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PROFESYONEL ESPOR OYUNCULARININ GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİNİN KARİYER PLANLAMA DAVRANIŞLARINA ETKİSİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 39, 203 - 224, 13.02.2021
https://doi.org/10.35408/comuybd.738366

Öz

Tüm dünyada giderek artan bir ekonomiyi bünyesinde barındıran espor sektörünün kuşkusuz en önemli unsuru espor oyuncularıdır. Literatürde kariyerini espor oyunculuğu üzerine kurgulayan kimselerin gelecekten mesleki anlamda beklentileri ve kariyeri üzerine araştırmalara rastlanmamıştır. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmanın amacı Türkiye’deki profesyonel espor oyuncularının gelecek beklentilerinin, kariyer planlama davranışlarına etkisini kariyer kariyer uyumluluğu, kariyer iyimserliği ve espor iş piyasası algıları boyutlarıyla incelemektir. Anket yöntemi ile toplanan veriler bilgisayar destekli istatistik ve yapısal eşitlik modeli yazılımları ile analiz edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre profesyonel espor oyuncularının gelecek beklentileri ile kariyer gelecekleri ile aynı yönde pozitif yönlü anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Espor oyuncularının gelecek beklentileri, espora ilişkin kariyer uyumluluklarını, kariyer iyimserliklerini ve espor iş piyasasına ilişkin algılarını olumlu olarak etkilemektedir. Bu anlamda örneklem grubunun sürdürülebilir bir espor kariyeri için espor ekosistemine uygun bir kariyer geleceği algısı bulunmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, C. G., Tsaasan, A. M., Reitman, J., Lee, J. S., Wu, M., Steel, H., et. al. (2018). Understanding Esports as A Stem Career Ready Curriculum in The Wild. In 2018 10th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications, VS-Games 2018 – Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1109/VS-Games.2018.8493445.
  • Argentero, P. (1989). Influence of Education on Job Preferences. Psychological Reports, 64(3), 996–998. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1989.64.3.996
  • Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.
  • Barclay, D. W., Higgins, C. A., & Thompson, R. (1995). The Partial Least Squares Approach to Causal Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption And Use as Illustration. Technology Studies 2: 285-309.
  • Başol, O. (2018). OECD Ülkelerinde Yaşam Tatmini Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. "İş, Güç" Endüstrı İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 20(3), 67-86.
  • Borjas, G. J. (2008). Labor economics. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  • Brock, T. (2017). Roger Caillois and E-Sports: On the Problems of Treating Play as Work. Games and Culture, 12(4), 321–339. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412016686878
  • Caillois, R. (2001). Man, Play and Games. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
  • Chin, W. W. (1998). The Partial Least Squares Approach for Structural Equation Modeling. Pp. 295-336 in Macoulides, G. A., Ed. Modern Methods for Business Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Chin, W. W., & Newsted, P. R. (1999). Structural equation modeling analysis with small samples using partial least squares. Pp. 307-341 in R. H. Hoyle, eds. Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Creed, P. A., Patton, W., & Bartrum, D. (2002). Multidimensional properties of the LOT-R: Effects of optimism and pessimism on career and well-being related variables in adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 10 (1), 42-61.
  • Dülgeroğlu, İ., & Başol, O. (2017). İş Stresi ve Çalışma Yaşamı Kalitesi Algısının Yansımaları: Satış Temsilcileri Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Business and Economics Research Journal, 8(2), 293-304
  • Ebberwein, C. A., Krieshok, T. S., Ulven, J. C., & Prosser, E. C. (2004). Voices in transition: Lessons on career adaptability. The Career Development Quarterly,52, 292-308.
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
  • Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2013). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SE). Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A New Criterion For Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-Based Structural Equation Modelling, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), pp. 115-135.
  • Hulland, J. (1999). Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in Strategic Management Research: A Review Of Four Recent Studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2):195–204
  • Johnson, M. R., & Woodcock, J. (2019). 'It's like the gold rush': the lives and careers of professional video game streamers on Twitch.tv, Information, Communication & Society, 22:3, 336-351, DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2017.1386229.
  • Kalafat, T. (2012). Kariyer Geleceği Ölçeği (KARGEL): Türk örneklemi için psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4 (38), 169-179.
  • Kocadağ, M. (2017). Elektronik Spor Kariyeri ve Eğitim. Doğu Anadolu Sosyal Bilimlerde Eğilimler Dergisi , 1 (2) , 49-63.
  • Kocadağ, M . (2019). Investigating Psychological Well-Being Levels of Teenagers Interested in Esport Career. Research on Education and Psychology, 3 (1), 1-10
