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Water/fluid intake in students and influencing factors

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 46 Sayı: 3, 1267 - 1277, 30.09.2021

Öz

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the water/fluid intake patterns of students and affecting factors.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water/fluid intake and affecting factors among 4922 students studying in primary, secondary and high schools in Ortahisar district of Trabzon province in 2017-2018 academic year were investigated. As the data collection tool, a questionnaire form evaluating sociodemographic characteristics and water/fluid consumption patterns was used.
Results: The plain water intake of the students was determined as 1199 ± 572 mL/day and the total fluid intake was found as 1611 ± 688 mL/day. In addition, it was revealed that daily fluid intake of 2098 (62.6%) of the students was below the sufficient amount advised by National Academy of Medicine (NAM). It was found that the amount of daily fluid intake of boys, older children, those whose maternal education level is high school or low, those who have maximum two siblings, and those who are not engaged in sportive activities was inadequate.
Conclusion: Daily fluid intake of more than half of the students is below the amount advised by NAM for children by age and gender groups. Considering the possible adverse consequences of this situation on health, it is suggested that appropriate interventions should be made to increase fluid intake of children.

Kaynakça

  • Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. The National Academies Press, Washington, 2005.
  • Jéquier E, Constant F. Water as an essential nutrient: The physiological basis of hydration. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010; 64: 115–23.
  • European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Water. EFSA J 2010; 8(3): 1459.
  • Schwartz AE, Leardo M, Aneja S, Elbel B. Effect of a school-based water intervention on child body mass index and obesity. JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(3): 220–6.
  • Su SB, Wang JN, Lu CW, Guo HR. Reducing urinary tract infections among female clean room workers. J. Womens Health 2006; 15(7): 870–6.
  • Roussel R, Fezeu L, Bouby N, Balkau B, Lantieri O, Alhenc-Gelas François et al. Low water intake and risk for new-onset hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 2011; 34(12): 2551–4.
  • Manz F, Wentz A. The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic diseases. Nutr. Rev. 2005; 63(2): 2-5.
  • Edmonds CJ, Jeffes B. Does having a drink help you think? 6-7-Year-old children show improvements in cognitive performance from baseline to test after having a drink of water. Appetite 2009; 53: 469–72.
  • Dougherty KA, Baker LB, Chow M, Kenney WL. Two percent dehydration impairs and six percent carbohydrate drink improves boys basketball skills. Med. Sci. Sport. Exer. 2006; 38(9): 1650–8.
  • Bar-Or O, Dotan R, Inbar O, Rotshtein A, Zonder H. Voluntary hypohydration in 10-to 12-year-old boys. J. Appl. Physiol. Respir. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 1980; 48(1): 104–8.
  • D’Anci KE, Constant F, Rosenberg IH. Hydration and cognitive function in children. Nutrition in Clinical Care 2006; 64(10): 457–64.
  • Kaushik A, Mullee MA, Bryant TN, Hill CM. A study of the association between children’s access to drinking water in primary schools and their fluid intake: Can water be “cool” in school? Child: Care, Health and Development 2007; 33(4): 409–15.
  • Azoulay A, Garzon P, Eisenberg MJ. Comparison of the mineral content of tap water and bottled waters. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2001; 16(3): 168–75.
  • Collison KS, Zaidi MZ, Subhani SN, Al-rubeaan K, Shoukri M, Al-Mohanna FA. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children. BMC Public Health 2010; 10: 234.
  • Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Chomitz VR, Antonelli TA, Gortmaker SL, Osganian SK et al. A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight. N. Engl. J. Med. 2012; 367(15): 1407–16.
  • Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despres JP, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2010; 33(11): 2477–83.
  • Armfield JM, Spencer AJ, Roberts-Thomson KF, Plastow K. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children. Am. J. Public Health 2013; 103(3): 494–500.
  • Oza-Frank R, Zavodny M, Cunningham SA. Beverage displacement between elementary and middle school, 2004–2007. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2012; 112(9): 1390–6.
  • Drewnowski A, Rehm CD. Socioeconomic gradient in consumption of whole fruit and 100 % fruit juice among US children and adults. Nutr. J. 2015; 14: 3.
  • Vieux F, Maillot M, Constant F, Drewnowski A. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4 – 13 years in France: Analyses of INCA 2 (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006 – 2007) data. Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19(13): 2305–14.
  • Sui Z, Zheng M, Zhang M, Rangan A. Water and beverage consumption: Analysis of the Australian 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Nutrients 2016; 8(11): 678.
  • Vieux F, Maillot M, Constant F, Drewnowski A. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom. BMC Public Health 2017; 17(1): 479.
  • T. C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Sağlık Araştırmaları Genel Müdürlüğü. Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırması 2010: Beslenme Durumu ve Alışkanlıklarının Değerlendirilmesi Sonuç Raporu. Sağlık Bakanlığı, Ankara, 2014.
