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Four Motivations of Conversion to Islam: Japanese Muslims

Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 47, 713 - 754, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.1066164

Öz

In this study, the phenomenon of conversion is analysed in the context of the experiences of Japanese Muslim converts. The purpose of this study is to understand the processes leading to conversion to Islam among Japanese and to explore religious conversion motifs of Japanese Muslim converts, thus making a conceptual contribution to the existing conversion literature. The problems of the research were, understanding the conditions leading Japanese to Islam, exploring circumstances the Japanese had started to develop an interest towards Islam and Muslims, and finally discovering the main motivating factors of their conversion. With this aim, the research has been designed as qualitative research. A combination of phenomenology and grounded theory research methods were applied in order to understand the essence of the conversion experience of Japanese Muslims and also to develop a theoretical explanation for their conversion. A total of 2 years and 3 months, between September 2016 - December 2017 and February 2019 - January 2020, were spent in Tokyo, Japan for the fieldwork. The data is derived from the semi-structured interviews, participant observation and field study notes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women and 30 men, in total 62 Japanese Muslims, whose ages are changing between 19 and 81. The participants were reached via snowball and purposive sampling methods. Most of the Japanese Muslims interviewed are from Tokyo, and some reside in other cities in Japan. The events and activities of various mosques, masjids and associations, especially of the Tokyo Mosque and Turkish Cultural Centre and the Japanese Muslim Association, were participated in order to make observations. Additionally, field notes were kept during these visits. Waseda University library and its resources were consulted for the literature research. It is discovered that Japanese conversion to Islam is a social process, led by their encounters with Muslims. Most of the time, their first memorable encounter with Islam took place in the social context, overseas, during their study abroad, business or leisure travel, or at their work and schools, or via their romantic interests within Japan. Few of them got introduced to Islam via media or their personal interests. Upon their encounters, the Japanese, who were not seriously dissatisfied with their existing living conditions and beliefs before, and who were not in search of a new way of life and belief, began to be interested in Islam in different ways. It is also discovered they had a lack of strong prejudice against Islam, thus following their encounters, they had an open attitude learning towards the religion and the people. In this study, four motivational factors discovered influential on Japanese conversion to Islam: social, intellectual, psychological and pragmatic. In social motivations, desires to be included in the Muslim community they encountered, to be like them, and to lead a life them are strong. Participants in this category are interested in human relations, perspectives, attitudes and behaviours of Muslims. They were impressed by the closeness of family relations, by the idea of an international Muslim brotherhood-sisterhood, kindness, sincerity and helpfulness they observed among Muslims, and their courage towards calamities of life. In this group, the participants are most interested in Muslims. In the intellectual motivations, their primary motivation is their conviction of Islam intellectually. The attention of participants was attracted by the theoretical and ideological aspects of Islam, its teachings and its belief system. They began asking questions about Islam to the Muslims around them. Some were convinced by clear, simple and sensible answers they received. Some found similarities between Islam and Japanese culture, and felt close to Islam. Some were interested in the Islamic social system. Lastly, some participants who were Christians previously found Islam as the next logical step they could continue. In the psychological motivations category, the participants are in need of a belief and a quest for a God prior to their encounters. The idea of a God with an infinite power, who can protect them from their fears and anxieties and who can always watch over them attracted them. Most of the participants in this category, while describing their experiences, explained that they realised their need following their encounters with Islam and Muslims. Few had emotional experiences hearing the sound of the adhan and the Qur’an, and participating in the prayer. The last motivations are the pragmatic ones. In this category, Islam and conversion are instruments for participants who had other interests. Some converted for marriage with their Muslim partners, some for business and scholarship opportunities.

