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The Analysis of Climate Change Awareness at Local Level in Bilecik

Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 393 - 404, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.24012/dumf.1054061

Öz

With the growing interest in renewable energy systems, studies on the sustainability of small-scale wind turbines have been published in recent years. A literature review was conducted in this study to compile scientific studies conducted to evaluate the environmental effects of medium and small-sized wind energy systems using the life cycle assessment. Life cycle assessment is a method of evaluating the environmental sustainability of a product, process, or system that is becoming more important in the context of decisions and policies in the energy sector. The environmental effects of medium and small-sized wind turbines on the life cycle size have been investigated in this study, which looked at studies conducted since 2004. The vast majority of these studies conducted environmental sustainability assessments based solely on a few environmental impact indicators such as global warming potential. There are only a few studies that consider a wider range of environmental effects. The collection and analysis of studies examining the life cycle environmental sustainability of medium and small-scale wind turbines are important for determining the future vision of small-scale energy production systems.

Kaynakça

  • IEA, "Key World Energy Statistics," Energy Information Administration, Paris 2021.
  • IPCC, "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change," Geneva, Switzerland 2007.
  • IEA, "Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Pathways to a Clean Energy System," International Energy Agency,, Paris 2012.
  • E. T. Karagöl and İ. Kavaz, "Dünyada ve Türkiye’de Yenilenebilir Enerji," SETA Siyaset, Ekonomi ve Toplum Araştırmaları Vakfı, İstanbul 2017.
  • TÜBA, "Rüzgâr Enerjisi Teknolojileri Raporu, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi,," Ankara 2019.
  • N. Nurbay and A. Çınar, "Rüzgar türbinlerinin çeşitleri ve birbirleriyle karşılaştırılması," Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları Sempozyumu, pp. 19-21, 2005.
  • U. Elibüyük and İ. Üçgül, "Rüzgâr türbinleri, çeşitleri ve rüzgâr enerjisi depolama yöntemleri," SDÜ Yekarum e-Dergi, vol. 2, no. 3, 2014.
  • T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins, and E. Bossanyi, Wind energy handbook. Wiley Online Library, 2001.
  • M. Saad, "Comparison of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines," IOSR Journal of Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 27-30, 08/01 2014.
  • H.-J. Wagner, "Introduction to wind energy systems," in EPJ Web of Conferences, 2018, vol. 189, p. 00005: EDP Sciences.
  • NREL, "The U.S. Small Wind Turbine Industry, A 20-year industry plan for small wind turbine technology," in "Roadmap," American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Committee, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)2002.
  • J. Leary et al., "Finding the niche: A review of market assessment methodologies for rural electrification with small scale wind power," Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 133, p. 110240, 2020.
  • J. L. Acosta, K. Combe, S. Ž. Djokic, and I. Hernando-Gil, "Performance Assessment of Micro and Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Urban Areas," IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 152-163, 2012.
  • N. Bergman, Hawkes, A., Brett, D., Baker, P., Barton, J., Blanchard, R., Brandon, N., Infield, D., Jardine, C., Kelly, N., Leach, M., Matian, M., Peacock, A. D., Staffell, I., Sudtharalingam, S. & Woodman, B., , "UK Microgeneration. Part I: Policy and Behavioural Aspects," Energy, vol. 162, pp. 23-36, 2009.
  • S. R. Allen, G. P. Hammond, and M. C. McManus, "Prospects for and barriers to domestic micro-generation: A United Kingdom perspective," Applied Energy, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 528-544, 2008/06/01/ 2008.
  • B. Sørensen, "From life cycle analysis to life cycle assessment," in Life-Cycle Analysis of Energy Systems: From Methodology to Applications: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011, pp. 67-78.
  • A. Azapagic, "Life cycle assessment as a tool for sustainable management of ecosystem services," in Ecosystem Services, vol. 30: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2010, pp. 140-168.
  • H. Baumann and A. M. Tillman, The Hitch hiker’s Guide to LCA - An orientation in life cycle assessment methodology and application. 2004.
  • ISO, "Life Cycle Assessment - Requirements and Guidelines," International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland2006, vol. BS EN ISO 14040:2006.
