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Toplumsal Cinsiyet Temelli Ödünleme Kullanımı: Türkçe Sözlü Söyleme Dayalı Bulgular

Yıl 2021, Cilt 172, Sayı 2, 133 - 159, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.33690/dilder.907018

Öz

Ödünleyici ilişkiler alanyazında şaşırma, karşıt beklenti, iki tümce arasında uyumsuzluk, çatışma ya da uygunsuzluk olarak tanımlanmıştır. Ödünleme çeşitli dilsel kaynaklar kullanılarak açık biçimde işaretlenebildiği gibi, örtük olarak da gerçekleştirilebilmekte ve bağlamsal bilgiye dayalı olarak dinleyici tarafından algılanabilmektedir. Önceki çalışmalarda ödünlemenin karşıtlığın gösterilmesi, olası yanlış anlaşılmaların önlenmesi, düzeltme/onarım, uzlaşma ve konu yönetimi işlevleriyle kullanıldığı ortaya konmuştur. Diğer taraftan, dil kullanımı ve cinsiyet ile ilgili geleneksel bakış açısı, kadınların ortak paydada buluşma, anlaşmazlıktan kaçınma ve kibar dil kullanma eğiliminde olduğunu savlamaktadır. Ödünlemenin söylemsel işlevleri dikkate alındığında, kadınların ödünlemeyi erkeklerden daha sık kullandığı öngörülebilmektedir. Bu nedenle, bu çalışmanın amacı Türkçe sözlü söylemde (i) ödünlenmenin işaretlenmesi ve ödünleyici dilsel kaynakların kullanımında ve (ii) ödünlemenin işlevlerinde (varsa) cinsiyet farklılıklarının Etkileşimsel Dilbilim çerçevesinde belirlenmesidir. Çalışmanın veri tabanı altı saatlik Türkçe gündelik söylem kayıtlarından elde edilen çevriyazı metinlerinden oluşmaktadır. Bulgularımız, ödünlemenin en çok açık biçimde gerçekleştirildiğini (83.5%), ancak cinsiyetler arasında anlamlı bir fark olmadığını göstermiştir. Türkçe sözlü söylemde en sık kullanılan ödünleyici dilsel kaynağın ama olduğu saptanmıştır (33.7%). Ödünlemenin işlevleri açısından ise, veri tabanımızda ödünlemenin en çok karşıtlığın gösterilmesi (49.4%) amacıyla kullanıldığı, ancak cinsiyetler açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark olmadığı ortaya konmuştur. Çalışmamızda ödünlemenin işaretlenmesi ve işlevleri bakımından cinsiyete dayalı bir farklılık saptanmamıştır. Bu bulgular, dil kullanımının konuşucuların cinsiyetine göre değil, söylem bağlamına göre biçimlendiği ortaya koyması bakımından cinsiyet ve konuşma biçemleri ile ilgili güncel görüşü desteklemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Akar, D. & Martı, L. (2015). Söylem Çözümlemesi. In F., N.Seggie&Y, Bayyurt (Eds.). Nitel Araştırma, Yöntem, Teknik, Analiz ve Yaklaşımları (pp. 242-252). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
  • Aksan, M. & Demirhan, U. (2018). Gerçi şunu da söylemeliyim… Türkçede Geçersizleştirme. In Y. Aksan, M. Aksan (Haz.), Türkçede Yapı ve İşlev. Şükriye Ruhi Armağanı. (pp.171-200). Ankara: BilgeSu.
  • Antaki, C., & Wetherell, M. (1999). Show concessions. Discourse studies, 1(1), 7-27.
  • Aydın, D. & Ercan, G., S. (2020). Türkçe sözlü söylemde ödünleme ve işlevleri. In A. Uçar, P. İbe Akcan & F. Çetintaş Yıldırım (Eds.) Dilbilimde Güncel Tartışmalar (pp. 47-56). Ankara: Dilbilim Derneği Yayınları.
  • Barth, D. (2000). That’s true, although not really, but still”: expressing concession in spoken English. In E. Couper Kuhlen, & B. Kortmann (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, (pp.411-438). Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Barth-Weingarten, D. (2003). Concession in spoken English: On the realisation of a discourse-pragmatic relation (Vol. 28). Gunter Narr Verlag.
  • Bergvall, V. L. (1999). Toward a comprehensive theory of language and gender. Language in society, 273-293.
  • Blumenthal-Draume& Kortman (2017). Book of Abstracts. 50th Annual Meetings of the Societas Linguistica Europeaea. 10-13 September 2017. University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Cameron, D. (2001). Working with spoken discourse. London: Sage.