Kaynakça

  • AL-QWIDI, Maha. Understanding the Stages of Conversion to Islam: The Voices Of British Converts. Leeds: The University of Leeds, School of Theology and Religious Studies, PhD Dissertation, 2002.
  • ALLIEVI, Stefano. “The Shifting Significance of the Halal/Haram Frontier-Narratives of the Hijab and Other Issues”. Women Embracing Islam- Gender and Conversion in the West. ed. Karin van Nieuwkerk. 120-152. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
  • ANDREASEN, Esben. "Japanese Religions - An Introduction". Japanese Religions Past & Present. ed. Ian Reader vd. 33-43. London/New York: Routledge, 1993.
  • ANDERSON, Richard W.. “What Constitutes Religious Activity? (I)”. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 18/4 (1991), 369-372.
  • AUSTIN-BROOS, Diane. "The Anthropology of Conversion: An Introduction". Anthropology of Religious Conversion. ed. Andrew Buckser - Stephen D. Glazier. 1-14. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.
  • BEDİR, Fatma Nur. “Yetişkinlerin Çocukluk Anılarındaki Tanrı İmgesinin Analizi”. Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 16/32 (2017), 717-740.
  • BREEN, John - Teeuwen, Mark. A New History of Shinto. Malden/Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
  • CRESWELL, John W.. Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri – Beş Yaklaşıma Göre Nitel Araştırma ve Araştırma Deseni. çev: Mesut Bütün - Selçuk Beşir Demir. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi, 2020.
  • DÜNDAR, Ali Merthan. Japonya’da Türk İzleri: Bir Kültür Mirası Olarak Mançurya ve Japonya Türk-Tatar Camiileri. Ankara: Vadi Yayınları, 2008.
  • DÜNDAR, Ali Merthan. “An Essay on the Immigration of the Turk-Tatars to Japan”. Annual Journal of the Asian Cultures Research Institute 48 (2013), 165-174.
  • ESENBEL, Selçuk. “Abdurresid Ibrahim: “The World of Islam and the Spread of Islam in Japan” 1910”. Pan-Asianism – A Documented History, Volume I: 1850-1920. ed. Sven Saalar, Christopher W. A. Szpilman. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2011.
  • FLICK, Uwe vd.. “What is Qualitative Research? An Introduction to the Field”. çev: Bryan Jenner. A Companion to Qualitative Research. ed. Uwe Flick vd.. 3-11. London: Sage Publications Ltd., 2004.
  • FLINN, Frank K.. “Conversion: Up From Evangelicalism or the Pentecostal and Charismatic Experience”. Religious Conversion: Contemporary Practices and Controversies. ed. Christopher Lamb - M. Darrol Bryant. 51-74. London: Cassell, 1999.
  • GLASER, Barney G. - STRAUSS, Anselm L. The Discovery of Grounded Theory – Strategies for Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Aldine Transaction, 2006.
  • GUBA, Egon G. - LINCOLN, Yvonna S.. “Epistemological and Methodological Bases of Naturalistic Inquiry”. Educational Communication and Technology Journal 30/4 (1982), 233-252.
  • HEIRICH, Max. “Change of Heart: A Test of Some Widely Held Theories about Religious Conversion”. American Journal of Sociology 83/3 (1977), 653-680.
  • HIGUCHI, Mimasaka. 日本人ムスリムとして生きる (Living as a Muslim in Japan). Tokyo: Kosei Shuppan, 2007.
  • HIGUCHI, Mimasaka. “日本のイスラーム、戦後の歩みー20世紀後半から今まで” (Islam in Japan, Postwar History-From the Second Half of the 20th Century to the Present). 日本に生きるイスラームー過去―現在―未来 (Islam Living in Japan –History-Past-Future), ed. Suudi Arabistan Büyükelçiliği Kültür Bölümü (Tokyo: Suudi Arabistan Büyükelçiliği Kültür Bölümü, 2010).
  • ISOMAE, Jun’ichi. “The Conceptual Formation of the Category “Religion” in Modern Japan: Religion, State, Shintô”. Journal of Religion in Japan 1 (2012), 226-245.
  • ITO, Aisha Yuki (ed.), 私の入信記-スラームの信仰に導かれるまで (My Conversion Diary – Under the Guidance of Islam). Kyoto: Muslim Shimbunsha, 2005.
  • JAMES, William. Varieties of Religious Experiences – A Study in Human Nature. London: Routledge, Yüzüncü Yıl Baskısı, 2002.
  • JAPAN MUSLIM ASSOCIATION. Brief History of Association – Publication in Memory of the 50th Anniversary. Tokyo: Japan Muslim Association, 2005.
  • KOKUGAKUIN UNIVERSITY. College Students’ Attitude Toward Religion Survey General Analysis (1995-2015). Tokyo: Kokugakuin University, 2019.
  • KARATAŞ, Zeki. “Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri”, Manevi Temelli Sosyal Hizmet Araştırmaları Dergisi 1/1 (2015), 62-80.
  • KOCALAN, Elif Büşra. “Japonya’ya Müslüman Göçü”, Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 20/1 (2020): 733-757.
