Hutbe, Cuma ve bayram namazlarının gereklerinden olup, öğüt ve nasihat içeren konuşmadır. Hz. Peygamber’den günümüze îrâd edilmektedir. Ülkemizde son on yıldır Din Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü’nce hazırlanan hutbeler tüm cami ve mescitlerde okunmaktadır. Hutbeler başlık, serlevha bir ayet, bir hadis ve bu çerçevede inşa edilen metinden oluşmaktadır. Hutbenin serlevhasındaki rivayet metin içerisinde yorumlanmaktadır. Serlevha rivayetten hareket edilerek toplumsal mesajlar verilmekte, güncel olayların yorumlanmasında hadis rivayeti referans alınmaktadır. Serlevha hadisle hutbenin başlığının ve konusunun uyumu ve rivayetin bağlamı da gözetilerek doğru anlaşılması ve yorumlanması önem arz etmektedir.
Rivayetin doğru anlaşılması ve yorumlanması noktasında en önemli kavram bağlamdır. Hadiste bağlam anlama faaliyetinin temelini oluşturur. Bağlam konuşanla dinleyen arasındaki iletişimi, ilişkiyi yer ve zaman perspektifiyle içerir. Buna konuşanın ve dinleyenin önyargı, görüş, kanaatleriyle, her türlü davranışları ve toplumsal özellikleri de eklenir. Bu çerçevede Hz. Peygamber’in sözlerini ve fillerini anlamak ve yorumlamak için içinde bulunduğu çevreyi, kültürel ortamı, ilk muhataplarını ve yaşadığı toplumun gerçeklerini tespit etmek zarurettir. Yani Hz. Peygamber’in sözlerini ve davranışlarını, bulunduğu ortam ve bu ortamın doğurduğu şartlar içerisinde ele almak gerekir.
Bu makalede, serlevha hadislerin hutbe içinde yorumlanma biçimi ele alınmaktadır. Hutbenin serlevhasında yer alan hadisin yorumlanmasında özellikle hadis-bağlam ilişkisine ne kadar riayet edildiği, rivayetin yorumunun hadis rivayet ve yorum geleneğindeki anlaşılma ve yorumlanma şekliyle ne kadar örtüştüğü tespit edilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Bu çerçevede şu somut sorulara cevap aranmaktadır. “Hutbelerin serlevhasındaki hadisler yorumlanırken rivayetin bağlamı dikkate alınmış mıdır?”, “Rivayet yorumlanırken geçmişten günümüze şerhlerle ilişki kurulmuş mudur?” Makalede, serlevha hadislerin yorumlanmasında; rivayetin tasnif edildiği konudaki diğer rivayetlerle ilişkisinin göz ardı edildiği, bağlamın dikkate alınmadığı, klasik ve modern şerhlerden istifade edilmediği ortaya konulmaktadır.
Khutbah (Sermon) which is one of the requirements of Friday and Eid prayers, is a speech containing advice. It has been performed during the Friday and Eid prayers since the Prophet. In our country, the sermons are prepared by the General Directorate of Religious Services in the last decade and these sermons are read in all mosques and masjids. The sermons have a title, subject, verse and top-hadith, and the text of the sermon was built in this framework. The top-narration of the sermon is interpreted in the text. Social messages are given based on the top-narration, and hadith narration is taken as reference in the interpretation of current events. It is important that the harmony of the top-hadith with title and subject of the sermon and that to understand and interpret correctly in the context of the narration. In addition, there is a need to examine the parameters in understanding and interpreting the narration.
This article analyzes hadith in the sermons recently performed such as “it is not from us that targets us with weapons, and also not from us that deceives us.” in the sermon of titled “The biggest exploitation is to exploit the immense values of religion.”. The other hadith is that “Allah's right over His servants is that they do not associate anything with his oneness and only worship Him. If they do this, the right of the servants over Allah is that Allah puts them in Paradise.” in the sermon of titled “Allah Almighty has granted every right holder its right.”. The another one is that “O People! Allah is free of all deficiencies. But he accepts the clean and halal. Allah also commanded the believers what he commanded the prophets. Then the Prophet read these verses: “O Prophets! Eat halal and do good things. God knows what you do.” and “O Believers! Eat the halal ones of the sustenances we gave you.” in the Qur'an. Later, the Messenger of Allah describes the situation of a man who made long journeys, his hair was scattered, his clothes were dusty, grounded, and he raised his hands to the sky and prayed as O my Lord! O my Lord! The haram he ate, the haram he drank, the haram he wore, and his food is haram. So how can such a person's prayer be accepted?” in the sermon of titled “Clean food clean generation”.