  • Kwong, K., & Wong, K. (2013). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) Techniques Using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(Technical Note 1), 1-32.
  • Lavallee, D. (2006). Career Awareness, Career Planning, and Career Transition Needs Among Sports Coaches. Journal of Career Development, 33(1), 66–79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845306289550
  • McWhirter, E. H., & McWhirter, B. T. (2008). Adolescent Future Expectations of Work, Education, Family, and Community Development of a New Measure. Youth & Society, 40(2), 182–202. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X08314257
  • Öncel, L. (2014). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Convergent Validity of Subscale Scores. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(1), 13–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.03.006
  • Reitman, J. G., Anderson-Coto, M. J., Wu, M., Lee, J. S., & Steinkuehler, C. (2020). Esports Research: A Literature Review. Games and Culture, 15(1), 32–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412019840892
  • Ribeiro, A. S. & Lima, F, (2019). Football Players' Career and Wage Profiles, Applied Economics, 51:1, 76-87, DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2018.1494375
  • Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M. & Straub, D. W. (2012), Editor's comments: A critical look at the use of PLS-SEM in "MIS Quarterly", MIS Quarterly, pp. iii-xiv.
  • Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Bönningstedt: SmartPLS. Retrieved from http://www.smartpls.com Rottinghaus, P. J., Day, S. X., & Borgen, F. H. (2005). The Career Futures Inventory: A Measure of Career-Related Adaptability and Optimism. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(1), 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072704270271
  • Ruvalcaba, O., Shulze, J., Kim, A., Berzenski, S. R., & Otten, M. P. (2018). Women's Experiences in eSports: Gendered Differences in Peer and Spectator Feedback During Competitive Video Game Play. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 42(4), 295–311. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723518773287
  • Salo, M. (2017). Career Transitions of eSports Athletes: A Proposal for a Research Framework. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 9(2), 22-32. doi:10.4018/IJGCMS.2017040102.
  • Sandstedt, S.D., Cox, R.H., Martens, M.P., Ward, D. G., Webber, S.N. & Ivey, S. (2004). Development of the Student-Athlete Career Situation Inventory (SACSI). Journal of Career Development 31, 79–93 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10871-004-0566-5
  • Scheier, M. E. & Carver, C. S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55 (2), 170-210.
  • Savickas, M. L. (1997). Career adaptability: An integrative construct for life span, life-space theory. The Career Development Quarterly, 45, 247-259.
  • Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and Practice of Career Construction. In R. W. Lent, & S. D. Brown (Eds.). Career development and counseling: Putting theory andresearch to work (pp. 42–70). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Taylor, T. L. (2012). Raising The Stakes: E-Sports And The Professionalization Of Computer Gaming. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Tladinyane, R., & Van der Merwe, M. (2015) "Age and Race Differences on Career Adaptability and Employee Engagement amongst Employees in an Insurance Company", Journal of Governance and Regulation, 4(4), 720-726.
  • Tuncer, M. (2011). Yükseköğretim Gençliğinin Gelecek Beklentileri Üzerine Bir Araştırma (Research Regarding Future Expectations Of University Youth), Turkish Studies, 6(2), 935-948
  • Tyrance, S. C., Harris, H. L., & Post, P. (2013). Predicting Positive Career Planning Attitudes Among NCAA Division I College Student-Athletes, Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 7(1), 22-40. Retrieved Apr 13, 2020, from https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/jcsp/7/1/article-p22.xml
  • Wendling, E., & Sagas, M. (2020). An Application of the Social Cognitive Career Theory Model of Career Self-Management to College Athletes' Career Planning for Life After Sport. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00009
  • Witkowski, E., & Manning, J. (2019). Player power: Networked careers in esports and high-performance game livestreaming practices. Convergence, 25(5–6), 953–969. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856518809667
  • Yasım, Y. (2019). Niceliksel İş Yükü ve Güvenlik İkliminin İş-Aile Çatışmasına Etkilerinin SMARTPLS ile Analizi: Tekstil Sektörü Örneği. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi , 17 (4) , 128-144
  • Yee, N. (2006). The Labor of Fun: How Video Games Blur the Boundaries of Work and Play. Games and Culture, 1(1), 68–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412005281819
  • Yee, N. (2014). The Proteus Paradox: How Online Games and Virtual Worlds Change Us—And How They Don't. Yale University Press. Retrieved April 11, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vksvj
  • Yeşilyaprak, B. (1995). Mesleki Gelişim Kuramları Üzerine Bir Eleştirel Değerlendirme. Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 2(6), 43-49.