  • Guelinckx I, Iglesia I, Bottin JH, De Miguel‑Etayo P, González‑Gil EM, Salas-Salvado J et al. Intake of water and beverages of children and adolescents in 13 countries. Eur. J. Nutr. 2015; 54(Suppl 2): 69–79.
  • Iglesia I, Guelinckx I, De Miguel‑Etayo PM, González-Gil EM, Salas-Salvadó J, Kavouras SA et al. Total fluid ıntake of children and adolescents: cross‑sectional surveys in 13 countries worldwide. Eur. J. Nutr. 2015; 54(Suppl 2): 57–67.
  • Kavouras SA, Bougatsas D, Johnson EC, Arnaoutis G, Tsipouridi S, Panagiotakos DB. Water intake and urinary hydration biomarkers in children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2017; 71(4): 530–5. Piernas C, Barquera S, Popkin BM. Current patterns of water and beverage consumption among Mexican children and adolescents aged 1 – 18 years: Analysis of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Public Health Nutr. 2014; 17(10): 2166–75.
  • Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Constant F. Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: Analyses of 2005–2010 NHANES Data. Nutr. J. 2013; 12: 85.
  • Kant AK, Graubard BI. Contributors of water intake in us children and adolescents: Associations with dietary and meal characteristics - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010; 92(4): 887–96.
  • Bello LL, Al-Hammad N. Pattern of fluid consumption in a sample of Saudi Arabian adolescents aged 12 – 13 years. Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 2006; 16: 168–73.
  • Jomaa L, Hwalla N, Constant F, Naja F, Nasreddine L. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4–13 years in Lebanon: Findings from a national cross-sectional study. Nutrients 2016; 8(9): 554.
  • Fenández-Alvira JM, Iglesia I, Ferreira-Pêgo C, Babio N, Salas-salvadó J, Moreno LA. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents; a cross-sectional study. Nutr. Hosp. 2014; 29(5): 1163–70.
  • Duffey KJ, Huybrechts I, Mouratidou T, Libuda L, Kersting M, deVriendt T et al. Beverage consumption among European adolescents in the HELENA study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2012; 66(2): 244–52.
  • Bougatsas D, Arnaoutis G, Panagiotakos DB, Seal AD, Johnson EC, Bottin JH et al. Fluid consumption pattern and hydration among 8-14 years-old children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2018; 72(3): 420–7.
  • Senterre C, Dramaix M, Thiébaut I. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium. BMC Public Health 2014; 14: 651.
  • Popkin BM, Armstrong LE, Bray GM, Caballero B, Frei B, Willet WC. A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 83(3): 529–42.
  • Kenney EL, Long MW, Cradock AL, Gortmaker SL. Prevalence of inadequate hydration among US children and disparities by gender and race/ethnicity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Am. J. Public Health 2015; 105(8): e113–8.
  • Feferbaum R, de Abreu LC, Leone C. Fluid intake patterns: An epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 1005.
  • Popkin BM, D’Anci KE, Rosenberg IH. Water, hydration and health. Nutr. Rev. 2010; 68(8): 439–58.
  • Pate RR, Heath GW, Dowda M, Trost SG. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Am. J. Public Health 1996; 86(11): 1577–81.
  • Vereecken C, Maes L. Young children’s dietary habits and associations with the mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes. Appetite 2010; 54(1): 44–51.
  • Patrick H, Nicklas TA. A review of family and social determinants of children’s eating patterns and diet quality a review of family and social determinants of children’s eating patterns and diet quality. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2005; 24(12): 83–92.
  • Ebenegger V, Marques-Vidal PM, Nydegger A, Laimbacher J, Niederer I, Bürgi F et al. Independent contribution of parental migrant status and educational level to adiposity and eating habits in preschool children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2011; 65(2): 210–8.
  • Pinket AS, De Craemer M, Maes L, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Cardon G, Androutsos O et al. Water intake and beverage consumption of pre-schoolers from six European countries and associations with socio-economic status: The ToyBox-study. Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19(13): 2315–25.
  • Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Barker L, Sohn W, Wei L. Water intake by outdoor temperature among children aged 1–10 years: Implications for community water fluoridation in the U.S. Public Health Rep. 2015; 130(4): 362–71.
  • Hobson WL, Knockel ML, Byington CL, Young PC, Hoff CJ, Buchi KF. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and Non-Latino children. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2007; 161: 457–61.
  • Etale A, Jobin M, Siegrist M. Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms, affect and image on consumer choice. Appetite 2018; 121: 138–46.
  • Gorelick MH, Gould L, Nimmer M, Wagner D, Heath M, Bashir H, Brousseau DC. Perceptions about water and ıncreased use of bottled water in minority children. Arch. Pediat. Adol. Med. 2011; 165(10): 928–32.
  • Doria MF. Bottled water versus tap water: understanding consumers’ preferences. J. Water Health 2006; 4(2): 271–6.
  • Patel AI, Bogart LM, Klein DJ, Cowgill B, Uyeda KE, Hawes-Dawson J, Schuster MA. Middle school student attitudes about school drinking fountains and water intake. Acad. Pediatr. 2014; 14(5): 471–7.