  • Cameron, D., & Coates, J. (1985). Some problems in the sociolinguistic explanation of sex differences. Language & Communication, 5(3), 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(85)90006-0.
  • Chafe, W. (1998). Language and the Flow of Thought. In M. Tomasello, (Ed.), The New Psychology of Language (pp. 87-114). New York& London: Psychology Press.
  • Chafe, W., & Tannen, D. (1987). The relation between written and spoken language. Annual Review of Anthropology, 16(1), 383-407. DOI: 16.100187.002123.
  • Chen, G. (2000). The grammaticalization of concessive markers in Early Modern English. In O. Fischer, A. Rosenbach and D. Stein (Eds.), Pathways of change: Grammaticalization in English (pp. 85-110). Amsterdam /Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Coates, J. (1998). Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Coates, J. (2013). Women, men and everyday talk. Hampshire/New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Conley, J. M., O'Barr, W. M., & Lind, E. A. (1978). The power of language: Presentational style in the courtroom. Duke Lj, 1375.
  • Couper-Kuhlen, E., & Selting, M. (2017). Interactional linguistics: Studying language in social interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Couper-Kuhlen, E., & Thompson, S. A. (2000). Concessive patterns in conversation. In: Couper Kuhlen, E., & Kortmann, B. (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, 381-410. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Crevels, M. (2000). Concessives on different semantic levels: A typological perspective. In E. Couper Kuhlen & B. Kortmann (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, 313-340. Berlin/New York:Walter de Gruyter.
  • Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2013). Language and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ercan, G., S. (2003). Gazete köşe yazılarında dil kullanımı: Kaçınmalar ve cinsiyet değişkeni. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Dokuz Eylül University. İzmir.
  • Fishman, P. M. (1980). Conversational insecurity. Language. 127-132
  • Göksel, A. & Kerslake, C. (2005). Turkish: A comprehensive grammar. London/New York: Routledge.
  • González, M. D. L. Á. G., & Taboada, M. (2021). Concession strategies in online newspaper comments. Journal of Pragmatics, 174, 96-116.
  • Grote, B., Lenke, N., & Stede, M. (1997). Ma (r) king concessions in English and German. Discourse processes, 24(1), 87-117.
  • Günthner, S. (2000). From concessive connector to discourse marker: The use of obwohl in everyday German interaction. In Couper Kuhlen, E., & Kortmann, B. (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, 439-469. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Günthner, S. (2016). Concessive patterns in interaction: uses of zwar… aber (‘true… but’)-constructions in everyday spoken German. Language Sciences, 58, 144-162.
  • Haakana, M., & Kurhila, S. (2009). Other-correction in everyday interaction: some comparative aspects. Talk in interaction: Comparative dimensions, 152-179.
  • Haspelmath, M. & König, E. (1998). Concessive conditionals in the languages of Europe. In J. Auwera, (in collaboration with D. P. Ó. Baoill) (Eds.). Adverbial constructions in the languages of Europe (pp.563– 640). Berlin, New York: De Gruyter.
  • Heine, B. (2002). On the role of context in grammaticalization. Typological studies in language, 49, 83-102.
  • Hellinger, M. & Bussmann, H. (2003). Gender Across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men. In M. Hellinger & H. Bussman (Eds.). (pp.1-21). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
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Gender-Based Use of Concession: Insights from Turkish Spoken Discourse

Yıl 2021, Cilt 172, Sayı 2, 133 - 159, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.33690/dilder.907018

