Araştırma Makalesi

Yıl 2024,
Cilt: 15 Sayı: 3, 615 - 621
### Öz

### Anahtar Kelimeler

### Kaynakça

In this paper, a dynamic modeling and control of an Electric Vehicle (EV) with four In-Wheel Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IW-PMSM) are realized by using MATLAB/Simulink. In automotive applications especially in the EVs, PMSMs are generally utilized due to significant features such as high efficiency, high power density, and fast torque response. For this reason, they are also preferred in this study. Four PMSMs are fitted into the wheels to distribute power evenly for each wheel and thus, each motor can be controlled independently. In the dynamic model of the EV, all lateral and longitudinal forces acting on the EV are calculated. Besides, four wheel speeds are estimated according to the designed an Electronic Differential System (EDS) based the speed of the vehicle and steering angle. Then, a PID controller is designed so that the difference in the wheel speed values taken from the EDS is equal to the difference in the speeds taken from the actual system. The speed curve of each wheel and the road curve of the EV are drawn for different steering angles. As a result, it is observed that the stability of the EV is provided for various road conditions. Besides, complexity of the system is reduced by the proposed simpler control technique than the other methods in the literature such as fuzzy logic, direct torque control, and sliding mode control.

Electric vehicle permanent magnet synchronous motor dynamic model motor control.

- [1] E. Esmailzadeh, G. R. Vossoughi, and A. Goodarzi, “Dynamic modeling and analysis of a four motorized wheels electric vehicle,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 163-194, 2001.
- [2] Z. Omac, M. Polat, E. Oksuztepe, M. Yildirim, O. Yakut, H. Eren, and H. Kurum, “Design, analysis, and control of in-wheel switched reluctance motor for electric vehicles,” Electrical Engineering, vol. 100, pp. 865-876, 2018.
- [3] T. Makhlouf, A. Achour, Y. Belkhier, and R. N. Shaw, “Design and control of an electric vehicle equipped with permanent magnet synchronous machine, “ in IEEE 4th International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON), September 2021, pp. 1-5.
- [4] P. Hang, F. Luo, S. Fang, and X. Chen, “Path tracking control of a four-wheel-independent-steering electric vehicle based on model predictive control,” in IEEE 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), July 2017, pp. 9360-9366.
- [5] C. Zhao, W. Xiang, and P. Richardson, “Vehicle lateral control and yaw stability control through differential braking,” in IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol. 1, July 2006, pp. 384-389.
- [6] L. Xiong and Z. Yu, “Control allocation of vehicle dynamics control for a 4 in-wheel-motored EV,” in 2nd International Conference on Power Electronics and Intelligent Transportation System (PEITS), vol. 2, December 2009, pp. 307-311.
- [7] H. Zhou, H. Chen, B. Ren, and H. Zhao, “Yaw stability control for in-wheel-motored electric vehicle with a fuzzy PID method,” in IEEE The 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC), May 2015, pp. 1876- 1881.
- [8] C. Irimia, M. Grovu, G. M. Sirbu, A. Birtas, C. Husar, and M. Ponchant, “The modeling and simulation of an electric vehicle based on simcenter amesim platform,” in IEEE Electric Vehicles International Conference (EV), October 2019, pp. 1-6.
- [9] K. Nam, S. Oh, H. Fujimoto, and Y. Hori, “Estimation of sideslip and roll angles of electric vehicles using lateral tire force sensors through RLS and Kalman filter approaches,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 988-1000, 2012.
- [10]S. Ding, L. Liu, and W. X. Zheng, “Sliding mode direct yaw-moment control design for in-wheel electric DUJE (Dicle University Journal of Engineering) 15:3 (2024) Page 615-621 621 vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 6752-6762, 2017.
- [11]Y. Tong, H. Jing, B. Kuang, G. Wang, F. Liu, and Z. Yang, “Trajectory tracking control for four-wheel independently driven electric vehicle based on model predictive control and sliding model control,” in IEEE 2021 5th CAA International Conference on Vehicular Control and Intelligence (CVCI), October 2021, pp. 1-5.
- [12]C. Zhang, G. Yin, and N. Chen, “The acceleration slip regulation control for two-wheel independent driving electric vehicle based on dynamic torque distribution,” in IEEE 35th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), July 2016, pp. 5925-5930.
- [13]L. Zhai, T. Sun, and J. Wang, “Electronic stability control based on motor driving and braking torque distribution for a four in-wheel motor drive electric vehicle,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 4726-4739, 2016.
- [14]P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, “Modeling, simulation, and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives. I. The permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 25 no. 2, pp. 265-273, 1989.
- [15]J. Yang, W. H. Chen, S. Li, L. Guo, and Y. Yan, “Disturbance/uncertainty estimation and attenuation techniques in PMSM drives—A survey,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 3273-3285, 2016.
- [16]O. Dal, M. Yildirim, and H. Kurum, “Optimization of permanent magnet synchronous motor design by using PSO,” in IEEE 4th International Conference on Power Electronics and their Applications (ICPEA), Sept. 2019, pp. 1-6.
- [17]P. Pillay, R. Krishnan, “Modeling, simulation, and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives, part I: The permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 25, pp. 265–273, 1989.
- [18]G. Boztas, M. Yildirim, and O. Aydogmus, “Design and optimization of a PMSM for obtaining high-power density and high-speed,” Turkish Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 61-70, 2020.
- [19]R. Krishnan, “Electric motor drives: modeling, analysis, and control,” Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2001.
- [20]S. Sriprang, B. Nahid-Mobarakeh, N. Takorabet, S. Pierfederici, N. Bizon, P. Kuman, and P. Thounthong, “Permanent magnet synchronous motor dynamic modeling with state observer-based parameter estimation for AC servomotor drive application,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 286-297, 2019.
- [21]M. Yildirim, E. Oksuztepe, and H. Kurum, “Design of electronic differential system for an electric vehicle with four independently controlled in-wheel PMSM,” Advances in Electrical & Computer Engineering, vol. 24, no. 1, 2024.
- [22]Y. Guodong, C. Zhe, and C. Jiansong, “Safety driving speed and lane keeping control for electric vehicle in variable curvature curve,” in IEEE 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), July 2017, pp. 9572-9577.
- [23]K. Liu, J. Gong, A. Kurt, H. Chen, and U. Ozguner, “Dynamic modeling and control of high-speed automated vehicles for lane change maneuver,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 329-339, 2018.
- [24]J. E. Esquivel-Cruz, F. Beltran-Carbajal, I. RivasCambero, Z. Damián-Noriega, G. Álvarez-Miranda, and R. Pérez-Moreno, “Tracking control approach of speed profiles of induction motors used in electric vehicle,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), August 2023, pp. 22-26.

