Social history studies that deal with all the actions of man in the social field are still a newly developed species and they have some problems. Because, for centuries, political and military activities have been the subject of the science of history. However, in order to have information about the original life styles and institutions, the source books should be examined. In this way, even if piece by piece, information can be obtained about these issues. Social history study can be done by analyzing political and biography-based works on a large scale and combining materials on the subject. Especially since there is not a whole work on social life that includes all phases of Islamic Civilization, it is necessary to reveal a great work after examining and examining the works that deal with each period separately. This article provides an example of the review required for these studies.
The writer Safiyyüddîn Abu Cafer Muhammed b. Tâcüddîn Ebü’l-Hasan Ali b. Tabâtabâ became famous as Ibn al-Tiktaka (d. 709/1309). Ibn et-Tiktaka, who did not have much information about his life, had to stay in Mosul when he set out to go to Tabriz in 701/1302. Here, he met Ilhanli Ruler Gazan Han’s Mosul Governor Fahreddin Isa b. Ibrahim and he was protected from him. Ibn al-Tiktaka's work, which he named as al-Fakhri for his dedication to Fahreddin Isa, consists of two main parts. The first part has the title of al-Fasl fi'l-umûri’s-sultaniyye ve’s-siyâseti'l-Melekiyye and is in the form of a politics that contains advice for statesmen, governors and other administrators. The second part was written with the title of al-Fasl fi'l-kalam ‘ala devletin and it is devoted to the period from Abu Bakr's caliphate to the invasion of Baghdad by Hulagu. Especially the part of the work related to Abbasids is much more valuable. As a matter of fact, this section contains pieces from some of the lost works and contains original information about the social and cultural structure of the Abbasids, whom we are the subject of this article. The purpose of this article is to reveal what can be achieved about social life in the content of a work that is based on political events and written chronologically. In doing so, the traces of Abbasid’s social life were followed in a few steps in the work of Ibn al-Tiktaka. The characteristics of Baghdad society regarding clothing, eating, entertainment, health and belief are discussed in order. Sometimes some comparisons were made with other sources of the period.
Some of the information we have reached about Abbasid social life through this work are as follows: In Abbasid society, clothes made of cotton, raw cloth, wool and hair were used. Dresses made of cotton and raw cloth are among the clothes preferred by religious people. Since the state was established in the Abbasid, it is seen that the state officials - especially the caliphs and viziers - wore black, but preferred to wear different clothing when they were not busy with administrative affairs. The most prominent example of this is wearing colorful dresses in the drink assemblies. It is reported that statesmen and their bridesmaids wear painted dresses when they come together for drinking. In addition, clothes such as turban, robe and kaftan were among the items prepared by the caliphs as gifts to their soldiers. While some of the caliphs take part in entertainment life, there were some who banned entertainment elements in the palace. Backgammon game and fishing are some of the fun ways. The most commonly used musical instrument in the Abbasid community was oud. In the very early stages, the drum took its place in musical life. Hijama is one of the most important treatments for treatment. It is understood that it is very common in Baghdad to refer to refugees for reasons such as dream interpretation and acquiring knowledge about gays. It can easily be said that these practices are due to the impact of Sasanid culture on Baghdad society. It was also observed that some items or events were attributed to bad luck. As a result, the social life of past communities can, of course, be learned, based on information interspersed among events in history books, which mainly focus on political and military activities.
However, it is a fact that in these works (especially in the time of Abbasids), information about more caliphs, state demands and related people found more place. It is understood that during the narration of military and political events, social events mostly related to the life of the caliphs and viziers were transferred. Because they were the people whose lives were noteworthy.
İlk dönemlerde tarih ilminin ve bu alanda telif edilen eserlerin konusu genellikle siyasî ve askerî hadiseler olmuştur. Geçmiş toplumların sosyal yaşantılarına dair bilgilere ulaşmak için bu eserlerin dikkatle incelenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu amaçla makalede şiî bir tarihçi olan İbnü’t-Tıktakā’nın, İlhanlı Hükümdarı Gâzân Han’ın Musul valisi Fahreddin İsa’ya atfettiği ve onun ismiyle isimlendirdiği eseri el-Fahrî fi’l-âdâbi’s-sultâniyye ve’d-düveli’l-İslâmiyye incelenmektedir. Eserin birinci kısmı devlet adamlarına öğütler de içeren bir siyasetname hüviyetinde iken ikinci kısmı Hulefâ-i Râşidîn döneminden Abbâsî Devleti’nin yıkılışına kadarki süreci ele almaktadır. Özellikle Abbâsîler ile ilgili kısım, ulaşılamayan bazı eserlerden bilgiler barındırmaktadır. Bu makalede söz konusu eserde giyim-kuşam, yeme-içme, eğlence, inanç, sağlık gibi konular bağlamında Abbâsî toplumunun sosyal yaşamına dair bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Bahsi geçen konular hakkında pek çok detaylı bilgiye ulaşılmış olmakla birlikte bu eserde hayatları kayda değer bulunan kişiler halifeler, vezirler ve diğer devlet ricâli olduğundan bu kişilerin yaşamlarıyla ilişkili sosyal hadiselerin aktarılmış olduğu bir gerçektir. Abbâsî toplumunun sosyal hayatında büyük etkisi olan Sâsânî kültürünün özellikle de eğlence, müneccimlere gösterilen ilgi, eşya ve olaylara atfedilen uğursuzluk inancında oldukça belirgin olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Bu araştırma sonucunda geçmiş toplulukların sosyal hayatlarının, ağırlıklı olarak siyasî ve askerî faaliyetlerin konu edinildiği tarih kitaplarında olaylar arasına serpiştirilmiş bilgilerden yola çıkılarak öğrenilebileceği ortaya konulmuştur.