Yıl 2020, Cilt 2020 , Sayı 41, Sayfalar 67 - 95 2020-05-15

İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler
Disabled People from the Perspective of the Contributions to Construction Islamic Civilization

İlyas AKYÜZOĞLU [1]


Medeniyet sözcüğünü dört başı mamur, kapsam ve sınırlılıklarını net bir şekilde ortaya koyarak tarif etmeye çalışmak sosyal bilimler alanında karşılaşılan en büyük zorluklardan bir tanesidir. Medeniyetin kısaca tarifinin zorluğu ifade ettiği anlamın çok kapsamlı olmasından kaynaklanmakla birlikte biz yine de “insanoğlunun, yeryüzündeki hayatı güzel, yaşanabilir, sürdürülebilir bir hale getirmek için ortaya koymuş olduğu maddi ve manevi çabaların tümü” şeklinde tarif edersek tanımlamanın daha isabetli olacağını düşünmekteyiz.
İnsanoğlunun yeryüzünü yaşanabilir hale getirme adına ortaya koyduğu çabalarının ürünü olan medeniyetlerin gücü ve büyüklüğü, ürettikleri maddi/manevi değerlerin etkinliği ile doğru orantılıdır. Burada maddi değerler genelde medeniyetlerin gücünü, manevi değerler ise büyüklüğünü temsil eder. Dünyadaki gelmiş-geçmiş medeniyetlere göz attığımızda ise maddi gücünü koruyamayan medeniyetlerin tarih sahnesindeki etkinliklerinin ya zayıfladığını ya da ortadan kalktığını görürüz. Bunlardan maddi gücünü kaybetmiş olmasına rağmen hala etkinliğini sürdüreni ise İslam medeniyetidir. Çünkü İslam medeniyeti manevi değerler üzerinde yükselmiş, maddi gücü ise sonradan elde etmiştir. İslam medeniyetini değerli ve güçlü kılan şeylerin başında ise insana, Allah’ın yarattığı en saygıdeğer varlık gözüyle bakması gelir. İnsan, insan olması hasebiyle değerlidir. Dili, ırkı, rengi veya engeli yüzünden ayrımcılığa tabi tutulmaz.
Çalışmada İslam medeniyetinin inşa edildiği ilk yüzyıllarda yaşamış ve bu sürece katkıda bulunmuş/katkılarıyla ön plana çıkmış olan engelli bireyler ele alınmıştır. Ayrıca engellilerin rengi, dili, etnik kökeni hatta konu İslam medeniyeti olmasına rağmen dini aidiyetleri dahi araştırma konusu yapılmamıştır; önemli olan İslam medeniyetinin inşa sürecine olan katkılarıdır. Nitekim İslam düşünce felsefesinde ve bu düşüncenin yansıması olan medeniyetinde engelliler, toplumsal yapının aksayan değil ayrılmaz parçasıdırlar. Bu yaklaşımın bir tezahürü olarak İslam coğrafyasında engelli bireyler azami derecede topluma entegre olmuşlar, üretkenlikleri ile de medeniyetin inşasına ve yükselmesine büyük katkılarda bulunmuşlardır.


One of the biggest dificulties in the social sciences is the attempt to describe the term “civilization” in a clear way, by clearly describing its contents and limitations. Although this difficulty of describing, we can describe the civilization briefly is, “all of the material and spiritual efforts of mankind to make that human life on the earth, beautiful, liveable and sustainable”.


The magnificience and power of civilizations is measured by the material and spiritual values that they produce. We can say that while material values represent power in general, spiritual values represent magnitude. When we look at, the past and present civilizations in the world, we can see that civilizations, which can not protect their material power in general, can not protect their existence. The Islamic civilization is still alive, although it has lost its material power. Because the Islamic civilization has risen above spiritual values, and the material power obtained subsequently. At the beginning of the things that make Islamic civilization valuable and powerful comes to look at the mankind most respectable being created by Allah. Human beings are valuable because they are human beings. The human is can not discriminated because of his language, nation, color or disability.


In studies dealing with disabled people, usually the following method is followed: First of all, the definition of disability, the types of disability, legal status of them, the problems of the disabled people, developments and improvoments about disabled people in historical process. Finally, the examples of the disabled people in history and the researches are ends. 