Impact of Future Expectations on Career Planning Attitudes' of Professional Esports Athletes

Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 39, 203 - 224, 13.02.2021
https://doi.org/10.35408/comuybd.738366

Öz

Esports athletes are undoubtedly the most critical element of the esports sector, which embodies a growing economy all over the world. In the literature, there are yet no researches on the professional expectations and career prospects of those who build their career on professional eSport athlete. Therefore, this study aims to examine the impact of future expectations of professional eSport players in Turkey on their career planning behaviors with factors career adaptability, career optimism, and Perceived knowledge of the job market. The data collected by the survey method were analyzed with computer-aided statistics and structural equation model (SEM) software. According to the results, there is a positive and meaningful relationship in the same direction with the future expectations of Turkish professional eSport athletes and their career futures and planning attitudes. The future expectations of eSport athletes positively affect their career compatibility, career optimism, and perceptions towards the eSports Job market. In this sense, the sample group has a perception of a career future suitable for the eSport ecosystem for a sustainable esports career.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, C. G., Tsaasan, A. M., Reitman, J., Lee, J. S., Wu, M., Steel, H., et. al. (2018). Understanding Esports as A Stem Career Ready Curriculum in The Wild. In 2018 10th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications, VS-Games 2018 – Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1109/VS-Games.2018.8493445.
  • Argentero, P. (1989). Influence of Education on Job Preferences. Psychological Reports, 64(3), 996–998. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1989.64.3.996
  • Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.
  • Barclay, D. W., Higgins, C. A., & Thompson, R. (1995). The Partial Least Squares Approach to Causal Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption And Use as Illustration. Technology Studies 2: 285-309.
  • Başol, O. (2018). OECD Ülkelerinde Yaşam Tatmini Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. "İş, Güç" Endüstrı İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 20(3), 67-86.
  • Borjas, G. J. (2008). Labor economics. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  • Brock, T. (2017). Roger Caillois and E-Sports: On the Problems of Treating Play as Work. Games and Culture, 12(4), 321–339. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412016686878
  • Caillois, R. (2001). Man, Play and Games. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
  • Chin, W. W. (1998). The Partial Least Squares Approach for Structural Equation Modeling. Pp. 295-336 in Macoulides, G. A., Ed. Modern Methods for Business Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Chin, W. W., & Newsted, P. R. (1999). Structural equation modeling analysis with small samples using partial least squares. Pp. 307-341 in R. H. Hoyle, eds. Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Creed, P. A., Patton, W., & Bartrum, D. (2002). Multidimensional properties of the LOT-R: Effects of optimism and pessimism on career and well-being related variables in adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 10 (1), 42-61.
  • Dülgeroğlu, İ., & Başol, O. (2017). İş Stresi ve Çalışma Yaşamı Kalitesi Algısının Yansımaları: Satış Temsilcileri Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Business and Economics Research Journal, 8(2), 293-304
  • Ebberwein, C. A., Krieshok, T. S., Ulven, J. C., & Prosser, E. C. (2004). Voices in transition: Lessons on career adaptability. The Career Development Quarterly,52, 292-308.
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
  • Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2013). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SE). Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A New Criterion For Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-Based Structural Equation Modelling, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), pp. 115-135.
  • Hulland, J. (1999). Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in Strategic Management Research: A Review Of Four Recent Studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2):195–204
  • Johnson, M. R., & Woodcock, J. (2019). 'It's like the gold rush': the lives and careers of professional video game streamers on Twitch.tv, Information, Communication & Society, 22:3, 336-351, DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2017.1386229.
  • Kalafat, T. (2012). Kariyer Geleceği Ölçeği (KARGEL): Türk örneklemi için psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4 (38), 169-179.
  • Kocadağ, M. (2017). Elektronik Spor Kariyeri ve Eğitim. Doğu Anadolu Sosyal Bilimlerde Eğilimler Dergisi , 1 (2) , 49-63.
  • Kocadağ, M . (2019). Investigating Psychological Well-Being Levels of Teenagers Interested in Esport Career. Research on Education and Psychology, 3 (1), 1-10
  • Kwong, K., & Wong, K. (2013). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) Techniques Using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(Technical Note 1), 1-32.
  • Lavallee, D. (2006). Career Awareness, Career Planning, and Career Transition Needs Among Sports Coaches. Journal of Career Development, 33(1), 66–79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845306289550
