Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Tüketici Kibiri Ölçeğinin Türkiye ve Romanya’da Çapraz Kültürel Geçerliliği

Yıl 2019, Cilt 19, Sayı 4, 411 - 424, 26.10.2019
https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.476419

Öz

Tüketici kibri, tüketici davranışı alan yazınında yeni bir kavramdır. Bununla birlikte, tüketici kibrinin çapraz kültürlerde aynı anlama sahip olup olmadığı hala belirsizdir. Bu yazının amacı tüketici kibri ölçeğinin, toplulukçu kültüre sahip olan ve gelişmekte olan ülkeler olarak kabul edilen Türkiye ve Romanya'da kültürler arası güvenilirliğini ve geçerliliğini test etmektir. Bunun için, 192 Türk ve 176 Romen üniversite öğrencisi üzerinde görgül bir çalışma yürütülmüştür. Ölçeğin kültürler arası geçerliliği, yapısal değişmezlik, metrik ve kovaryans yöntemleriyle test edilmiştir. Ölçüm teorisinin geçerliliğini test etmek için doğrulayıcı faktör analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları, CA ölçeğinin her bir örneklemdeki verilerle istatistiksel olarak kabul edilebilir uyumu ve iki ülke arasındaki kültürel değişmezliği gösterdiğini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Ayrıca bulgular, CA ölçeğinin ikinci dereceden bir yapı olarak kurulabildiğini ve materyalizm tarafından tahmin edildiğini göstermektedir. Özetle, bu çalışmanın bulguları, ölçeğin Türkiye ve Romanya'daki tüketici kibrini ölçmek için kullanılabileceğini göstermektedir. 

Kaynakça

  • Ahuvia, A.C. & Wong, N.Y. (2002). Personality and values based materialism: their relationship and origins. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(4), 389-402.
  • Albaum, G., Erickson, R. & Strandskov, J. (1989). Questionnaire design in international and cross-cultural research: Is translation necessary? In Gardner M.P. (ed.), proceedings of the society for consumer psychology, American Psychological Association, Washington DC,10-15.
  • Alicke, M & Sedikides, C, (2009). Self-enhancement and self-protection: What they are and what they do. European Review of Social Psychology, 20, 1-48.
  • Bauer, M. A., Wilkie, J. E. B., Kim, J. K., & Bodenhausen, G. B. (2012). Cuing consumerism: Situational materialism undermines personal and social well-being. Psychological Science, 23, 517–523. doi: 10.1177/0956797611429579
  • Belk, R.W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self, Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 139-168.
  • Brislin R. W., Lonner, W. J. & Thorndike, R. M. (1973). Cross-cultural research methods, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
  • Burroughs, J. E., & Rindfleisch, A. (2002). Materialism and Well-Being: A Conflicting Values Perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(3), 348-370.
  • Calder, B.J., Lynn, W.P., & Alice, M. (1981). Designing research for application. Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 197-207.
  • Campbell, Colin (1987). The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism, New York: Basil Blackwell. Clump, M. A., Brandel, J. M., & Sharpe, P. J. (2002). Differences in environmental responsibility between materialistic groups. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 45(3), 155-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.2117/psysoc.2002.155
  • Emmons, R. A. (1984). Factor analysis and construct validity of the narcissistic personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(3), 291-300.
  • Gecas, V. (2009). The Self as a Social Force, available at: https://books.google.com.tr/books?hl=tr&lr=&id=2Nazn5H_cNYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA85&dq=Gecas,+Viktor+(2009).+The+Self+as+a+Social+Force.&ots=u0SaFh2Ec4&sig=PPP1Bdpd5V2K6MfPfXSYh6pdBuA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 4 April 2018).
  • Ger, G. & Belk, R.W. (1996). Cross-cultural differences in materialism. Journal of Economic Psychology, 17, 55-77.
  • Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th Ed.), Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Heatherton, T. F. & Vohs, K. D. (2000). Interpersonal evaluations following threats to self: Role of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 725–736.Hirschman, E. C. & LaBarbera, P. A. (1990). Dimensions of possession importance. Psychology & Marketing, 7(3), 215-233.
  • Hofstede, G. (1990). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  • Holman, R. H. (1981). Apparel as communication, avaliable at: http://acrwebsite.org/volumes/12220/volumes/sv04/SV-04 (accessed 4 April 2018).
  • Johnson, R. E., Silverman, S. B., Shyamsunder, A., Swee, H. Y., Rodopman, O. B., Cho, E. & Bauer, J. (2010). Acting superior but actually inferior? Correlates and consequences of workplace arrogance. Human Performance, 23(5), 403-427.
  • Karabati, S. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2010). Values, materialism, and well-being: A Study with Turkish university students. Journal of Economic Psychology, 31(4), 624–633.
  • Kasser, T (2002). The High Price of Materialism. MIT Press, London.
  • Kastanakis, M. N. & Balabanis, G. (2012). Between the mass and the class: Antecedents of the bandwagon luxury consumption behavior. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), 1399-1407.
  • Kilbourne, W. & Pickett, G. (2008). How materialism affects environmental beliefs, concern, and environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of Business Research, 61, 885-893.
  • Kirkman, B. L. Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. (2006). A quarter century of Culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 285–320.
  • Levy, S.J. (1959). Symbols for sale, Harvard Business Review, 37(4), 117-124.
  • Lewis, M. (2016). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, and hubris in Lewis, B. and Jones H. (Ed.). Handbook of emotions, Guilford Press, New York, 792-814.
  • Lewis, M. (2000). Self-conscious eotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In Lewis, M.& Haviland-Jones, J. M. (Ed.). Handbook of emotions 2nd ed., Guilford Press, New York, 623–636.
  • Locke, K. D. & Nekich, J.C. (2000). Agency and communion in naturalistic social comparison. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(7), 864–874.
  • Maheswaran, D. & Shavitt, S. (2000). Issues and New Directions in Cultural Psychology. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(2), 59-66.
  • Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
  • Newman, B. M. & Newman, P. R. (2014). Development through Life: A psychosocial approach, available at https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=_Vk8AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA61&hl=tr&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 05 April 2018).
  • Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd Ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
  • Paulhus, D. L. & Williams, K. M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(6), 556 -563.Podsakoff, P. M. & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.
  • Richins, M. & F.W. Rudmin, (1994). Materialism and economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15, 217-232.
  • Richins, M. L. & Dawson S. (1992). Consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3), 303-316.
  • Ruvio, A., Shoham, A. & Shlomo, H. (2007). Consumers’ arrogance: Construct conceptualization and preliminary validation evidence. Available at http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/v34 (accessed 4 April 2018).
  • Ruvio, A. A. & Shoham, A. (2016). Consumer arrogance: Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 3989-3997.
  • Shrum, L. J., Wong, N., Arif, F., Chugani, S. K., Gunz, A., Lowrey, T. M…Sundie, J. (2013). Reconceptualizing materialism as identity goal pursuits: functions, processes, and consequences. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1179-1185.
  • Silverman, S. B., Johnson, R. E., McConnell, N., & Carr, A. (2012). Arrogance: A formula for leadership failure. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 50(1), 21-28.
  • Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 580-591.
  • Sirgy, M. Joseph (1998). Materialism and Quality of Life. Social Indicators Research, 43, 227-260
  • Solomon, M. (1983). The role of products as social stimuli: a symbolic interactionism perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 319 –329.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th Ed.). Pearson Allyn & Bacon, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Tracy, J. L. & Robins, R. W. (2007). The psychological structure of pride: A tale of two facets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 506.
  • Verbeke, W., Belschak, F. & Bagozzi, R. P. (2004). The adaptive consequences of pride in personal selling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32 (4), 386-402.
  • Veselka L, Giammarco, E. A., Vernon, P. A. (2014). The Dark Triad and the seven deadly sins. Personality and Individual Differences 67:75-80.
  • Vignoles, V. L., Golledge, J., Regalia, C., Manzi, C. & Scabini, E. (2006). Beyond self-esteem: Influence of multiple motives on identity construction. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 90(2), 308–333.
  • Zait, A. & Mihalache, C. M. (2014). How do we value what we see on tv? Television's consumption and the cultivation of materialism in Romania. International Business and Economic Review, 5, 24-43.