  • ISO, "Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Framework," International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland2006, vol. BS EN ISO 14040:2006.
  • H. Baumann and A.-M. Tillman, "Introduction to LCA," in The Hitch Hiker's Guide to LCA : An Orientation in Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and ApplicationLund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, pp. 19-69.
  • G. Rebitzer et al., "Life cycle assessment: Part 1: Framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications," Environment International, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 701-720, 2004.
  • J. B. Guinée et al., Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment: Operational Guide to the ISO Standards. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.
  • S. Perdan, "The concept of sustainable development and its practical implications. Chapter 1," in Sustainable Development in Practice vol. Chapter 1, A. Azapagic and S. Perdan, Eds. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
  • S. Chu and A. J. n. Majumdar, "Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future," vol. 488, no. 7411, pp. 294-303, 2012.
  • D. Y. C. Leung and Y. Yang, "Wind energy development and its environmental impact: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1031-1039, 2012.
  • B. Atilgan and A. Azapagic, "Renewable electricity in Turkey: Life cycle environmental impacts," Renewable Energy, vol. 89, pp. 649-657, 2016.
  • M. Lenzen and U. Wachsmann, "Wind turbines in Brazil and Germany: an example of geographical variability in life-cycle assessment," Applied Energy, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 119-130, 2004/02/01/ 2004.
  • S. W. White, "Net Energy Payback and CO2 Emissions from Three Midwestern Wind Farms: An Update," Natural Resources Research, vol. 15, pp. 271-281, 2006.
  • A. D. Peacock, D. Jenkins, M. Ahadzi, A. Berry, and S. Turan, "Micro wind turbines in the UK domestic sector," Energy and Buildings, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1324-1333, 2008/01/01/ 2008.
  • F. Ardente, M. Beccali, M. Cellura, and V. Lo Brano, "Energy performances and life cycle assessment of an Italian wind farm," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 12, pp. 200-217, 01/31 2008.
  • B. Tremeac and F. Meunier, "Life cycle analysis of 4.5 MW and 250 W wind turbines," Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews vol. 13, pp. 2104-2110, 10/01 2009.
  • R. H. Crawford, "Life cycle energy and greenhouse emissions analysis of wind turbines and the effect of size on energy yield," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 2653-2660, 2009/12/01/ 2009.
  • B. Fleck and M. Huot, "Comparative life-cycle assessment of a small wind turbine for residential off-grid use," Renewable Energy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2688-2696, 2009/12/01/ 2009.
  • M. R. Kabir, B. Rooke, G. D. M. Dassanayake, and B. A. Fleck, "Comparative life cycle energy, emission, and economic analysis of 100 kW nameplate wind power generation," Renewable Energy, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 133-141, 2012/01/01/ 2012.
  • B. Greening and A. Azapagic, "Environmental impacts of micro-wind turbines and their potential to contribute to UK climate change targets," Energy, vol. 59, pp. 454-466, 2013.
  • C. Brandoni, A. Arteconi, G. Ciriachi, and F. Polonara, "Assessing the impact of micro-generation technologies on local sustainability," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 87, pp. 1281-1290, 2014/11/01/ 2014.
  • K. A. Glassbrook, A. H. Carr, M. L. Drosnes, T. R. Oakley, R. M. Kamens, and S. H. Gheewala, "Life cycle assessment and feasibility study of small wind power in Thailand," Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 22, pp. 66-73, 2014/10/01/ 2014.
  • W.-C. Wang and H.-Y. Teah, "Life cycle assessment of small-scale horizontal axis wind turbines in Taiwan," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 141, pp. 492-501, 2017/01/10/ 2017.
  • A. Troullaki, K. Latoufis, P. Marques, F. Freire, and N. Hatziargyriou, "Life Cycle Assessment of Locally Manufactured Small Wind Turbines and Pico-Hydro Plants," in 2019 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST), 2019, pp. 1-6.
  • V. Kouloumpis, R. A. Sobolewski, and X. Yan, "Performance and life cycle assessment of a small scale vertical axis wind turbine," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 247, p. 119520, 2020/02/20/ 2020.

Orta ve Küçük Ölçekli Rüzgar Türbinlerinin Yaşam Döngüsü Boyutunda Sürdürülebilirliği: Literatür Taraması

Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 393 - 404, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.24012/dumf.1054061

