Yıl 2019, Cilt 2019 , Sayı 37, Sayfalar 191 - 241 2019-04-30

“İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi
The History Of The Conceptualization Of “Abrahamic Religions"

Muhammet YEŞİLYURT [1]


“İbrahimî dinler” adlandırması, Hz. İbrahim’i “ata” olarak kabul eden Yahudilik, Hıristiyanlık ve İslâm dâhil edilerek oluşturulmuş bir tasniftir. “İbrahimî dinler”, II. Dünya Savaşı’nın hemen sonrasında, fikrî çerçevesi Katolik Oryantalist Louis Massignon tarafından çizilmeye başlanmış bir kavramsallaştırmadır.  Söz konusu kavramsallaştırma, dünya insanları arasında barışı egemen kılmaya matuf girişimlerin yaşandığı bir dönemde, üç dine mensup insanlar arasında “ortak nokta” bulma çabasının bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. 1962-1965 yılları arasında gerçekleştirilen II. Vatikan Konsili ile “İbrahimî dinler” düşüncesi, bir anlamda olgunlaşma ve Kilise vasıtasıyla resmîleşme sürecine girmiştir. Adı geçen konsilde “İbrahimî dinler” düşüncesiyle eş zamanlı olarak ortaya çıkan “dinlerarası diyalog” fikri, “İbrahimî dinler” kavramsallaştırmasının günümüze kadarki akacağı mecrayı belirlemiştir. II. Vatikan Konsili’nden itibaren kullanım alanı ve yaygınlığı giderek artan “İbrahimî dinler”, zamanla akademik çalışmalarda da kendisine müracaat edilen bir terim haline gelmiştir. Bu çerçevede, “İbrahimî dinler” lafız olarak ilk kez, 1979 yılında Amerikan Din Akademisi’nin gerçekleştirdiği kongrede kullanılmıştır. Kongrede sunulan bildiriler daha sonra “Trialogue of the Abrahamic Faiths (İbrahimî Dinlerin Diyaloğu)” adıyla kitaplaştırılmıştır. O tarihten günümüze bilimsel içerikli pek çok çalışma ve toplantıda “İbrahimî dinler” ve “dinlerarası diyalog” temaları birlikte ve birbiriyle ilişkili olarak kullanılmıştır. 11 Eylül 2001 yılında ABD’de gerçekleştirilen terör saldırılarından sonra daha fazla oranda kendisine müracaat edilen mezkûr kavramsallaştırma, üç din arasında birliği teşvik etmek ve ortak olunduğu iddia edilen hususları ilgili dinlerin mensuplarına hatırlatmak için kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. “İbrahimî dinler” düşüncesinin ortaya çıkışında Yahudilik ve İslam’ın herhangi bir katkısının olmadığı anlaşılmaktadır. İlk ortaya çıkışından günümüze “İbrahimî dinler”, tamamen Katolik Hıristiyanlık izleri taşımaktadır.