Yıl 2024,
Cilt: 15 Sayı: 3, 615 - 621
### Öz

### Anahtar Kelimeler

### Kaynakça

Bu makalede, dört adet Tekerlek İçi Sabit Mıknatıslı Senkron Motora (IW-PMSM) sahip bir Elektrikli Aracın (EV) MATLAB/Simulink kullanılarak dinamik modellenmesi ve kontrolü gerçekleştirilmiştir. Otomotiv uygulamalarında, özellikle elektrikli araçlarda, PMSM'ler genellikle yüksek verimlilik, yüksek güç yoğunluğu ve hızlı moment tepkisi gibi önemli özelliklerinden dolayı kullanılmaktadır. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada da tercih edilmiştir. Gücü, her tekerleğe eşit olarak dağıtmak için tekerleklere dört PMSM takılmıştır ve böylece her motor bağımsız olarak kontrol edilebilir. EV'nin dinamik modelinde EV'ye etki eden tüm yanal ve boyuna kuvvetler hesaplanır. Ayrıca, aracın hızı ve direksiyon açısı esas alınarak tasarlanan Elektronik Diferansiyel Sisteme (EDS) göre dört tekerlek hızı tahmin edilmektedir. Daha sonra EDS'den alınan tekerlek hız değerleri arasındaki fark, gerçek sistemden alınan hızlar arasındaki farka eşit olacak şekilde bir PID kontrol cihazı tasarlanmıştır. Her bir tekerleğin hız eğrisi ve EV'nin yol eğrisi farklı direksiyon açıları için çizilir. Sonuç olarak, çeşitli yol koşullarında EV'nin stabilitesinin sağlandığı görülmüştür. Ayrıca önerilen bu kontrol tekniği ile literatürdeki bulanık mantık, doğrudan moment kontrolü ve kayan mod kontrol gibi diğer yöntemlere göre daha basit kontrol tekniği ile sistemin karmaşıklığı azaltılmıştır.