Öğrencilerde su/sıvı alımı ve etkileyen faktörler

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 46 Sayı: 3, 1267 - 1277, 30.09.2021

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışmada öğrencilerin su/sıvı tüketim özellikleri ve etkileyen faktörlerin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.
Gereç ve Yöntem: Kesitsel tipteki bu çalışmada Trabzon ili Ortahisar ilçesindeki ilkokul, ortaokul ve liselerde 2017-2018 yılında eğitim gören 4922 öğrencinin su/sıvı tüketimi ve etkileyen faktörler değerlendirilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak sosyodemografik özellikler ve su/sıvı tüketim özelliklerinin değerlendirildiği anket formu kullanılmıştır.
Bulgular: Araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin sade su tüketim miktarının 1199 ± 572 mL/gün, toplam sıvı tüketim miktarının ise 1611 ± 688 mL/gün olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca öğrencilerin 2098’inin (%62,6) günlük toplam sıvı tüketiminin National Academy of Medicine (NAM) tarafından önerilen düzeyin altında olduğu belirlenmiştir. Erkeklerin, büyük çocukların, anne eğitim düzeyi lise ve altında olanların, kardeş sayısı iki ve daha az olanların ve sportif faaliyeti olmayanların günlük sıvı tüketim miktarının daha yetersiz olduğu saptanmıştır.
Sonuç: Öğrencilerin yarısından fazlasının günlük sıvı tüketiminin NAM’ın çocuklar için yaş ve cinsiyet gruplarına göre önerdiği miktarın altında olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu durumun sağlık üzerindeki olası olumsuz sonuçları dikkate alınarak çocukların sıvı alımını artırmak için uygun müdahalelerin yapılması önerilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. The National Academies Press, Washington, 2005.
  • Jéquier E, Constant F. Water as an essential nutrient: The physiological basis of hydration. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010; 64: 115–23.
  • European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Water. EFSA J 2010; 8(3): 1459.
  • Schwartz AE, Leardo M, Aneja S, Elbel B. Effect of a school-based water intervention on child body mass index and obesity. JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170(3): 220–6.
  • Su SB, Wang JN, Lu CW, Guo HR. Reducing urinary tract infections among female clean room workers. J. Womens Health 2006; 15(7): 870–6.
  • Roussel R, Fezeu L, Bouby N, Balkau B, Lantieri O, Alhenc-Gelas François et al. Low water intake and risk for new-onset hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 2011; 34(12): 2551–4.
  • Manz F, Wentz A. The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic diseases. Nutr. Rev. 2005; 63(2): 2-5.
  • Edmonds CJ, Jeffes B. Does having a drink help you think? 6-7-Year-old children show improvements in cognitive performance from baseline to test after having a drink of water. Appetite 2009; 53: 469–72.
  • Dougherty KA, Baker LB, Chow M, Kenney WL. Two percent dehydration impairs and six percent carbohydrate drink improves boys basketball skills. Med. Sci. Sport. Exer. 2006; 38(9): 1650–8.
  • Bar-Or O, Dotan R, Inbar O, Rotshtein A, Zonder H. Voluntary hypohydration in 10-to 12-year-old boys. J. Appl. Physiol. Respir. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 1980; 48(1): 104–8.
  • D’Anci KE, Constant F, Rosenberg IH. Hydration and cognitive function in children. Nutrition in Clinical Care 2006; 64(10): 457–64.
  • Kaushik A, Mullee MA, Bryant TN, Hill CM. A study of the association between children’s access to drinking water in primary schools and their fluid intake: Can water be “cool” in school? Child: Care, Health and Development 2007; 33(4): 409–15.
  • Azoulay A, Garzon P, Eisenberg MJ. Comparison of the mineral content of tap water and bottled waters. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2001; 16(3): 168–75.
  • Collison KS, Zaidi MZ, Subhani SN, Al-rubeaan K, Shoukri M, Al-Mohanna FA. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children. BMC Public Health 2010; 10: 234.
  • Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Chomitz VR, Antonelli TA, Gortmaker SL, Osganian SK et al. A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight. N. Engl. J. Med. 2012; 367(15): 1407–16.
  • Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despres JP, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2010; 33(11): 2477–83.
  • Armfield JM, Spencer AJ, Roberts-Thomson KF, Plastow K. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children. Am. J. Public Health 2013; 103(3): 494–500.
  • Oza-Frank R, Zavodny M, Cunningham SA. Beverage displacement between elementary and middle school, 2004–2007. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2012; 112(9): 1390–6.
  • Drewnowski A, Rehm CD. Socioeconomic gradient in consumption of whole fruit and 100 % fruit juice among US children and adults. Nutr. J. 2015; 14: 3.
  • Vieux F, Maillot M, Constant F, Drewnowski A. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4 – 13 years in France: Analyses of INCA 2 (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006 – 2007) data. Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19(13): 2305–14.
  • Sui Z, Zheng M, Zhang M, Rangan A. Water and beverage consumption: Analysis of the Australian 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Nutrients 2016; 8(11): 678.
  • Vieux F, Maillot M, Constant F, Drewnowski A. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom. BMC Public Health 2017; 17(1): 479.
  • T. C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Sağlık Araştırmaları Genel Müdürlüğü. Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırması 2010: Beslenme Durumu ve Alışkanlıklarının Değerlendirilmesi Sonuç Raporu. Sağlık Bakanlığı, Ankara, 2014.
  • Guelinckx I, Iglesia I, Bottin JH, De Miguel‑Etayo P, González‑Gil EM, Salas-Salvado J et al. Intake of water and beverages of children and adolescents in 13 countries. Eur. J. Nutr. 2015; 54(Suppl 2): 69–79.
  • Iglesia I, Guelinckx I, De Miguel‑Etayo PM, González-Gil EM, Salas-Salvadó J, Kavouras SA et al. Total fluid ıntake of children and adolescents: cross‑sectional surveys in 13 countries worldwide. Eur. J. Nutr. 2015; 54(Suppl 2): 57–67.
  • Kavouras SA, Bougatsas D, Johnson EC, Arnaoutis G, Tsipouridi S, Panagiotakos DB. Water intake and urinary hydration biomarkers in children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2017; 71(4): 530–5. Piernas C, Barquera S, Popkin BM. Current patterns of water and beverage consumption among Mexican children and adolescents aged 1 – 18 years: Analysis of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Public Health Nutr. 2014; 17(10): 2166–75.
  • Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Constant F. Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: Analyses of 2005–2010 NHANES Data. Nutr. J. 2013; 12: 85.
  • Kant AK, Graubard BI. Contributors of water intake in us children and adolescents: Associations with dietary and meal characteristics - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010; 92(4): 887–96.
  • Bello LL, Al-Hammad N. Pattern of fluid consumption in a sample of Saudi Arabian adolescents aged 12 – 13 years. Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 2006; 16: 168–73.
  • Jomaa L, Hwalla N, Constant F, Naja F, Nasreddine L. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4–13 years in Lebanon: Findings from a national cross-sectional study. Nutrients 2016; 8(9): 554.
  • Fenández-Alvira JM, Iglesia I, Ferreira-Pêgo C, Babio N, Salas-salvadó J, Moreno LA. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents; a cross-sectional study. Nutr. Hosp. 2014; 29(5): 1163–70.
  • Duffey KJ, Huybrechts I, Mouratidou T, Libuda L, Kersting M, deVriendt T et al. Beverage consumption among European adolescents in the HELENA study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2012; 66(2): 244–52.
