This paper comprises an assesment of relationship between the terms bulugh (puberty), demanded for religious and legal responsibility in Islamic law and rushd, mostly appearing in financial law by examining each term and highlighting their meanings. As a result of the doctrine review regarding these two concepts and related provisions it is concluded that judgemenets in relatıon to the terms are open to interpretation and re-evaluatıon in consideration of current data. Yet, different perspectives from fiqh and kalama re available. Within the framework of fiqh bulugh means sexual maturity and qualifies a person for responsibility. Whereas form a kelamic point of view an intellectual maturity is accredited. Given an example, Sharif Jurjani asserted that the contracting level of an individual would change in accord with each single subject of mind. This approach could provide a basis for the idea of assigning particular responsibility/liability criteria for particular human action. Narratives on Surah Nisa’s sixth verse and its revelation were effective in restricting the meaning of the term rushd to “being able to master property” whereas its semantic fieald is wide enough to encompass the meaning “the ability of conducting properly in every situation or life aspect”. Scholars of the classical era were adopting the idea that bulugh and rushd would occur concurrently. The codification movement getting under way in the nineteenth century points to an alteration in the notion and to a general acceptance of revoking sexual maturity as essential for rushd. Ahwal ash-Shahsjja and Duraru’l Hukkam shows some examples of this alteration. An approach to rushd like the fuqhaha’s, expecting it after a physical substructure is felicitous, but confining the term to a fiscal space imlies ‘not to accept a person as an adult’ which in our opinion does not corralate with reality. Yet, indicators of bulugh accepted by scholars like the first menstruation, wet dream, pubic hair are affected by many factors such as genetic or environmental factors, nutritional habits, drugs, visiual and audical stimulants etc. Moreover, they indicate signs for the onset of an intellectual development rather then an intellectual developmental completion. Thus, presenting such symptoms as an unvarying over time criteria and as standing for everyone in all religious-legal responsibility areas does not seem convincing.
Over the course of transition to a modern society, fundemantal changes taking place in our individual and social lives have altered the intellectual framework of some notions in our minds. The perception of childhood and minor- adult discrimination have taken their share as well. Since notions have been experiencing such a significant transition, it is crucial to re-evaluate issues related to them. Grounding responsibility on sexual responsibility in all extensions may not bring problems in societies where sexual maturation promotes intellectual-behavioral maturity, and are not open to undergo any chang. But it is a fact that due to various reasons such as the extention of compulsory education to eighteen, parenting styles, social security and inernational protocols etc. İndividuls exhibit a delayed maturation in our current world. Thus, it is inevitable to consider an intellectual and psycho-social maturity accompanied by sexual maturity for responsibility. We suggest here to set out some criteria, taken into consideration concurrently with sexual maturity, for liability in marriage, commercial and penal law etc. This study just examines criminal capacity because an addressing of all criteria related to these areas would go beyond the limits of this paper.
The mental maturation present in the person is also reflected in person’s actions. In that case, we need to do in the first step is to examine whether individuals who are called teenager who have reached carnal maturity behave with “full knowledge and willpower”. The average age of puberty in Turkey’s conditions are identified as 14. Respectively, the incidence in other ages is 15, 13, 16 and 12 years. Since the occurrence of puberty at an earlier or later age is quite low / exceptional, we have analysed the behavior of individuals between the ages of 12-16 and the factors affecting will in these behaviors. These effects may be based on such as cognitive, hormonal, neural and cerebral elements or environmental and socializing situations. In our opinion, it is preferable to set a final age limit for criminal liability to be investigated and to present some indications that indicate responsibility for individuals before this age and leave discretion to the judge. Accordingly, it is possible to determine the final age in which the criminal responsibility will be investigated as 14 age. Because in those who complete this age, cognitive development almost reaches the level of an adult, emotional distress begins to stagnate, the person accepts the physical and spiritual change and goes into adaptation. For individuals who have completed the age of 14 will not be obliged to carry out additional research for the determination of criminal liability- unless there are strong symptoms for the contrary situation. However, if it is determined that the management center of the brain has not reached sufficient maturity in terms of control and since it is the last maturing department, it can be considered as a reason for the alleviation of punishment if it is determined that these characteristics of individuals after 14 years of age have a direct effect in the crime committed. The two most important issues that will guide us for the existence of a criminal capasity in those who have not completed the age of 14 are “to gain the ability of abstract thinking” and “to fully understand that their action is a crime and not accepted by the society”.
It will be suitable to give compensation penalties instead of the punishments applied on the body such as hadd and qısas, If the penal majority is fixed without realizing puberty. Because physical strength is also taken into consideration in Islamic law. There is no obstacle for these people to receive the necessary punishment for crimes requiring financial penalties. Because financial punishment is based on the financial asset (zimmah) of the person and not the realization of the puberty. If puberty exists, but criminal majority does not exist, this situation should be considered as suspicion and punishments applied on the body should be turned into compensation. However, this does not prevent the judge from applying measures (ta‘zir).
Bu makalede, İslam hukukunda mükellefiyet için gerekli görülen cinsî gelişim anlamındaki bulûğ ile daha çok malî hukuk alanında gözetilen rüşd kavramı incelenerek aralarındaki ilişkiye dair değerlendirmelere yer verildi. Bu iki kavram ve ilgili hükümlere yönelik doktrin incelemesi neticesinde konuyla ilgili görüşlerin mutlak olmadığı ve güncel verilerle yeniden değerlendirilmeye elverişli olduğu görülmektedir. İnsan tasarrufları çok geniş bir alana yayılmıştır. Bu tasarrufların tamamını bir makalede ele almak mümkün olmayacağından çalışmamız ceza hukuku ile sınırlandırılmıştır. Makalede öncelikle ceza ehliyetine dair klasik görüşler incelendi. Akabinde cinsî olgunluğun ceza hukukunda tek başına yeterli olduğu düşüncesi, endokrinoloji, gelişim psikolojisi, klinik psikoloji, adalet psikolojisi gibi pozitif bilimlerin verileri ışığında yeniden değerlendirildi; cezaî rüşd şeklinde bir kavramsallaşmanın imkânı ve içeriğine dair bir yaklaşım sunuldu. Araştırmada ceza sorumluluğu için yaş tayin etmek ve bu yaş öncesinde bireye ceza soruşturması açmayı önlemek şeklindeki hukuk yaklaşımı ile ceza sorumluluğunun takdirini hâkime bırakma yaklaşımından istifade edilmiştir. Gelişim dönemleri ve özelliklerine dair Türkiye’de yapılmış çalışmalarda, ortalama bulûğ yaşı yaklaşık 14 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Bilimsel araştırmalara konu olan ergen bireylerdeki ruhsal dalgalanmaların 14 yaş sonrası azalmaya başladığı ancak beynin yönetici merkezinin tam olgunlaşmaması nedeniyle davranışlarını yönlendirme ve telkinden bağımsız hareket etme kabiliyetinin daha ileri safhalarda gerçekleştiği gözlenmiştir. Bu bilgiler ışığında makalede ceza ehliyeti ve cezanın tahfifi konusu değerlendirilmiştir.