elektrikli araç kalıcı mıknatıslı senkron motor dinamik model motor kontrol

- [1] E. Esmailzadeh, G. R. Vossoughi, and A. Goodarzi, “Dynamic modeling and analysis of a four motorized wheels electric vehicle,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 163-194, 2001.
- [2] Z. Omac, M. Polat, E. Oksuztepe, M. Yildirim, O. Yakut, H. Eren, and H. Kurum, “Design, analysis, and control of in-wheel switched reluctance motor for electric vehicles,” Electrical Engineering, vol. 100, pp. 865-876, 2018.
- [3] T. Makhlouf, A. Achour, Y. Belkhier, and R. N. Shaw, “Design and control of an electric vehicle equipped with permanent magnet synchronous machine, “ in IEEE 4th International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON), September 2021, pp. 1-5.
- [4] P. Hang, F. Luo, S. Fang, and X. Chen, “Path tracking control of a four-wheel-independent-steering electric vehicle based on model predictive control,” in IEEE 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), July 2017, pp. 9360-9366.
- [5] C. Zhao, W. Xiang, and P. Richardson, “Vehicle lateral control and yaw stability control through differential braking,” in IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol. 1, July 2006, pp. 384-389.
- [6] L. Xiong and Z. Yu, “Control allocation of vehicle dynamics control for a 4 in-wheel-motored EV,” in 2nd International Conference on Power Electronics and Intelligent Transportation System (PEITS), vol. 2, December 2009, pp. 307-311.
- [7] H. Zhou, H. Chen, B. Ren, and H. Zhao, “Yaw stability control for in-wheel-motored electric vehicle with a fuzzy PID method,” in IEEE The 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC), May 2015, pp. 1876- 1881.
- [8] C. Irimia, M. Grovu, G. M. Sirbu, A. Birtas, C. Husar, and M. Ponchant, “The modeling and simulation of an electric vehicle based on simcenter amesim platform,” in IEEE Electric Vehicles International Conference (EV), October 2019, pp. 1-6.
- [9] K. Nam, S. Oh, H. Fujimoto, and Y. Hori, “Estimation of sideslip and roll angles of electric vehicles using lateral tire force sensors through RLS and Kalman filter approaches,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 988-1000, 2012.
- [10]S. Ding, L. Liu, and W. X. Zheng, “Sliding mode direct yaw-moment control design for in-wheel electric DUJE (Dicle University Journal of Engineering) 15:3 (2024) Page 615-621 621 vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 6752-6762, 2017.
- [11]Y. Tong, H. Jing, B. Kuang, G. Wang, F. Liu, and Z. Yang, “Trajectory tracking control for four-wheel independently driven electric vehicle based on model predictive control and sliding model control,” in IEEE 2021 5th CAA International Conference on Vehicular Control and Intelligence (CVCI), October 2021, pp. 1-5.
- [12]C. Zhang, G. Yin, and N. Chen, “The acceleration slip regulation control for two-wheel independent driving electric vehicle based on dynamic torque distribution,” in IEEE 35th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), July 2016, pp. 5925-5930.
- [13]L. Zhai, T. Sun, and J. Wang, “Electronic stability control based on motor driving and braking torque distribution for a four in-wheel motor drive electric vehicle,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 4726-4739, 2016.
- [14]P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, “Modeling, simulation, and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives. I. The permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 25 no. 2, pp. 265-273, 1989.
- [15]J. Yang, W. H. Chen, S. Li, L. Guo, and Y. Yan, “Disturbance/uncertainty estimation and attenuation techniques in PMSM drives—A survey,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 3273-3285, 2016.
- [16]O. Dal, M. Yildirim, and H. Kurum, “Optimization of permanent magnet synchronous motor design by using PSO,” in IEEE 4th International Conference on Power Electronics and their Applications (ICPEA), Sept. 2019, pp. 1-6.
- [17]P. Pillay, R. Krishnan, “Modeling, simulation, and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives, part I: The permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 25, pp. 265–273, 1989.
- [18]G. Boztas, M. Yildirim, and O. Aydogmus, “Design and optimization of a PMSM for obtaining high-power density and high-speed,” Turkish Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 61-70, 2020.
- [19]R. Krishnan, “Electric motor drives: modeling, analysis, and control,” Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2001.
- [20]S. Sriprang, B. Nahid-Mobarakeh, N. Takorabet, S. Pierfederici, N. Bizon, P. Kuman, and P. Thounthong, “Permanent magnet synchronous motor dynamic modeling with state observer-based parameter estimation for AC servomotor drive application,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 286-297, 2019.
- [21]M. Yildirim, E. Oksuztepe, and H. Kurum, “Design of electronic differential system for an electric vehicle with four independently controlled in-wheel PMSM,” Advances in Electrical & Computer Engineering, vol. 24, no. 1, 2024.
- [22]Y. Guodong, C. Zhe, and C. Jiansong, “Safety driving speed and lane keeping control for electric vehicle in variable curvature curve,” in IEEE 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), July 2017, pp. 9572-9577.
- [23]K. Liu, J. Gong, A. Kurt, H. Chen, and U. Ozguner, “Dynamic modeling and control of high-speed automated vehicles for lane change maneuver,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 329-339, 2018.
- [24]J. E. Esquivel-Cruz, F. Beltran-Carbajal, I. RivasCambero, Z. Damián-Noriega, G. Álvarez-Miranda, and R. Pérez-Moreno, “Tracking control approach of speed profiles of induction motors used in electric vehicle,” in IEEE 11th International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), August 2023, pp. 22-26.

Toplam 24 adet kaynakça vardır.

Birincil Dil | İngilizce |
---|---|

Konular | Elektrik Makineleri ve Sürücüler, Elektrik Mühendisliği (Diğer) |

Bölüm | Makaleler |

Yazarlar | |

Erken Görünüm Tarihi | 30 Eylül 2024 |

Yayımlanma Tarihi | |

Gönderilme Tarihi | 28 Mayıs 2024 |

Kabul Tarihi | 29 Temmuz 2024 |

Yayımlandığı Sayı | Yıl 2024 Cilt: 15 Sayı: 3 |