  • McWhirter, E. H., & McWhirter, B. T. (2008). Adolescent Future Expectations of Work, Education, Family, and Community Development of a New Measure. Youth & Society, 40(2), 182–202. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X08314257
  • Öncel, L. (2014). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Convergent Validity of Subscale Scores. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(1), 13–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.03.006
  • Reitman, J. G., Anderson-Coto, M. J., Wu, M., Lee, J. S., & Steinkuehler, C. (2020). Esports Research: A Literature Review. Games and Culture, 15(1), 32–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412019840892
  • Ribeiro, A. S. & Lima, F, (2019). Football Players' Career and Wage Profiles, Applied Economics, 51:1, 76-87, DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2018.1494375
  • Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M. & Straub, D. W. (2012), Editor's comments: A critical look at the use of PLS-SEM in "MIS Quarterly", MIS Quarterly, pp. iii-xiv.
  • Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Bönningstedt: SmartPLS. Retrieved from http://www.smartpls.com Rottinghaus, P. J., Day, S. X., & Borgen, F. H. (2005). The Career Futures Inventory: A Measure of Career-Related Adaptability and Optimism. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(1), 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072704270271
  • Ruvalcaba, O., Shulze, J., Kim, A., Berzenski, S. R., & Otten, M. P. (2018). Women's Experiences in eSports: Gendered Differences in Peer and Spectator Feedback During Competitive Video Game Play. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 42(4), 295–311. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723518773287
  • Salo, M. (2017). Career Transitions of eSports Athletes: A Proposal for a Research Framework. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 9(2), 22-32. doi:10.4018/IJGCMS.2017040102.
  • Sandstedt, S.D., Cox, R.H., Martens, M.P., Ward, D. G., Webber, S.N. & Ivey, S. (2004). Development of the Student-Athlete Career Situation Inventory (SACSI). Journal of Career Development 31, 79–93 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10871-004-0566-5
  • Scheier, M. E. & Carver, C. S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55 (2), 170-210.
  • Savickas, M. L. (1997). Career adaptability: An integrative construct for life span, life-space theory. The Career Development Quarterly, 45, 247-259.
  • Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and Practice of Career Construction. In R. W. Lent, & S. D. Brown (Eds.). Career development and counseling: Putting theory andresearch to work (pp. 42–70). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Taylor, T. L. (2012). Raising The Stakes: E-Sports And The Professionalization Of Computer Gaming. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Tladinyane, R., & Van der Merwe, M. (2015) "Age and Race Differences on Career Adaptability and Employee Engagement amongst Employees in an Insurance Company", Journal of Governance and Regulation, 4(4), 720-726.
  • Tuncer, M. (2011). Yükseköğretim Gençliğinin Gelecek Beklentileri Üzerine Bir Araştırma (Research Regarding Future Expectations Of University Youth), Turkish Studies, 6(2), 935-948
  • Tyrance, S. C., Harris, H. L., & Post, P. (2013). Predicting Positive Career Planning Attitudes Among NCAA Division I College Student-Athletes, Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 7(1), 22-40. Retrieved Apr 13, 2020, from https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/jcsp/7/1/article-p22.xml
  • Wendling, E., & Sagas, M. (2020). An Application of the Social Cognitive Career Theory Model of Career Self-Management to College Athletes' Career Planning for Life After Sport. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00009
  • Witkowski, E., & Manning, J. (2019). Player power: Networked careers in esports and high-performance game livestreaming practices. Convergence, 25(5–6), 953–969. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856518809667
  • Yasım, Y. (2019). Niceliksel İş Yükü ve Güvenlik İkliminin İş-Aile Çatışmasına Etkilerinin SMARTPLS ile Analizi: Tekstil Sektörü Örneği. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi , 17 (4) , 128-144
  • Yee, N. (2006). The Labor of Fun: How Video Games Blur the Boundaries of Work and Play. Games and Culture, 1(1), 68–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412005281819
  • Yee, N. (2014). The Proteus Paradox: How Online Games and Virtual Worlds Change Us—And How They Don't. Yale University Press. Retrieved April 11, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vksvj
  • Yeşilyaprak, B. (1995). Mesleki Gelişim Kuramları Üzerine Bir Eleştirel Değerlendirme. Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 2(6), 43-49.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ufuk BİNGÖL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BANDIRMA ONYEDI EYLUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-1834-842X
Türkiye


Yasin Nuri ÇAKIR>
BANDIRMA ONYEDI EYLUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-8573-8802
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 13 Şubat 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 16 Mayıs 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 19, Sayı 39

Kaynak Göster

APA Bingöl, U. & Çakır, Y. N. (2021). Impact of Future Expectations on Career Planning Attitudes' of Professional Esports Athletes . Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi , 19 (39) , 203-224 . DOI: 10.35408/comuybd.738366