Öz

Son yıllarda yenilenebilir enerji sistemlerine olan ilginin artmasıyla birlikte küçük ölçekli rüzgâr türbinlerinin sürdürülebilirliği konusunda çalışmalar yayınlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, yaşam döngüsü analizi yöntemi kapsamında orta ve küçük ölçekli rüzgâr enerji sistemlerinin çevresel etkilerinin değerlendirilmesine yönelik yapılan bilimsel çalışmaların derlenmesi amacıyla bir literatür çalışması yapılmıştır. Yaşam döngüsü analizi enerji sistemlerinin çevresel sürdürülebilirliğini değerlendirmek ve bu alandaki kararlar ve politikalar bağlamında giderek daha önemli hale gelen bir yöntemdir. Bu araştırmada öncelikle orta ve küçük ölçekli rüzgâr türbinlerinin yaşam döngüsü boyutunda çevresel etkileri konularında 2004 yılından bu yana yapılmış olan çalışmalar taranmıştır. Bu çalışmaların çoğunluğu yalnızca dar bir gösterge aralığı göz önüne alınarak çevresel değerlendirmeler gerçekleştirmiştir. Daha geniş bir çevresel etki yelpazesini dikkate alan az sayıda çalışma vardır. Orta ve küçük ölçekli rüzgâr türbinlerinin yaşam döngüsü çevresel sürdürülebilirliklerini analiz eden çalışmaların derlenerek irdelenmesi küçük ölçekli enerji üretim sistemlerinin gelecek vizyonun belirlenmesi açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • IEA, "Key World Energy Statistics," Energy Information Administration, Paris 2021.
  • IPCC, "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change," Geneva, Switzerland 2007.
  • IEA, "Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Pathways to a Clean Energy System," International Energy Agency,, Paris 2012.
  • E. T. Karagöl and İ. Kavaz, "Dünyada ve Türkiye’de Yenilenebilir Enerji," SETA Siyaset, Ekonomi ve Toplum Araştırmaları Vakfı, İstanbul 2017.
  • TÜBA, "Rüzgâr Enerjisi Teknolojileri Raporu, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi,," Ankara 2019.
  • N. Nurbay and A. Çınar, "Rüzgar türbinlerinin çeşitleri ve birbirleriyle karşılaştırılması," Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları Sempozyumu, pp. 19-21, 2005.
  • U. Elibüyük and İ. Üçgül, "Rüzgâr türbinleri, çeşitleri ve rüzgâr enerjisi depolama yöntemleri," SDÜ Yekarum e-Dergi, vol. 2, no. 3, 2014.
  • T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins, and E. Bossanyi, Wind energy handbook. Wiley Online Library, 2001.
  • M. Saad, "Comparison of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines," IOSR Journal of Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 27-30, 08/01 2014.
  • H.-J. Wagner, "Introduction to wind energy systems," in EPJ Web of Conferences, 2018, vol. 189, p. 00005: EDP Sciences.
  • NREL, "The U.S. Small Wind Turbine Industry, A 20-year industry plan for small wind turbine technology," in "Roadmap," American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Committee, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)2002.
  • J. Leary et al., "Finding the niche: A review of market assessment methodologies for rural electrification with small scale wind power," Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 133, p. 110240, 2020.
  • J. L. Acosta, K. Combe, S. Ž. Djokic, and I. Hernando-Gil, "Performance Assessment of Micro and Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Urban Areas," IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 152-163, 2012.
  • N. Bergman, Hawkes, A., Brett, D., Baker, P., Barton, J., Blanchard, R., Brandon, N., Infield, D., Jardine, C., Kelly, N., Leach, M., Matian, M., Peacock, A. D., Staffell, I., Sudtharalingam, S. & Woodman, B., , "UK Microgeneration. Part I: Policy and Behavioural Aspects," Energy, vol. 162, pp. 23-36, 2009.
  • S. R. Allen, G. P. Hammond, and M. C. McManus, "Prospects for and barriers to domestic micro-generation: A United Kingdom perspective," Applied Energy, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 528-544, 2008/06/01/ 2008.
  • B. Sørensen, "From life cycle analysis to life cycle assessment," in Life-Cycle Analysis of Energy Systems: From Methodology to Applications: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011, pp. 67-78.
  • A. Azapagic, "Life cycle assessment as a tool for sustainable management of ecosystem services," in Ecosystem Services, vol. 30: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2010, pp. 140-168.
  • H. Baumann and A. M. Tillman, The Hitch hiker’s Guide to LCA - An orientation in life cycle assessment methodology and application. 2004.
  • ISO, "Life Cycle Assessment - Requirements and Guidelines," International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland2006, vol. BS EN ISO 14040:2006.
  • ISO, "Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Framework," International Standard Organization, Geneva, Switzerland2006, vol. BS EN ISO 14040:2006.
  • H. Baumann and A.-M. Tillman, "Introduction to LCA," in The Hitch Hiker's Guide to LCA : An Orientation in Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and ApplicationLund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, pp. 19-69.
  • G. Rebitzer et al., "Life cycle assessment: Part 1: Framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications," Environment International, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 701-720, 2004.