  • Bougatsas D, Arnaoutis G, Panagiotakos DB, Seal AD, Johnson EC, Bottin JH et al. Fluid consumption pattern and hydration among 8-14 years-old children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2018; 72(3): 420–7.
  • Senterre C, Dramaix M, Thiébaut I. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium. BMC Public Health 2014; 14: 651.
  • Popkin BM, Armstrong LE, Bray GM, Caballero B, Frei B, Willet WC. A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 83(3): 529–42.
  • Kenney EL, Long MW, Cradock AL, Gortmaker SL. Prevalence of inadequate hydration among US children and disparities by gender and race/ethnicity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Am. J. Public Health 2015; 105(8): e113–8.
  • Feferbaum R, de Abreu LC, Leone C. Fluid intake patterns: An epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 1005.
  • Popkin BM, D’Anci KE, Rosenberg IH. Water, hydration and health. Nutr. Rev. 2010; 68(8): 439–58.
  • Pate RR, Heath GW, Dowda M, Trost SG. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Am. J. Public Health 1996; 86(11): 1577–81.
  • Vereecken C, Maes L. Young children’s dietary habits and associations with the mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes. Appetite 2010; 54(1): 44–51.
  • Patrick H, Nicklas TA. A review of family and social determinants of children’s eating patterns and diet quality a review of family and social determinants of children’s eating patterns and diet quality. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2005; 24(12): 83–92.
  • Ebenegger V, Marques-Vidal PM, Nydegger A, Laimbacher J, Niederer I, Bürgi F et al. Independent contribution of parental migrant status and educational level to adiposity and eating habits in preschool children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2011; 65(2): 210–8.
  • Pinket AS, De Craemer M, Maes L, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Cardon G, Androutsos O et al. Water intake and beverage consumption of pre-schoolers from six European countries and associations with socio-economic status: The ToyBox-study. Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19(13): 2315–25.
  • Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Barker L, Sohn W, Wei L. Water intake by outdoor temperature among children aged 1–10 years: Implications for community water fluoridation in the U.S. Public Health Rep. 2015; 130(4): 362–71.
  • Hobson WL, Knockel ML, Byington CL, Young PC, Hoff CJ, Buchi KF. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and Non-Latino children. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2007; 161: 457–61.
  • Etale A, Jobin M, Siegrist M. Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms, affect and image on consumer choice. Appetite 2018; 121: 138–46.
  • Gorelick MH, Gould L, Nimmer M, Wagner D, Heath M, Bashir H, Brousseau DC. Perceptions about water and ıncreased use of bottled water in minority children. Arch. Pediat. Adol. Med. 2011; 165(10): 928–32.
  • Doria MF. Bottled water versus tap water: understanding consumers’ preferences. J. Water Health 2006; 4(2): 271–6.
  • Patel AI, Bogart LM, Klein DJ, Cowgill B, Uyeda KE, Hawes-Dawson J, Schuster MA. Middle school student attitudes about school drinking fountains and water intake. Acad. Pediatr. 2014; 14(5): 471–7.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Klinik Tıp Bilimleri
Bölüm Araştırma
Yazarlar

Büşra PARLAK SOMUNCU 0000-0002-0271-7019

Murat TOPBAŞ 0000-0003-4047-4027

Kübra ŞAHİN 0000-0003-4569-7000

Cansu AĞRALI 0000-0003-2911-9665

Medine Gözde ÜSTÜNDAĞ 0000-0001-6089-9829

İrem DİLAVER 0000-0002-9962-7908

Yusuf Emre BOSTAN 0000-0003-2418-1793

Gamze ÇAN 0000-0002-7065-649X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2021
Kabul Tarihi 9 Temmuz 2021
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021 Cilt: 46 Sayı: 3

Kaynak Göster

MLA PARLAK SOMUNCU, Büşra vd. “Water/Fluid Intake in Students and Influencing Factors”. Cukurova Medical Journal, c. 46, sy. 3, 2021, ss. 1267-7.