The most important concept in the correct understanding and interpretation of narration is the context. Context in the hadith is the basis of understanding. Context is the medium of communication, relationship, oral or written conversation. Context primarily covers the dimensions of place and time, the relationship between the speaker and the listener. It is necessary to add to these, bias, preliminary knowledge, opinion and expectations of the speaker and listener, and all his personal behaviors and social characteristics. In this context, in order to understand and interpret the words and actions of the Prophet, it is imperative to identify the geographical and social environment in which he lives, the cultural environment, his first interlocutors and the facts of the society he lived in and the connections between these facts. In other words, every word and behavior of the Prophet should be handled within the environment he lived in and the conditions that this environment creates.
The second important issue for the correct understanding and interpretation of narration is the ways of understanding and interpreting of the narrators since the early period. Because the subject of understanding the of the hadiths was brought to the agenda during the Companions period and they asked him personally that they did not understand the words or acts of the Prophet. However, they also had the opportunity to speak the same language with the Prophet and share the same culture. Also, they were knowing the revelation reasons for the verse, the causes of the hadiths, the environment in which the hadiths are said, the addressee, the style, etc. in short, they were generally aware of the context of hadiths. However, as a result of the rapid spread of Islam, the problem of understanding and interpreting the hadith and sunnah began to emerge seriously with the widening of the geography and the entry of many people from different cultures and nations into Islam. In this context, it is seen that the literature of “Garibu'l-Hadith” has been classified for the explanation of “strange” words whose meaning in the hadiths is not easily understood from the beginning of the third century. Later, the literature of "Mushkilu'l-Hadith" and "Mukhtelifu'l-Hadith" started to be formed. In order to solve the problem of understanding the hadiths, the tradition of explanation the basic hadith books started in the fourth century. Even the first example of this, Hattabi (d. 388), although it is concise, gave the commentary on Abu Davud first, and then on the Sahih of Bukhari. As can be seen, the effort to understand the hadiths began in the time of the Companions. While this interest was initially limited to understanding the recommendations of the Prophet and to desire to live in this direction, with the textualization of the hadiths was entered the period of “interpretation”. While this understanding and interpretation activity is in the form of interpretation of the certain hadiths, depending on the processes of gaining authority of the works, “hadith commentary” became a type of literature with its unique structure and systematic in the fourth century, with certain hadith books taken as basis. The tradition of understanding, interpreting and explaning hadiths has followed explanation of certain narrations, interpretation of the narrations of a particular book, and the commentary of a particular hadith book. As a result, the narrations in the famous hadith literature have been interpreted by the commentators of each period and a rich legacy of interpretation has reached today. This heritage is so valuable as much as not to be ignored to attempt to understand and interpret a hadith. In this article, it will be attempted to show the similarities of hadith which in the sermons selected or how they are understood chronologically from the formation of the hadith commentary tradition to the present day except for the parts that the commentators quoted from each other.
The hadiths used in the sermons, which are the subject of this article, are examined in terms of context, understanding and interpretation. In the interpretation of the hadith at the head of the sermon, it will be examined whether the context of the hadith is respected; Comparison of how the narration is understood and interpreted in the text of the sermon will be made by understanding and interpreting it from history to today. Is the context of the hadith taken into account when interpreting the top-hadiths of the sermons? While interpreting the hadith, has a relationship been established with the comments from past to present? answers to the questions will be sought. This article claims that the heading ḥadīths in khutbas are interpreted by neglecting their contexts and interrelations with other related ḥadīth narratives, besides, classical and modern ḥadīth commentaries are referred in khutbas in many limited cases.