  • J. B. Guinée et al., Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment: Operational Guide to the ISO Standards. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.
  • S. Perdan, "The concept of sustainable development and its practical implications. Chapter 1," in Sustainable Development in Practice vol. Chapter 1, A. Azapagic and S. Perdan, Eds. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
  • S. Chu and A. J. n. Majumdar, "Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future," vol. 488, no. 7411, pp. 294-303, 2012.
  • D. Y. C. Leung and Y. Yang, "Wind energy development and its environmental impact: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1031-1039, 2012.
  • B. Atilgan and A. Azapagic, "Renewable electricity in Turkey: Life cycle environmental impacts," Renewable Energy, vol. 89, pp. 649-657, 2016.
  • M. Lenzen and U. Wachsmann, "Wind turbines in Brazil and Germany: an example of geographical variability in life-cycle assessment," Applied Energy, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 119-130, 2004/02/01/ 2004.
  • S. W. White, "Net Energy Payback and CO2 Emissions from Three Midwestern Wind Farms: An Update," Natural Resources Research, vol. 15, pp. 271-281, 2006.
  • A. D. Peacock, D. Jenkins, M. Ahadzi, A. Berry, and S. Turan, "Micro wind turbines in the UK domestic sector," Energy and Buildings, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1324-1333, 2008/01/01/ 2008.
  • F. Ardente, M. Beccali, M. Cellura, and V. Lo Brano, "Energy performances and life cycle assessment of an Italian wind farm," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 12, pp. 200-217, 01/31 2008.
  • B. Tremeac and F. Meunier, "Life cycle analysis of 4.5 MW and 250 W wind turbines," Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews vol. 13, pp. 2104-2110, 10/01 2009.
  • R. H. Crawford, "Life cycle energy and greenhouse emissions analysis of wind turbines and the effect of size on energy yield," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 2653-2660, 2009/12/01/ 2009.
  • B. Fleck and M. Huot, "Comparative life-cycle assessment of a small wind turbine for residential off-grid use," Renewable Energy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2688-2696, 2009/12/01/ 2009.
  • M. R. Kabir, B. Rooke, G. D. M. Dassanayake, and B. A. Fleck, "Comparative life cycle energy, emission, and economic analysis of 100 kW nameplate wind power generation," Renewable Energy, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 133-141, 2012/01/01/ 2012.
  • B. Greening and A. Azapagic, "Environmental impacts of micro-wind turbines and their potential to contribute to UK climate change targets," Energy, vol. 59, pp. 454-466, 2013.
  • C. Brandoni, A. Arteconi, G. Ciriachi, and F. Polonara, "Assessing the impact of micro-generation technologies on local sustainability," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 87, pp. 1281-1290, 2014/11/01/ 2014.
  • K. A. Glassbrook, A. H. Carr, M. L. Drosnes, T. R. Oakley, R. M. Kamens, and S. H. Gheewala, "Life cycle assessment and feasibility study of small wind power in Thailand," Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 22, pp. 66-73, 2014/10/01/ 2014.
  • W.-C. Wang and H.-Y. Teah, "Life cycle assessment of small-scale horizontal axis wind turbines in Taiwan," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 141, pp. 492-501, 2017/01/10/ 2017.
  • A. Troullaki, K. Latoufis, P. Marques, F. Freire, and N. Hatziargyriou, "Life Cycle Assessment of Locally Manufactured Small Wind Turbines and Pico-Hydro Plants," in 2019 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST), 2019, pp. 1-6.
  • V. Kouloumpis, R. A. Sobolewski, and X. Yan, "Performance and life cycle assessment of a small scale vertical axis wind turbine," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 247, p. 119520, 2020/02/20/ 2020.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik, Ortak Disiplinler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Burçin ATILGAN TÜRKMEN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BİLECİK ŞEYH EDEBALİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3220-3817
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi
Proje Numarası 2020-02.BŞEÜ.03-06
Teşekkür Bu çalışma, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi (Proje: 2020-02.BŞEÜ.03-06) tarafından desteklenmiştir.
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 30 Eylül 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

IEEE B. Atılgan Türkmen , "Orta ve Küçük Ölçekli Rüzgar Türbinlerinin Yaşam Döngüsü Boyutunda Sürdürülebilirliği: Literatür Taraması", Dicle Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Mühendislik Dergisi, c. 13, sayı. 3, ss. 393-404, Eyl. 2022, doi:10.24012/dumf.1054061
DUJE tarafından yayınlanan tüm makaleler, Creative Commons Atıf 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır. Bu, orijinal eser ve kaynağın uygun şekilde belirtilmesi koşuluyla, herkesin eseri kopyalamasına, yeniden dağıtmasına, yeniden düzenlemesine, iletmesine ve uyarlamasına izin verir. 24456