The term “Abrahamic religions” is a classification created by including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which has accepted Abraham as an ancestor. In the sacred books of these religions, which are accepted as Abrahamic religions, there is no expression or description in the form of “Abrahamic religions”.  Eventhough there were various references about characterisation of Abrahamic that composes the first section of conceptualisation of “Abrahamic Religions”, and to Abraham in the sources before 20. century that belong to three religions, “Abrahamic Religions” was not used as distinct expression. Before 20. Century, the words “Abraham” and “Abrahamic” were only applied by a religion as a way of proving that “their rivals, in the sense of religion”, were in the wrong direction and alleging that there was only one right and unique way of comprehending Abraham. It has been applied to describe “Abraham” not by an objective approach, but always with a religious and theological view. “Abrahimic Religions”, in the meaning that we understand today, is a conceptualisation whose intellectual frame came into be drawn by Catholic Orientalist Louis Massigon just after World War II. Louis Massignon played an extremely active role in the emergence and development of the “Abrahamic religions” with the ideas he put forward. Massignon is one of the first people to apply directly to Abraham in the desire to facilitate good relations between Christians and Muslims, with the words “Abraham” and “Abrahamic”, although they are emphasized by Christianity.
Eventhough characterisation of Abrahamic had been used in a exclusivist manner in greater part of the history, great changes has been witnessed since the second half of the 20. Century. World War II happened before Vatican Council II and the establishment of state of Israel has had impact as event and process on that change. Forasmuch as the state of conflict that the war brought about and Jew-Muslim conflict that potentiated its severity with the establishment of state of Israel has helped to “Abrahamic” and “Abrahamic Religions” approach in the sense of “Universal” to be revealed. In the context of individuals, L. Massignon’s ideas can be regarded as one of the factors that brought about this change.
The Vatican Council II that was carried out between the years of 1962-1965 constitutes a turning point in the history of the conceptualization of “Abrahamic Religions”. While the words “Abraham” and “Abrahamic” had been applied within the context of debates between religions and fighting for supremacy untill that Council, with the Vatican Council II, it is seen that they has been referenced in a positive way and aforementioned two words became like inclusive meaning. With The Vatican Council II “Abrahamic Religions” approach entered into the process of effloresce and officialising via Church. In aforesaid Council, the idea of “interreligious dialogue” that emerged simultaneously with “Abrahamic Religions” approach determined how course of “Abrahamic Religions” conceptualization would be evolved untill today. In the period after Vatican Council II, “Abrahamic Religions” approach began to be mentioned in various platforms as “word”.  In that period, forementioned expression became a “term” that was used both in scientific and academic circles and in political or daily language with various meanings and purposes. “Abrahamic Religions” was first used as word in the congress of the American Academy of Religion in 1979. The declerations presented at the congress later were published into a book with the title of “Trialogue of the Abrahamic Faiths”. From that time to our day, the themes “Abrahamic Religions” and “interreligious dialogue” have been used together and interrelatedly in many scientific meetings and studies.
Just like Vatican Council II, September 11 is a turning point for the history of “Abrahamic Religions” term. It is observed that 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks against USA shaped and had impact on dialogue between religions, the comprehension of “Abraham” image that was presented as basic reference point for those dialogues, and the meaning, content and intended purpose of “Abrahamic Religions” conceptualization. Thus, the phrase “Abrahamic Religions” has become a symbol of peacefully co-existence and peace-building, especially after September 11; ıt was started to be used to encourage the unity (fraternity) between three religions and to remind relevant religions’ members of the alleged common points.
In the period in question, ıt was expressed that “Abraham” is a source of reconciliation between the three traditions which is increasingly called as “Abrahamic”. In this framework, the first ten or fifteen years of the 21st Century have witnessed a number of interfaiths initiatives that prefer the “Abrahamic” characterization. Interestingly, a great majority of those initiatives in question are the activities that academicians have participated in. While those activities were sometimes carried out with the organisations of extensive workshops, panel, conferance or symposium organised by a foundation, and sometime they were carried out by publishing articles or books in which interreligious dialogue with “Abrahamic religions centered” or Abrahamic religions with “interreligious dialogue centered” contents were studied.
The term “Abrahamic”, which has been far from being scientific since the begining, has now become a romantic and universal adjective that combines both historically and religiously in a world where conflicts and fights occur between the three monotheistic religions. It is understood that Ibraham, who is much emphasized as a faithful father of Jews, Christians and Muslims in modern times, is now becoming the symbol not only of the interreligious dialogue but also of “interreligious unity” or such a project.
Judaism and Islam have no contribution and influence in the emergence and development of the “Abrahamic Religions” phenomenon. Firstly emergence as an approach and after term and phenomenom with its improvement process till our day, “Abrahamic Religions” conceptualisation has been completely constituted by Catholic Christianity. It is possible to say that the “Abrahamic Religions” are “produced”, “instrumental” expressions of the Westerns in order to make them acceptable and legitimate in the activities of “Interreligious Dialogue” and “Missionary”.

Dinler Tarihi, Yahudilik, Hıristiyanlık, İslâm, Hz. İbrahim
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Orcid: 0000-0003-0770-6850
Yazar: Muhammet YEŞİLYURT (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Akdeniz Üniversitesi
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Nisan 2019

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { bilimname457204, journal = {Bilimname}, issn = {1304-1878}, eissn = {2148-5860}, address = {}, publisher = {Erciyes Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {2019}, pages = {191 - 241}, doi = {10.28949/bilimname.457204}, title = {“İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi}, key = {cite}, author = {YEŞİLYURT, Muhammet} }
APA YEŞİLYURT, M . (2019). “İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi. Bilimname , 2019 (37) , 191-241 . DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.457204
MLA YEŞİLYURT, M . "“İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 191-241 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bilimname/issue/43606/457204>
Chicago YEŞİLYURT, M . "“İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 191-241
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - “İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi AU - Muhammet YEŞİLYURT Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.457204 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.457204 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 191 EP - 241 VL - 2019 IS - 37 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.457204 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.457204 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Bilimname “İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi %A Muhammet YEŞİLYURT %T “İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi %D 2019 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2019 %N 37 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.457204 %U 10.28949/bilimname.457204
ISNAD YEŞİLYURT, Muhammet . "“İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi". Bilimname 2019 / 37 (Nisan 2019): 191-241 . https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.457204
AMA YEŞİLYURT M . “İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(37): 191-241.
Vancouver YEŞİLYURT M . “İbrahimî Dinler” Kavramsallaştırmasının Tarihi. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(37): 241-191.