Öz

Concessive relations have been defined in terms of concepts such as surprise, counter-expectation, incompatibility or conflict between clauses in literature. Concession can be marked explicitly by a range of linguistic resources or expressed implicitly and perceived by the hearer based on contextual cues. In previous studies, various functions of concession including expressing a contrast, preventing potential misunderstandings, correction/repair, alignment and topic management have been reported. Traditional view on gender and language allege that women tend to seek common ground, avoid disagreement and be polite. The current view, on the other hand, claim that discourse context is determinant on such tendencies. Considering the discursive functions of concession, it can thus be presumed that women opt for concession more frequently than man do. Therefore, the aim of this study is twofold: to determine (if any) gender-based differences (i) in the marking and use of concessive resources and (ii) in the functions of concession in Turkish spoken discourse within the framework of Interactional Linguistics. The database of the study consists of the transcriptions of six-hour daily Turkish conversations. Findings have revealed that concession is mostly marked explicitly (83.5%) with no significant difference between genders and the most commonly used concessive marker is ama (but) by both genders (33.7%). As for the functions, the concessions are mostly used to express a contrast (49.4%) with no significant difference between male and female speakers. These findings support the view that it is not the gender of the speakers but the discourse context that shapes the language use.

Kaynakça

  • Akar, D. & Martı, L. (2015). Söylem Çözümlemesi. In F., N.Seggie&Y, Bayyurt (Eds.). Nitel Araştırma, Yöntem, Teknik, Analiz ve Yaklaşımları (pp. 242-252). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
  • Aksan, M. & Demirhan, U. (2018). Gerçi şunu da söylemeliyim… Türkçede Geçersizleştirme. In Y. Aksan, M. Aksan (Haz.), Türkçede Yapı ve İşlev. Şükriye Ruhi Armağanı. (pp.171-200). Ankara: BilgeSu.
  • Antaki, C., & Wetherell, M. (1999). Show concessions. Discourse studies, 1(1), 7-27.
  • Aydın, D. & Ercan, G., S. (2020). Türkçe sözlü söylemde ödünleme ve işlevleri. In A. Uçar, P. İbe Akcan & F. Çetintaş Yıldırım (Eds.) Dilbilimde Güncel Tartışmalar (pp. 47-56). Ankara: Dilbilim Derneği Yayınları.
  • Barth, D. (2000). That’s true, although not really, but still”: expressing concession in spoken English. In E. Couper Kuhlen, & B. Kortmann (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, (pp.411-438). Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Barth-Weingarten, D. (2003). Concession in spoken English: On the realisation of a discourse-pragmatic relation (Vol. 28). Gunter Narr Verlag.
  • Bergvall, V. L. (1999). Toward a comprehensive theory of language and gender. Language in society, 273-293.
  • Blumenthal-Draume& Kortman (2017). Book of Abstracts. 50th Annual Meetings of the Societas Linguistica Europeaea. 10-13 September 2017. University of Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Cameron, D. (2001). Working with spoken discourse. London: Sage.
  • Cameron, D., & Coates, J. (1985). Some problems in the sociolinguistic explanation of sex differences. Language & Communication, 5(3), 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(85)90006-0.
  • Chafe, W. (1998). Language and the Flow of Thought. In M. Tomasello, (Ed.), The New Psychology of Language (pp. 87-114). New York& London: Psychology Press.
  • Chafe, W., & Tannen, D. (1987). The relation between written and spoken language. Annual Review of Anthropology, 16(1), 383-407. DOI: 16.100187.002123.
  • Chen, G. (2000). The grammaticalization of concessive markers in Early Modern English. In O. Fischer, A. Rosenbach and D. Stein (Eds.), Pathways of change: Grammaticalization in English (pp. 85-110). Amsterdam /Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Coates, J. (1998). Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Coates, J. (2013). Women, men and everyday talk. Hampshire/New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Conley, J. M., O'Barr, W. M., & Lind, E. A. (1978). The power of language: Presentational style in the courtroom. Duke Lj, 1375.