This method which researchers deal with in their studies about disabled people, reflects a categorical way of thinking and a discriminatory perspective that we think absolutely no desire any researcher. Whereas, the word of “disability” is a concept that must be used to describe and to refer to that individual's disability, not for discriminatory expressions. The discriminatory and exclusionary approach is the most evident indicator of undeveloped societies. 


In this regard, the measure of being a developed society is to accept the disabled as a normal individual. It is possible to see the many examples of this in the social structure that Prophet Muhammad established. Indeed, the Islamic civilization that the Prophet Muhammad laid the foundation of, has shed light on humanity for centuries, taught justice and virtue to the world, allowed that all societies with different colors, races and beliefs had to taste the honor of human life. The most important feature that distinguishes Islamic civilization from others is that it accepts human beings as the most valuable being created by Allah. Every person who does not cause corruption on the earth is respectable in Islam; his race, color, disability do not cast a shadow on this respectness. 


The Qur'an states that people are created to serve Allah and human being is not created in vain and will not be left unattended throughout his life on earth. The Earth is a test site for they, and as long as they lives, they will be tested in various ways (sometimes with their souls and sometimes with their goods). To act in accordance with the purposes of creation in the world of test is the only way for the believers to the salvation and reach the consent of Allah. Because they were created by Him and will also be to Him. 


If a believer wants to be considered successful in the world of test (world life), firstly he must believe in Allah and the judgment day. Then he must promote the people for virtue and the prevent them from vice. He should be in race with other people for goodness. These criteria apply to all believers who are male, female, disabled and non-disabled, and only then they will have access to Allah's sake and will enter heaven. 


According to the Islamic thought, the value and superiority of people in front of Allah is related to their sincerity. The thing that makes people valueless and worthless in front of Allah is their disbelief. The prophet Muhammad emphasized in his hadiths that is not the appearance or property of what determines the value of people in the presence of Allah, “Allah doesn’t look at your image and your goods, but he will look at your hearts and what you do.”


The Qur'an doesn’t categorically approach the disability and doesn’t consider them different from other people who don’t have any disabilities in terms of rights and responsibilities due to their deficiency. In addition, the terms about disability in the Qur'an are also mentioned but most of them are figuratively and have been used for those who resist faith. For example, summ/deaf words in eight places, umy/blind words in seventeen places, bukm/dumb word in one place was used in the figurative sense to criticize the disbelievers. 

Thanks to this point of view, despite of many disabled individuals who have different disabilities live integrated with society and have made important contributions to the development and progression of Islamic civilization.

