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Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model

Yıl 2022, Sayı 103, 183 - 209, 27.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10307

Öz

During the 75 years following Ahıska Turks’ expatriation from their homeland in Soviet Georgia in 1944 to the Central Asian Soviet Republics, they have evolved into a multilingual society. Ahıska Turks use Turkish and Russian language pairs in their daily communication. They adopt code-switching strategies in their daily communication. Turkish-Russian code-switching pattern of Ahıska Turks was not analyzed linguistically in terms of bilingual communication. Therefore, this study aims to investigate Ahıska Turks from a different perspective. It reflects the code-switching situation by examining the Bishkek show of Miko Şov, an Ahıska Turks’ comedy group. The records were investigated based on the Matrix Language Frame Model and the pattern is divided into categories as nouns, adjectives, adpositions, verbs, and adverbs. It is determined that the same strategies were followed with other Turkic languages contacting Russian.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, Oktay. “Copied Verbs in Turkish Dialects of Macedonia.” The Uppsala Meeting, ed. Eva Csato, Birsel Karakoç, and Astrid Menz, Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016, pp. 9-18.
  • Aqtay, Gulayhan. “Adjectives in Modern Kazakh.” Turkey, Kazakhstan and the Crimea: Ten Years of Turkology in Poznan, ed. Henryk Jankowski, Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 2013, pp. 37-47.
  • Auer, Peter, and Raihan Muhamedova. “Embedded Language and Matrix language in Insertational Language Mixing: Some Problematic Cases.” Rivista di Linguistica, vol. 17, no. 1, 2005, pp. 35-54.
  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül. “Creating, Recreating and Redefining Ethnic Identity: Ahıska/ Meskhetian Turks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Contexts.” Central Asian Survey, vol. 21, no. 2, 2002, pp. 185-197.
  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül, et al. Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to Their History, Culture, and Resettlement Experiences. Cultural Orientation Resource Center-Culture Profile. 2006.
  • Backus, Ad. Patterns of Language Mixing. Harrasowitz Werlag, 1992.
  • Backus, Ad. Two in One. Tilburg University Press, 1996.
  • Backus, Ad. “Codeswitching as One Piece of the Puzzle of Language Exchange.” Multidisciplinary Approaches to Code-switching, ed. Ludmila Isurin, Donald Winford, and Kees de Bot, John Benjamin Publishing, 2009, pp. 307-336.
  • Dunn, John, and Shamil Khairov. Modern Russian Grammar. Routledge, 2009.
  • Forker, Diana. “Sanzhi-Russian Code-switching and the Matrix Language Frame Model.” International Journal of Bilingualism, no. 23, 2019, pp. 1448-1468.
  • Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. Code-switching. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Grosjean, François. “The Bilingual’s Language Modes.” One Mind, Two Languages: Bilingual Language Processing, ed. Janet Nicol. Blackwell, 2001, pp. 1-22.
  • Haugen, Einar. “The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing.” The Ecology of Language, ed. Anwar S. Dill. Stanford University Press, 1972, pp. 79-109.
  • İnan, Kayhan. “Bilingualism, Language Choice, and Language Loyalty in Ahıska Turks in Kyrgyzstan in Terms of the Generation Variable.” TEKE, vol. 9, no. 4, 2020, pp. 1557-1580.
  • Jankowski, Henryk. “Kazakh in Contact with Russian in Modern Kazakhstan.” Turkic Languages, no. 16, 2012, pp. 25-67.
  • Johanson, Lars. Türkçe Dil İlişkilerinde Yapısal Etkenler. ed. Nurettin Demir, Türk Dil Kurumu, 2007.
  • Johanson, Lars. “Remodeling Grammar Copying, Conventionalization, Grammaticalization.” Language Contact and Contact Languages, ed. Peter Siemund, and Noemi Kintana, John Benjamins, 2008, pp. 61-79.
  • Killi Yılmaz, Gülsüm. “Khakassian-Russian Code-switching in the Stories by Ilya Topoyev.” Journal of Modern Turkish Studies, no. 11, 2014, pp. 208-234.
  • Kreindler, Isabelle. “The Soviet Deported Nationalities: A Summary and an Update.” Soviet Studies, vol. 38, no. 3, 1986, pp. 387-405.
  • MacSwan, Jeff. “Codeswitching and Generative Grammar: A Critique of the MLF Model and Some Remarks on Modified Minimalism.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 8, no. 1, 2005, pp. 1- 22.
  • Matras, Yaron. Language Contact. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Menz, Astrid. “Slavic Language Influence on Gagauz.” bilig, vol. 24, 2003, pp. 23-44.
  • Muhamedova, Raihan. “Remarks on the Kazakh Discourse Marker žaŋaγï.” Trans-Turkic Studies, ed. Matthias Kappler, Mark Kirchner, and Peter Ziem, Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları Dizisi, 2010, pp. 441-454.
  • Muysken, Pieter. Bilingual Speech: A Typology of Code-mixing. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. “Comparing Codeswitching and Borrowing.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, no. 13, 1992, pp. 19-39.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. “Constructing the Frame in Intrasentential Codeswitching.” Multilingua, vol. 11, no. 1, 1992, pp. 101-127.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. Dueling Languages. Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Blackwell Publishing, 2006.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol, and Janice Jake. “A Universal Model of Code-switching and Bilingual Language Processing and Production.” The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-switching, ed. Barbara E. Bullock, and Almeida J. Toribio, Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 336-357.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol, and Janice Jake. “Revisiting the 4-M Model: Codeswitching and Morpheme Election at the Abstract Level.” International Journal of Bilingualism, no. 21, 2017, 340-366.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol, and John Okeju. “Neighbors and Lexical Borrowing.” Language, no. 49, 1973, pp. 871-889.
  • Petrou, Maria. “Lexical Borrowing and Code-switching in Turkish Varieties of Western Thrace.” Ankara Papers in Turkish and Turkic Linguistics, ed. Deniz Zeyrek, and Çiğdem Sağın Şimşek, Harrassowitz Werlag, 2015, pp. 4440-4522.
  • Süleymanov, Mikail. Personal Interview. 17 May 2017.
  • Şener, Serkan. Code-switching of Turkish-German Bilinguals: A Structural Analysis. Master Thesis. Ankara: Ankara University, 1998.
  • Treffers-Daller, Jeannie. “Towards a Uniform Approach to Code-switching and Borrowing.” Papers for the Workshop on Constraints, Conditions, and Models, European Science Foundation, 1991, pp. 259-279.
  • Trier, Tom, and Andrei Khanzin. “Introduction.” Meskhetian Turks at a Crossroads: Integration, Reparation or Resettlement? ed. Tom Trier, and Andrei Khanzin, Lit Verlag, 2007, pp. 1-42.
  • Whitehouse, Mark. “Politics of Persecution.” moscowtimes.com, The Moscow Times, 24 January 1998, http://old.themoscowtimes.com. Accessed 18 November 2019.
  • Yazıcı Ersoy, Habibe. “Code-switching Among Languages: The Instance of Bashkir Literary Language.” Dil Araştırmaları, no. 21, 2017, pp. 61-77.

