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SUBALTERNITY IN ARUNDHATI ROY’S THE GOD OF SMALL THINGS

Yıl 2020, Cilt 22, Sayı 2, 421 - 434, 05.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.16953/deusosbil.542921

Öz

Subaltern Studies, particularly in the field of social and cultural anthropology, has provided critical contexts that restore suppressed histories while criticizing Eurocentrism, imperialist biases, Enlightenment rationality, and the idea of nationalism. After the publication of Edward Said’s Orientalism, the terms subaltern and Subaltern Studies have become profoundly entangled with postmodern and postcolonial cultural studies, underlining the need for a conscious and deconstructivist approach for reading the history in order to get at the different ways in which European forms of knowledge represented the “subaltern”. Arundhati Roy’s famous novel The God of Small Things, while touching on many post-colonial issues ranging from linguistic imperialism to hybridity, is a striking display of the plight of subalterns. The subaltern in the novel can be grouped into three as “the inhabitants of Ayemenem”, “the untouchables” and “the women”. The novel scrutinises first colonial discourse and Western style of thinking about and studying the subaltern, and then how the colonizer and the colonized evolved within an unequal power relationship. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the ways in which hegemonic discourses constitute class, marginality and the objectification of the subaltern.

Kaynakça

  • Ashcroft, B., Griffins, G and Tiffin H. (Eds.) (1995). The Post-colonial studies reader. London: Routledge.
  • Butler, J. (1997). The psychic life of power: Theories in subjection. Stanford: Standford University Press.
  • Chakrabarty, D. (2003). Subaltern studies and postcolonial historiography. G. Delanty and E. F. Isin (eds.), In Handbook of historical sociology (pp. 191-204). London: Sage Publications.
  • Fanon, F. (2008). Black skin white masks. Northampton: Pluto Press.
  • Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
  • Gqola, P. D. (2004). History was wrong-footed, caught off guard: Gendered caste, class and manipulation in Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things. Commonwealth Essays and Studies, 26 (2): 107-120. doi.org/10.1080/13698010500268072.
  • Iyer, N. S. (2003). Musings on Indian writing in English: Fiction. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons.
  • Ludden, D. (2002). Introduction. D. Ludden (Ed.), In Reading subaltern studies: Critical history, contested Meaning and the Globalization of South Asia (pp. 1-43). London: Anthem Press.
  • Margalit, A. (1997). Decent equality and freedom: A Postscript. Social Research (64:1): 147-160.
  • Nimni, I. J. (2016, February). The God of Small Things: Speaking subaltern. OISR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHHS), 21 (2): 21-26. DOI: 10.9790/0837-21272126.
  • Novetzke, C. L. & Patton, L. (2008). Subaltern. S. Mittal & G. Thursby (Eds.), In Studying Hinduism: Key concepts and methods. London: Routledge. 378-400.
  • Petersen, K. H. & Rutherford, A. (1986). A double colonization: Colonial and post-colonial women’s writing. Mundelstrup: Dangaroo Press.
  • Rajeev, S. (2011). Arundhati Rai’s The God of Small Things- A Post-colonial reading. IRWLE 7 (2): 1-7.
  • Roy, A. (1998). The God of Small Things. New York: Harper Perenial.
  • Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. London: Penguin Books.
  • San Juan, E. (1998). From exile to diaspora: Versions of the Filipino experience in the United States. Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Spivak, G. C. (1995). Can the subaltern speak?. B. Ashcroft , G. Griffins and Tiffen H. (Eds.), In The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge. 24-29.
  • Tickell, A. (2007). Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things: Routledge Guides to Literature. London: Routledge.