  • KOMATSU, Hisao. “Muslim Intellectuals and Japan: A Pan-Islamist Meditator, Abdurresid Ibrahim”. Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation and Communication. ed. Stephane A. Dudoignon, Komatsu Hisao, Kosugi Yasushi. London: Routledge, 2006.
  • KOMATSU, Hisao. “Abdurresid Ibrahim and Japanese Approaches to Central Asia”. Japan on the Silk Road – Encounters and Perspectives of Politics and Culture in Eurasia. ed. Selçuk Esenbel. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • KOMURA, Akiko. “日本とイスラームが出会うときーその歴史と可能性” (The Time Japan and Islam has Met) Tokyo: Dendaishokan, 2015.
  • KOMURA, Akiko. 日本のイスラーム: 歴史・宗教・文化を読み解く(Islam of Japan –Understanding History, Religion and Culture) Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun Publications, 2019.
  • KÖSE, Ali. Conversion to Islam: A Study of Native British Converts. London: Kegan Paul International, 1996.
  • LEVENT, Sinan. “Japan’s Central Eurasian Policy: A Focus on Turkic Muslim Minorities”, Social Science Japan Journal 22/1 (2019).
  • LOFLAND, John - STARK, Rodney. “Becoming a World-Saver: A Theory of Conversion to a Deviant Perspective”. American Sociological Review 30/6 (1965), 862-875.
  • LOFLAND, John - SKONOVD, Norman. “Conversion Motifs”. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religions 20/4 (1981), 373-385.
  • MIURA, Toru. “Perceptions of Islam and Muslims in Japanese High Schools – Questionnaire Survey and Textbooks”. Japan Association for Middle East Studies Özel Sayı 2 (2006), 173-191.
  • MOL, Hans. Identity and the Sacred: A Sketch for a New Social Scientific Theory of Religion. Bristol: Western Printing Services Ltd, 1976.
  • MOSSIERE, Geraldine. “The Intimate and the Stranger: Approaching the ‘‘Muslim Question’’ through the Eyes of Female Converts to Islam”. Critical Research on Religion 4/1 (2006), 90-108.
  • NELSON, John K.. Enduring Identities: The Guise of Shinto in Contemporary Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000.
  • NEUMAN, W. Lawrance. Toplumsal Araştırma Yöntemleri – Nitel ve Nicel Yaklaşımlar. çev. Sedef Özge. 1. Cilt. Ankara: Yayınodası Ltd., 8. Basım, 2016.
  • NIEUWKERK, Karin van. “Conversion” to Islam and the Construction of a Pious Self”. Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion. ed. Lewis R. Rambo - Charles E. Farhadian. 1-24. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • NOCK, Arthur Darby. Conversion: The Old and the New in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo. Lanham: University Press of America, 1988.
  • NUMATA, Sayako. “Fieldwork Note on Tatar Migrants from the Far East to the USA: For Reviews of Islam Policy in Prewar and Wartime Japan”, AJAMES 28/2 (2018), 127-144.
  • OKAI, Hirofumi. “ムスリム・コミュニティと地域社会‐イスラーム団体の活動から「多分化共生」を再考する” (Rethinking Multicultural Symbiosis Considering the Acts of Muslim and Local Communities, and Islamic Organisations). 現代日本の宗教と多分化再生 (Religion and Multiculturalism in Modern Japan). ed. Noriko Takahashi vd.. 181-203. Tokyo: Akashi, 2018.
  • ÖZYÜREK, Esra. Müslüman Olmak, Alman Kalmak – Yeni Avrupa’da Millet, Din ve Din Değiştirme. çev: İsmail Ilgar. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2015.
  • PALOUTZİAN, Raymond F.. “Psychology of Religious Conversion and Spiritual Transformation”. Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion. ed. Lewis R. Rambo - Charles E. Farhadian. 1-37. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • POSTON, Larry. Islamic Da’wah in the West – Muslim Missionary Activity and the Dynamics of Conversion to Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • RAMBO, Lewis R.. Understanding Religious Conversion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
  • READER, Ian. “Letters to the Gods –The Form and Meaning of Ema”. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 18/1 (1991), 23-50.
  • READER, Ian. “What Constitutes Religious Activity? (II)”. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 18/4 (1991), 373-376.
  • READER, Ian. Religion in Contemporary Japan. London: Macmillian Press, 1991.
  • REISCHAUER, August Karl. Studies in Japanese Buddhism. New York: The Macmillian Company, 1917.
  • ROALD, Anne Sofie. New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
  • ROALD, Anne Sofie. “The Shaping of a Scandinavian “Islam” – Converts and Gender Equal Opportunity”. Women Embracing Islam- Gender and Conversion in the West. ed. Karin van Nieuwkerk. 48-70. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
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Müslüman Olmada Dört Motivasyon: Japon Müslümanlar

Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 47, 713 - 754, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.1066164

Öz

Bu araştırmada din değiştirme fenomeni Müslüman olmuş Japonlar örneğinde incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın amacı, Japon Müslümanların İslam ile karşılaşma ve din değiştirme süreç ve deneyimlerini anlamak ve Müslüman olma motifleri üzerine bir tipoloji denemesi yaparak ile din değiştirme literatürüne kavramsal bir katkı sağlayabilmektir. Bu amaca uygun nitel bir çalışma olarak tasarlanan bu çalışmada hem fenomenoloji hem de gömülü teori yaklaşımlarının bakış açıları, araştırma teknikleri ve veri analiz metotları kullanılmıştır. Saha çalışması 2016 Eylül – 2017 Aralık ve 2019 Şubat – 2020 Ocak dönemlerinde toplam 2 yıl 3 ay Tokyo’da sürdürülmüştür. Veri toplama aşamasında yarı-yapılandırılmış mülakat, katılımcı gözlem, saha notları tekniklerine başvurulmuştur. Mülakatlar, kartopu ve amaçlı örneklem metotlarıyla ulaşılan, yaşları 19 ile 81 arası değişen 32 kadın ve 20 erkek toplam 62 kişi ile yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda öğrenilenler şunlardır: Japonların Müslüman olmaları büyük oranda sosyal bir süreçtir. Din değiştirme hikâyelerinin başlangıcı Müslümanlar ile yaşadıkları anlamlı karşılaşmalara dayanmaktadır. İlk anlamlı karşılaşmaları büyük oranda yurtdışında, iş, gezi yahut eğitim seyahatleri esnasında gerçekleşmektedir. İslam ve Müslümanlar hakkında ciddi önyargılara sahip olmamaları sebebiyle, bu karşılaşmalarda öğrenmeye ve anlamaya açık bir tutum sergilemişlerdir. İslam ile karşılaşmadan önce hâlihazırda var olan yaşam şartları ve inançları hususunda ciddi tatminsizlikleri bulunmayan ve yeni bir yaşam ve inanç biçimi arayışı içinde olmayan Japonlar, farklı şekillerde İslam ile ilgilenmeye başlamıştır. Araştırmada, Japonların Müslüman olmalarının dört farklı motivasyon ile gerçekleştiği tespit edilmiştir. Bunlar sosyal, entelektüel, psikolojik ve pragmatik motivasyonlardır.

