Znepolski. CIELA, 2009, pp. 481-516.
  • Ministerstvo na vatresnite raboti, 10 Noemvri 1959. “Spravka otnosno: Dopusnatite izvrashteniya v razferedzavaneto sred turskoto naselenie v Razgradski okrag.” KRDOPBGDSRSBNA, Darzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na imenata - Vazroditelniyat Protses (1945-1985) Tom 1, KRDOPBGDSRSBNA, 2013, pp. 259-263.
  • Ministerstvo na vatreshnite raboti, Dekemvri 1945. Raport na nachalnika na VI grupa , „B“ v Balgariya, Sofia, 12 Dekemvri 1945. Ot KRDOPBGDSRSBNA, Darzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na Imenata - Vazroditelniyat Protses (1945 - 1985) KRDOPBGDSRSBNA. 2013, pp. 31-38.
  • Ministerstvo na voynata, Generalen Shtab 1947. Turskiyat maltsinstven i izselnicheski vapros, Sofia, 30 June 1947 (М, ф. 3, оп. 3, а. е. 55, л. 1-68). In, Durzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na Imenata - Vazroditelniyat Proces (1945 - 1985) KRDOPBGDSRSBNA. 2013, pp. 39-111).
  • Ministterstvo na vatreshnite raboti,. Februari 1982. Informatsiyata otnosno harakterni momenti ot obstanovkata v stranata vav vrazka s predstojashtoto poseshtenie na darzhavna glava na Turciya, M, f. Az, op. 12, a. e. 414, l. 113-17. In, Darzhavna Sigurnost - Smyana na Imenata - Vazroditelniyat Protses (1945 - 1985) KRDOPBGDSRSBNA. 2013, pp. 827-831.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ivo Kirilov IVANOV Bu kişi benim
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1158-4470
Türkiye


Murat ÖNSOY Bu kişi benim
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8990-1547
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Ekim 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 103

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { bilig1195474, journal = {Bilig}, issn = {1301-0549}, eissn = {2822-6348}, address = {}, publisher = {Hoca Ahmet Yesevi Uluslararası Türk-Kazak Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, number = {103}, pages = {31 - 58}, doi = {10.12995/bilig.10302}, title = {From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy}, key = {cite}, author = {Ivanov, Ivo Kirilov and Önsoy, Murat} }
APA Ivanov, I. K. & Önsoy, M. (2022). From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy . Bilig , (103) , 31-58 . DOI: 10.12995/bilig.10302
MLA Ivanov, I. K. , Önsoy, M. "From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy" . Bilig (2022 ): 31-58 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bilig/issue/73202/1195474>
Chicago Ivanov, I. K. , Önsoy, M. "From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy". Bilig (2022 ): 31-58
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Entegrasyondan Asimilasyona ve Zorunlu Göçe: Bulgaristan Komünist Partisi’nin Türk Azınlık Siyasetinin Bir Değerlendirmesi AU - Ivo KirilovIvanov, MuratÖnsoy Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.12995/bilig.10302 DO - 10.12995/bilig.10302 T2 - Bilig JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 31 EP - 58 VL - IS - 103 SN - 1301-0549-2822-6348 M3 - doi: 10.12995/bilig.10302 UR - https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10302 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Bilig From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy %A Ivo Kirilov Ivanov , Murat Önsoy %T From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy %D 2022 %J Bilig %P 1301-0549-2822-6348 %V %N 103 %R doi: 10.12995/bilig.10302 %U 10.12995/bilig.10302
ISNAD Ivanov, Ivo Kirilov , Önsoy, Murat . "From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy". Bilig / 103 (Ekim 2022): 31-58 . https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10302
AMA Ivanov I. K. , Önsoy M. From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy. Bilig. 2022; (103): 31-58.
Vancouver Ivanov I. K. , Önsoy M. From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy. Bilig. 2022; (103): 31-58.
IEEE I. K. Ivanov ve M. Önsoy , "From Integration to Assimilation and Forced Migration: An Evaluation of the Bulgarian Communist Party’s Turkish Minority Policy", Bilig, sayı. 103, ss. 31-58, Eki. 2022, doi:10.12995/bilig.10302

Ahmet Yesevi Üniversitesi Mütevelli Heyet Başkanlığı