ARUNDHATI ROY’UN KÜÇÜK ŞEYLERİN TANRISI ROMANINDA MADUNİYET

Yıl 2020, Cilt 22, Sayı 2, 421 - 434, 05.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.16953/deusosbil.542921

Öz

Maduniyet Çalışmaları, özellikle sosyal ve kültürel antropoloji alanında, Avrupa-merkezciliğini, emperyalist önyargıları, Aydınlanma Rasyonalizmini ve milliyetçiliği eleştirirken, bastırılmış tarihleri yeniden canlandıran eleştirel bağlamlar sunmuştur. Edward Said’in Oryantalizm adlı çalışmasının yayınlanmasından sonra, önceleri Avrupai bilim türleri tarafından temsil edilen “madun” kavramını farklı şekillerde yorumlamak için tarihin bilinçli ve yapısökümcü bir yaklaşımla okunmasına duyulan ihtiyacın altı çizilmiş, böylece madun ve Maduniyet Çalışmaları kavramları, postmodern ve sömürge-sonrası kültür araştırmaları ile derinlemesine iç içe geçmiştir. Arundhati Roy’un ünlü romanı Küçük Şeylerin Tanrısı, dilsel emperyalizmden melezliğe uzanan birçok sömürge-sonrası konuya değinirken, madunların içinde bulundukları zor durumu da çarpıcı bir şekilde sunmaktadır. Romandaki madunlar “Ayemenem kasabasının sakinleri”, “dokunulmazlar” ve “kadınlar” olarak üç ayrı grupta ele alınabilir. Roman ilk olarak sömürgeci söylemin ve maduniyetin Batı düşüncesindeki yerini ve nasıl ele alındığını, sonrasında ise sömürgeci ve sömürülenin eşit olmayan güç ilişkisinde nasıl evrildiğini inceler. Bu nedenle, bu makale hegemonik söylemlerin cinsellik, marjinallik ve madunun nesneleştirilme şeklini ele almaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Ashcroft, B., Griffins, G and Tiffin H. (Eds.) (1995). The Post-colonial studies reader. London: Routledge.
  • Butler, J. (1997). The psychic life of power: Theories in subjection. Stanford: Standford University Press.
  • Chakrabarty, D. (2003). Subaltern studies and postcolonial historiography. G. Delanty and E. F. Isin (eds.), In Handbook of historical sociology (pp. 191-204). London: Sage Publications.
  • Fanon, F. (2008). Black skin white masks. Northampton: Pluto Press.
  • Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
  • Gqola, P. D. (2004). History was wrong-footed, caught off guard: Gendered caste, class and manipulation in Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things. Commonwealth Essays and Studies, 26 (2): 107-120. doi.org/10.1080/13698010500268072.
  • Iyer, N. S. (2003). Musings on Indian writing in English: Fiction. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons.
  • Ludden, D. (2002). Introduction. D. Ludden (Ed.), In Reading subaltern studies: Critical history, contested Meaning and the Globalization of South Asia (pp. 1-43). London: Anthem Press.
  • Margalit, A. (1997). Decent equality and freedom: A Postscript. Social Research (64:1): 147-160.
  • Nimni, I. J. (2016, February). The God of Small Things: Speaking subaltern. OISR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHHS), 21 (2): 21-26. DOI: 10.9790/0837-21272126.
  • Novetzke, C. L. & Patton, L. (2008). Subaltern. S. Mittal & G. Thursby (Eds.), In Studying Hinduism: Key concepts and methods. London: Routledge. 378-400.
  • Petersen, K. H. & Rutherford, A. (1986). A double colonization: Colonial and post-colonial women’s writing. Mundelstrup: Dangaroo Press.
  • Rajeev, S. (2011). Arundhati Rai’s The God of Small Things- A Post-colonial reading. IRWLE 7 (2): 1-7.
  • Roy, A. (1998). The God of Small Things. New York: Harper Perenial.
  • Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. London: Penguin Books.
  • San Juan, E. (1998). From exile to diaspora: Versions of the Filipino experience in the United States. Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Spivak, G. C. (1995). Can the subaltern speak?. B. Ashcroft , G. Griffins and Tiffen H. (Eds.), In The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge. 24-29.
  • Tickell, A. (2007). Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things: Routledge Guides to Literature. London: Routledge.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Yayınlanma Tarihi Cilt: 22 Sayı: 2
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Şule OKUROĞLU ÖZÜN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-5471-8075
Türkiye


Ayşe İREN Bu kişi benim
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, REKTÖRLÜK
0000-0002-8143-047X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 5 Haziran 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 22, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Okuroğlu Özün, Ş. & İren, A. (2020). SUBALTERNITY IN ARUNDHATI ROY’S THE GOD OF SMALL THINGS . Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 22 (2) , 421-434 . DOI: 10.16953/deusosbil.542921