Ahıska Türklerinde Türkçe-Rusça Kod Değiştirme Deseni ve Temel Dil Çerçeve Modeli

Yıl 2022, Sayı 103, 183 - 209, 27.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10307

Öz

Ahıska Türkleri, 1944’te Sovyet Gürcistan’daki anavatanlarından Asya’daki Sovyet Cumhuriyetlerine sürüldükten sonraki 75 yıl içinde çok dilli bir topluma evrilmiştir. Ahıska Türkleri, iletişimlerinde Türkçe ve Rusça dil çiftini kullanmaktadır. Günlük iletişimlerinde kod değiştirme stratejilerine başvurmaktadır. Ahıska Türklerinde Türkçe-Rusça kod değiştirme örüntüsü iki dilli iletişim bağlamında dil bilimsel olarak analiz edilmemiştir. Bu nedenle bu çalışma, Ahıska Türklerini farklı bir bağlamda incelemeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu kapsamda Ahıska Türklerinin komedi grubu Miko Şov’un Bişkek gösterisi incelenmiş ve kod değiştirme durumunu yansıtılmaya çalışılmıştır. Veriler Temel Dil Çerçeve Modeline göre isim, sıfat, edat, fiil ve zarf başlıkları altında incelenmiştir. Rusça ile iletişime geçen diğer Türk toplulukları ile benzer stratejilerin izlendiği tespit edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, Oktay. “Copied Verbs in Turkish Dialects of Macedonia.” The Uppsala Meeting, ed. Eva Csato, Birsel Karakoç, and Astrid Menz, Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016, pp. 9-18.
  • Aqtay, Gulayhan. “Adjectives in Modern Kazakh.” Turkey, Kazakhstan and the Crimea: Ten Years of Turkology in Poznan, ed. Henryk Jankowski, Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 2013, pp. 37-47.
  • Auer, Peter, and Raihan Muhamedova. “Embedded Language and Matrix language in Insertational Language Mixing: Some Problematic Cases.” Rivista di Linguistica, vol. 17, no. 1, 2005, pp. 35-54.
  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül. “Creating, Recreating and Redefining Ethnic Identity: Ahıska/ Meskhetian Turks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Contexts.” Central Asian Survey, vol. 21, no. 2, 2002, pp. 185-197.
  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül, et al. Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to Their History, Culture, and Resettlement Experiences. Cultural Orientation Resource Center-Culture Profile. 2006.
  • Backus, Ad. Patterns of Language Mixing. Harrasowitz Werlag, 1992.
  • Backus, Ad. Two in One. Tilburg University Press, 1996.
  • Backus, Ad. “Codeswitching as One Piece of the Puzzle of Language Exchange.” Multidisciplinary Approaches to Code-switching, ed. Ludmila Isurin, Donald Winford, and Kees de Bot, John Benjamin Publishing, 2009, pp. 307-336.
  • Dunn, John, and Shamil Khairov. Modern Russian Grammar. Routledge, 2009.
  • Forker, Diana. “Sanzhi-Russian Code-switching and the Matrix Language Frame Model.” International Journal of Bilingualism, no. 23, 2019, pp. 1448-1468.
  • Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. Code-switching. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Grosjean, François. “The Bilingual’s Language Modes.” One Mind, Two Languages: Bilingual Language Processing, ed. Janet Nicol. Blackwell, 2001, pp. 1-22.
  • Haugen, Einar. “The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing.” The Ecology of Language, ed. Anwar S. Dill. Stanford University Press, 1972, pp. 79-109.
  • İnan, Kayhan. “Bilingualism, Language Choice, and Language Loyalty in Ahıska Turks in Kyrgyzstan in Terms of the Generation Variable.” TEKE, vol. 9, no. 4, 2020, pp. 1557-1580.
  • Jankowski, Henryk. “Kazakh in Contact with Russian in Modern Kazakhstan.” Turkic Languages, no. 16, 2012, pp. 25-67.
  • Johanson, Lars. Türkçe Dil İlişkilerinde Yapısal Etkenler. ed. Nurettin Demir, Türk Dil Kurumu, 2007.