Kaynakça

  • AL-QWIDI, Maha. Understanding the Stages of Conversion to Islam: The Voices Of British Converts. Leeds: The University of Leeds, School of Theology and Religious Studies, PhD Dissertation, 2002.
  • ALLIEVI, Stefano. “The Shifting Significance of the Halal/Haram Frontier-Narratives of the Hijab and Other Issues”. Women Embracing Islam- Gender and Conversion in the West. ed. Karin van Nieuwkerk. 120-152. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
  • ANDREASEN, Esben. "Japanese Religions - An Introduction". Japanese Religions Past & Present. ed. Ian Reader vd. 33-43. London/New York: Routledge, 1993.
  • ANDERSON, Richard W.. “What Constitutes Religious Activity? (I)”. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 18/4 (1991), 369-372.
  • AUSTIN-BROOS, Diane. "The Anthropology of Conversion: An Introduction". Anthropology of Religious Conversion. ed. Andrew Buckser - Stephen D. Glazier. 1-14. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.
  • BEDİR, Fatma Nur. “Yetişkinlerin Çocukluk Anılarındaki Tanrı İmgesinin Analizi”. Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 16/32 (2017), 717-740.
  • BREEN, John - Teeuwen, Mark. A New History of Shinto. Malden/Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
  • CRESWELL, John W.. Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri – Beş Yaklaşıma Göre Nitel Araştırma ve Araştırma Deseni. çev: Mesut Bütün - Selçuk Beşir Demir. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi, 2020.
  • DÜNDAR, Ali Merthan. Japonya’da Türk İzleri: Bir Kültür Mirası Olarak Mançurya ve Japonya Türk-Tatar Camiileri. Ankara: Vadi Yayınları, 2008.
  • DÜNDAR, Ali Merthan. “An Essay on the Immigration of the Turk-Tatars to Japan”. Annual Journal of the Asian Cultures Research Institute 48 (2013), 165-174.
  • ESENBEL, Selçuk. “Abdurresid Ibrahim: “The World of Islam and the Spread of Islam in Japan” 1910”. Pan-Asianism – A Documented History, Volume I: 1850-1920. ed. Sven Saalar, Christopher W. A. Szpilman. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2011.
  • FLICK, Uwe vd.. “What is Qualitative Research? An Introduction to the Field”. çev: Bryan Jenner. A Companion to Qualitative Research. ed. Uwe Flick vd.. 3-11. London: Sage Publications Ltd., 2004.
  • FLINN, Frank K.. “Conversion: Up From Evangelicalism or the Pentecostal and Charismatic Experience”. Religious Conversion: Contemporary Practices and Controversies. ed. Christopher Lamb - M. Darrol Bryant. 51-74. London: Cassell, 1999.
  • GLASER, Barney G. - STRAUSS, Anselm L. The Discovery of Grounded Theory – Strategies for Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Aldine Transaction, 2006.
  • GUBA, Egon G. - LINCOLN, Yvonna S.. “Epistemological and Methodological Bases of Naturalistic Inquiry”. Educational Communication and Technology Journal 30/4 (1982), 233-252.
  • HEIRICH, Max. “Change of Heart: A Test of Some Widely Held Theories about Religious Conversion”. American Journal of Sociology 83/3 (1977), 653-680.
  • HIGUCHI, Mimasaka. 日本人ムスリムとして生きる (Living as a Muslim in Japan). Tokyo: Kosei Shuppan, 2007.
  • HIGUCHI, Mimasaka. “日本のイスラーム、戦後の歩みー20世紀後半から今まで” (Islam in Japan, Postwar History-From the Second Half of the 20th Century to the Present). 日本に生きるイスラームー過去―現在―未来 (Islam Living in Japan –History-Past-Future), ed. Suudi Arabistan Büyükelçiliği Kültür Bölümü (Tokyo: Suudi Arabistan Büyükelçiliği Kültür Bölümü, 2010).
  • ISOMAE, Jun’ichi. “The Conceptual Formation of the Category “Religion” in Modern Japan: Religion, State, Shintô”. Journal of Religion in Japan 1 (2012), 226-245.
  • ITO, Aisha Yuki (ed.), 私の入信記-スラームの信仰に導かれるまで (My Conversion Diary – Under the Guidance of Islam). Kyoto: Muslim Shimbunsha, 2005.
  • JAMES, William. Varieties of Religious Experiences – A Study in Human Nature. London: Routledge, Yüzüncü Yıl Baskısı, 2002.
  • JAPAN MUSLIM ASSOCIATION. Brief History of Association – Publication in Memory of the 50th Anniversary. Tokyo: Japan Muslim Association, 2005.
  • KOKUGAKUIN UNIVERSITY. College Students’ Attitude Toward Religion Survey General Analysis (1995-2015). Tokyo: Kokugakuin University, 2019.
  • KARATAŞ, Zeki. “Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri”, Manevi Temelli Sosyal Hizmet Araştırmaları Dergisi 1/1 (2015), 62-80.
  • KOCALAN, Elif Büşra. “Japonya’ya Müslüman Göçü”, Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 20/1 (2020): 733-757.