 Our article is also a production of reflection this thoughts. The disabled people in the Islamic civilization are the inseparable part of the social structure. With this approach, disabled people in Islamic geography have participated in collective gatherings at the maximum level and have made great contributions to the construction and promotion of their productivity and civilization. Some, have brought about permanent effects in the military and political scene, some in religious and human sciences, and for the later generations they have been horizon-opening examples.One of the biggest dificulties in the social sciences is the attempt to describe the term “civilization” in a clear way, by clearly describing its contents and limitations. Although this difficulty of describing, we can describe the civilization briefly is, “all of the material and spiritual efforts of mankind to make that human life on the earth, beautiful, liveable and sustainable”. The magnificience and power of civilizations is measured by the material and spiritual values that they produce. We can say that while material values represent power in general, spiritual values represent magnitude. When we look at, the past and present civilizations in the world, we can see that civilizations, which can not protect their material power in general, can not protect their existence. The Islamic civilization is still alive, although it has lost its material power. Because the Islamic civilization has risen above spiritual values, and the material power obtained subsequently. At the beginning of the things that make Islamic civilization valuable and powerful comes to look at the mankind most respectable being created by Allah. Human beings are valuable because they are human beings. The human is can not discriminated because of his language, nation, color or disability. In studies dealing with disabled people, usually the following method is followed: First of all, the definition of disability, the types of disability, legal status of them, the problems of the disabled people, developments and improvoments about disabled people in historical process. Finally, the examples of the disabled people in history and the researches are ends. This method which researchers deal with in their studies about disabled people, reflects a categorical way of thinking and a discriminatory perspective that we think absolutely no desire any researcher. Whereas, the word of “disability” is a concept that must be used to describe and to refer to that individual's disability, not for discriminatory expressions. The discriminatory and exclusionary approach is the most evident indicator of undeveloped societies. In this regard, the measure of being a developed society is to accept the disabled as a normal individual. It is possible to see the many examples of this in the social structure that Prophet Muhammad established. Indeed, the Islamic civilization that the Prophet Muhammad laid the foundation of, has shed light on humanity for centuries, taught justice and virtue to the world, allowed that all societies with different colors, races and beliefs had to taste the honor of human life. The most important feature that distinguishes Islamic civilization from others is that it accepts human beings as the most valuable being created by Allah. Every person who does not cause corruption on the earth is respectable in Islam; his race, color, disability do not cast a shadow on this respectness. The Qur'an states that people are created to serve Allah and human being is not created in vain and will not be left unattended throughout his life on earth. The Earth is a test site for they, and as long as they lives, they will be tested in various ways (sometimes with their souls and sometimes with their goods). To act in accordance with the purposes of creation in the world of test is the only way for the believers to the salvation and reach the consent of Allah. Because they were created by Him and will also be to Him. If a believer wants to be considered successful in the world of test (world life), firstly he must believe in Allah and the judgment day. Then he must promote the people for virtue and the prevent them from vice. He should be in race with other people for goodness. These criteria apply to all believers who are male, female, disabled and non-disabled, and only then they will have access to Allah's sake and will enter heaven. According to the Islamic thought, the value and superiority of people in front of Allah is related to their sincerity. The thing that makes people valueless and worthless in front of Allah is their disbelief. The prophet Muhammad emphasized in his hadiths that is not the appearance or property of what determines the value of people in the presence of Allah, “Allah doesn’t look at your image and your goods, but he will look at your hearts and what you do.” The Qur'an doesn’t categorically approach the disability and doesn’t consider them different from other people who don’t have any disabilities in terms of rights and responsibilities due to their deficiency. In addition, the terms about disability in the Qur'an are also mentioned but most of them are figuratively and have been used for those who resist faith. For example, summ/deaf words in eight places, umy/blind words in seventeen places, bukm/dumb word in one place was used in the figurative sense to criticize the disbelievers. Thanks to this point of view, despite of many disabled individuals who have different disabilities live integrated with society and have made important contributions to the development and progression of Islamic civilization.  Our article is also a production of reflection this thoughts. The disabled people in the Islamic civilization are the inseparable part of the social structure. With this approach, disabled people in Islamic geography have participated in collective gatherings at the maximum level and have made great contributions to the construction and promotion of their productivity and civilization. Some, have brought about permanent effects in the military and political scene, some in religious and human sciences, and for the later generations they have been horizon-opening examples.

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Orcid: 0000-0001-8177-8081
Yazar: İlyas AKYÜZOĞLU (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: YALOVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İSLAMİ İLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 15 Mayıs 2020

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { bilimname542932, journal = {Bilimname}, issn = {1304-1878}, eissn = {2148-5860}, address = {}, publisher = {Erciyes Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {2020}, pages = {67 - 95}, doi = {10.28949/bilimname.542932}, title = {İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler}, key = {cite}, author = {Akyüzoğlu, İlyas} }
APA Akyüzoğlu, İ . (2020). İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler . Bilimname , 2020 (41) , 67-95 . DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.542932
MLA Akyüzoğlu, İ . "İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler" . Bilimname 2020 (2020 ): 67-95 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bilimname/issue/54655/542932>
Chicago Akyüzoğlu, İ . "İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler". Bilimname 2020 (2020 ): 67-95
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler AU - İlyas Akyüzoğlu Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.542932 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.542932 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 67 EP - 95 VL - 2020 IS - 41 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.542932 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.542932 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Bilimname İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler %A İlyas Akyüzoğlu %T İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler %D 2020 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2020 %N 41 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.542932 %U 10.28949/bilimname.542932
ISNAD Akyüzoğlu, İlyas . "İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler". Bilimname 2020 / 41 (Mayıs 2020): 67-95 . https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.542932
AMA Akyüzoğlu İ . İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler. Bilimname. 2020; 2020(41): 67-95.
Vancouver Akyüzoğlu İ . İslam Medeniyetine Katkıları Açısından Engelliler. Bilimname. 2020; 2020(41): 67-95.