  • Johanson, Lars. “Remodeling Grammar Copying, Conventionalization, Grammaticalization.” Language Contact and Contact Languages, ed. Peter Siemund, and Noemi Kintana, John Benjamins, 2008, pp. 61-79.
  • Killi Yılmaz, Gülsüm. “Khakassian-Russian Code-switching in the Stories by Ilya Topoyev.” Journal of Modern Turkish Studies, no. 11, 2014, pp. 208-234.
  • Kreindler, Isabelle. “The Soviet Deported Nationalities: A Summary and an Update.” Soviet Studies, vol. 38, no. 3, 1986, pp. 387-405.
  • MacSwan, Jeff. “Codeswitching and Generative Grammar: A Critique of the MLF Model and Some Remarks on Modified Minimalism.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol. 8, no. 1, 2005, pp. 1- 22.
  • Matras, Yaron. Language Contact. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Menz, Astrid. “Slavic Language Influence on Gagauz.” bilig, vol. 24, 2003, pp. 23-44.
  • Muhamedova, Raihan. “Remarks on the Kazakh Discourse Marker žaŋaγï.” Trans-Turkic Studies, ed. Matthias Kappler, Mark Kirchner, and Peter Ziem, Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları Dizisi, 2010, pp. 441-454.
  • Muysken, Pieter. Bilingual Speech: A Typology of Code-mixing. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. “Comparing Codeswitching and Borrowing.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, no. 13, 1992, pp. 19-39.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. “Constructing the Frame in Intrasentential Codeswitching.” Multilingua, vol. 11, no. 1, 1992, pp. 101-127.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. Dueling Languages. Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol. Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Blackwell Publishing, 2006.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol, and Janice Jake. “A Universal Model of Code-switching and Bilingual Language Processing and Production.” The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-switching, ed. Barbara E. Bullock, and Almeida J. Toribio, Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 336-357.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol, and Janice Jake. “Revisiting the 4-M Model: Codeswitching and Morpheme Election at the Abstract Level.” International Journal of Bilingualism, no. 21, 2017, 340-366.
  • Myers-Scotton, Carol, and John Okeju. “Neighbors and Lexical Borrowing.” Language, no. 49, 1973, pp. 871-889.
  • Petrou, Maria. “Lexical Borrowing and Code-switching in Turkish Varieties of Western Thrace.” Ankara Papers in Turkish and Turkic Linguistics, ed. Deniz Zeyrek, and Çiğdem Sağın Şimşek, Harrassowitz Werlag, 2015, pp. 4440-4522.
  • Süleymanov, Mikail. Personal Interview. 17 May 2017.
  • Şener, Serkan. Code-switching of Turkish-German Bilinguals: A Structural Analysis. Master Thesis. Ankara: Ankara University, 1998.
  • Treffers-Daller, Jeannie. “Towards a Uniform Approach to Code-switching and Borrowing.” Papers for the Workshop on Constraints, Conditions, and Models, European Science Foundation, 1991, pp. 259-279.
  • Trier, Tom, and Andrei Khanzin. “Introduction.” Meskhetian Turks at a Crossroads: Integration, Reparation or Resettlement? ed. Tom Trier, and Andrei Khanzin, Lit Verlag, 2007, pp. 1-42.
  • Whitehouse, Mark. “Politics of Persecution.” moscowtimes.com, The Moscow Times, 24 January 1998, http://old.themoscowtimes.com. Accessed 18 November 2019.
  • Yazıcı Ersoy, Habibe. “Code-switching Among Languages: The Instance of Bashkir Literary Language.” Dil Araştırmaları, no. 21, 2017, pp. 61-77.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Kayhan İNAN>
AMASYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ, TÜRKÇE VE SOSYAL BİLİMLER EĞİTİMİ BÖLÜMÜ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Ekim 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 103