  • KOMATSU, Hisao. “Muslim Intellectuals and Japan: A Pan-Islamist Meditator, Abdurresid Ibrahim”. Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation and Communication. ed. Stephane A. Dudoignon, Komatsu Hisao, Kosugi Yasushi. London: Routledge, 2006.
  • KOMATSU, Hisao. “Abdurresid Ibrahim and Japanese Approaches to Central Asia”. Japan on the Silk Road – Encounters and Perspectives of Politics and Culture in Eurasia. ed. Selçuk Esenbel. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • KOMURA, Akiko. “日本とイスラームが出会うときーその歴史と可能性” (The Time Japan and Islam has Met) Tokyo: Dendaishokan, 2015.
  • KOMURA, Akiko. 日本のイスラーム: 歴史・宗教・文化を読み解く(Islam of Japan –Understanding History, Religion and Culture) Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun Publications, 2019.
  • KÖSE, Ali. Conversion to Islam: A Study of Native British Converts. London: Kegan Paul International, 1996.
  • LEVENT, Sinan. “Japan’s Central Eurasian Policy: A Focus on Turkic Muslim Minorities”, Social Science Japan Journal 22/1 (2019).
  • LOFLAND, John - STARK, Rodney. “Becoming a World-Saver: A Theory of Conversion to a Deviant Perspective”. American Sociological Review 30/6 (1965), 862-875.
  • LOFLAND, John - SKONOVD, Norman. “Conversion Motifs”. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religions 20/4 (1981), 373-385.
  • MIURA, Toru. “Perceptions of Islam and Muslims in Japanese High Schools – Questionnaire Survey and Textbooks”. Japan Association for Middle East Studies Özel Sayı 2 (2006), 173-191.
  • MOL, Hans. Identity and the Sacred: A Sketch for a New Social Scientific Theory of Religion. Bristol: Western Printing Services Ltd, 1976.
  • MOSSIERE, Geraldine. “The Intimate and the Stranger: Approaching the ‘‘Muslim Question’’ through the Eyes of Female Converts to Islam”. Critical Research on Religion 4/1 (2006), 90-108.
  • NELSON, John K.. Enduring Identities: The Guise of Shinto in Contemporary Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000.
  • NEUMAN, W. Lawrance. Toplumsal Araştırma Yöntemleri – Nitel ve Nicel Yaklaşımlar. çev. Sedef Özge. 1. Cilt. Ankara: Yayınodası Ltd., 8. Basım, 2016.
  • NIEUWKERK, Karin van. “Conversion” to Islam and the Construction of a Pious Self”. Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion. ed. Lewis R. Rambo - Charles E. Farhadian. 1-24. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • NOCK, Arthur Darby. Conversion: The Old and the New in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo. Lanham: University Press of America, 1988.
  • NUMATA, Sayako. “Fieldwork Note on Tatar Migrants from the Far East to the USA: For Reviews of Islam Policy in Prewar and Wartime Japan”, AJAMES 28/2 (2018), 127-144.
  • OKAI, Hirofumi. “ムスリム・コミュニティと地域社会‐イスラーム団体の活動から「多分化共生」を再考する” (Rethinking Multicultural Symbiosis Considering the Acts of Muslim and Local Communities, and Islamic Organisations). 現代日本の宗教と多分化再生 (Religion and Multiculturalism in Modern Japan). ed. Noriko Takahashi vd.. 181-203. Tokyo: Akashi, 2018.
  • ÖZYÜREK, Esra. Müslüman Olmak, Alman Kalmak – Yeni Avrupa’da Millet, Din ve Din Değiştirme. çev: İsmail Ilgar. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2015.
  • PALOUTZİAN, Raymond F.. “Psychology of Religious Conversion and Spiritual Transformation”. Oxford Handbook of Religious Conversion. ed. Lewis R. Rambo - Charles E. Farhadian. 1-37. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • POSTON, Larry. Islamic Da’wah in the West – Muslim Missionary Activity and the Dynamics of Conversion to Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • RAMBO, Lewis R.. Understanding Religious Conversion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
  • READER, Ian. “Letters to the Gods –The Form and Meaning of Ema”. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 18/1 (1991), 23-50.
  • READER, Ian. “What Constitutes Religious Activity? (II)”. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 18/4 (1991), 373-376.
  • READER, Ian. Religion in Contemporary Japan. London: Macmillian Press, 1991.
  • REISCHAUER, August Karl. Studies in Japanese Buddhism. New York: The Macmillian Company, 1917.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Elif Büşra KOCALAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
HİTİT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8051-4647
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 31 Ocak 2022
Kabul Tarihi 8 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 47

Kaynak Göster

APA Kocalan, E. B. (2022). Four Motivations of Conversion to Islam: Japanese Muslims . Bilimname , (47) , 713-754 . DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.1066164