  • Couper-Kuhlen, E., & Selting, M. (2017). Interactional linguistics: Studying language in social interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Couper-Kuhlen, E., & Thompson, S. A. (2000). Concessive patterns in conversation. In: Couper Kuhlen, E., & Kortmann, B. (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, 381-410. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Crevels, M. (2000). Concessives on different semantic levels: A typological perspective. In E. Couper Kuhlen & B. Kortmann (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, 313-340. Berlin/New York:Walter de Gruyter.
  • Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2013). Language and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ercan, G., S. (2003). Gazete köşe yazılarında dil kullanımı: Kaçınmalar ve cinsiyet değişkeni. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Dokuz Eylül University. İzmir.
  • Fishman, P. M. (1980). Conversational insecurity. Language. 127-132
  • Göksel, A. & Kerslake, C. (2005). Turkish: A comprehensive grammar. London/New York: Routledge.
  • González, M. D. L. Á. G., & Taboada, M. (2021). Concession strategies in online newspaper comments. Journal of Pragmatics, 174, 96-116.
  • Grote, B., Lenke, N., & Stede, M. (1997). Ma (r) king concessions in English and German. Discourse processes, 24(1), 87-117.
  • Günthner, S. (2000). From concessive connector to discourse marker: The use of obwohl in everyday German interaction. In Couper Kuhlen, E., & Kortmann, B. (Eds.). Cause-condition-concession-contrast: Cognitive and discourse perspectives (Vol. 33). Topics in English Linguistics, 33, 439-469. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Günthner, S. (2016). Concessive patterns in interaction: uses of zwar… aber (‘true… but’)-constructions in everyday spoken German. Language Sciences, 58, 144-162.
  • Haakana, M., & Kurhila, S. (2009). Other-correction in everyday interaction: some comparative aspects. Talk in interaction: Comparative dimensions, 152-179.
  • Haspelmath, M. & König, E. (1998). Concessive conditionals in the languages of Europe. In J. Auwera, (in collaboration with D. P. Ó. Baoill) (Eds.). Adverbial constructions in the languages of Europe (pp.563– 640). Berlin, New York: De Gruyter.
  • Heine, B. (2002). On the role of context in grammaticalization. Typological studies in language, 49, 83-102.
  • Hellinger, M. & Bussmann, H. (2003). Gender Across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men. In M. Hellinger & H. Bussman (Eds.). (pp.1-21). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Hilpert, M. (2013). Constructional change in English: Developments in allomorphy, word formation, and syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Holmes, J. (1984). Hedging your bets and sitting on the fence: Some evidence for hedges as support structures. Te Reo, 27(1), 47-62.
  • Holmes, J. (1995). Women, Men and Politeness. London and New York: Longman.
  • Holmes, J. (2001). A corpus-based view of gender in New Zealand English. Gender across languages: The linguistic representation of women and men, 1, 115-136.
  • Holmes, J. (2006). Gendered talk at work: Constructing gender identity through workplace discourse (Vol. 3). Malden/Oxford/Victoria: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Holmes, J., & Schnurr, S. (2005). Politeness, humor and gender in the workplace: Negotiating norms and identifying contestation. Journal of Politeness Research, 1(1), 121-149.
  • Iten, C. (2005). Linguistic Meaning, Truth Conditions and Relevance. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Jefferson, G. (1984). On stepwise transition from talk about a trouble to inappropriately next-positioned matters. Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis, 191, 222.
  • Jenks, C. J. (2011). Transcribing talk and interaction: Issues in the representation of communication data. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Dil ve Dil Bilim
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Derya AYDIN (Sorumlu Yazar)
TÜRK HAVA KURUMU ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İZMİR HAVACILIK MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU
0000-0003-0706-8051
Türkiye


Songül ERCAN
DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5392-7008
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Temmuz 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 172, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Aydın, D. & Ercan, S. (2021). Gender-Based Use of Concession: Insights from Turkish Spoken Discourse . Dil Dergisi , 172 (2) , 133-159 . DOI: 10.33690/dilder.907018