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { bilig1197174, journal = {Bilig}, issn = {1301-0549}, eissn = {2822-6348}, address = {}, publisher = {Hoca Ahmet Yesevi Uluslararası Türk-Kazak Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, number = {103}, pages = {183 - 209}, doi = {10.12995/bilig.10307}, title = {Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model}, key = {cite}, author = {İnan, Kayhan} }
APA İnan, K. (2022). Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model . Bilig , (103) , 183-209 . DOI: 10.12995/bilig.10307
MLA İnan, K. "Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model" . Bilig (2022 ): 183-209 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bilig/issue/73202/1197174>
Chicago İnan, K. "Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model". Bilig (2022 ): 183-209
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ahıska Türklerinde Türkçe-Rusça Kod Değiştirme Deseni ve Temel Dil Çerçeve Modeli AU - Kayhanİnan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.12995/bilig.10307 DO - 10.12995/bilig.10307 T2 - Bilig JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 183 EP - 209 VL - IS - 103 SN - 1301-0549-2822-6348 M3 - doi: 10.12995/bilig.10307 UR - https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10307 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Bilig Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model %A Kayhan İnan %T Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model %D 2022 %J Bilig %P 1301-0549-2822-6348 %V %N 103 %R doi: 10.12995/bilig.10307 %U 10.12995/bilig.10307
ISNAD İnan, Kayhan . "Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model". Bilig / 103 (Ekim 2022): 183-209 . https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.10307
AMA İnan K. Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model. Bilig. 2022; (103): 183-209.
Vancouver İnan K. Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model. Bilig. 2022; (103): 183-209.
IEEE K. İnan , "Code-Switching Pattern of Turkish- Russian Bilingual Ahıska Turks and Matrix Language Frame Model", Bilig, sayı. 103, ss. 183-209, Eki. 2022, doi:10.12995/bilig.10307

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