A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania

Yıl 2019, Cilt 19, Sayı 4, 411 - 424, 26.10.2019
https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.476419

Öz

Consumer arrogance (CA) is a new notion in consumer behavior literature. However, it is still unclear if consumer arrogance has the same meaning in cross cultures. The purpose of this paper is to test the cross-cultural validation of the CA scale in Turkey and Romania, which are considered as collectivist cultures and developing countries. An empirical study was conducted on 192 Turkish and 176 Romanian university students. The cross-cultural validation tested via configural, metric and covariance methods. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the validity of the measurement theory. The current research demonstrates that CA scale an adequate fit to the data in each sample and across-cultural invariance among two countries. Also, the findings Show that CA scale can be established as a second order construct and it is predicted by materialism. In sum, the findings of this study show that scale can be used to measure consumer arrogance in Turkey and Romania. This paper is the first that examines the reliability and validity of CA scale in a collectivist cultural context by using a student samples.

Kaynakça

  • Ahuvia, A.C. & Wong, N.Y. (2002). Personality and values based materialism: their relationship and origins. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(4), 389-402.
  • Albaum, G., Erickson, R. & Strandskov, J. (1989). Questionnaire design in international and cross-cultural research: Is translation necessary? In Gardner M.P. (ed.), proceedings of the society for consumer psychology, American Psychological Association, Washington DC,10-15.
  • Alicke, M & Sedikides, C, (2009). Self-enhancement and self-protection: What they are and what they do. European Review of Social Psychology, 20, 1-48.
  • Bauer, M. A., Wilkie, J. E. B., Kim, J. K., & Bodenhausen, G. B. (2012). Cuing consumerism: Situational materialism undermines personal and social well-being. Psychological Science, 23, 517–523. doi: 10.1177/0956797611429579
  • Belk, R.W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self, Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 139-168.
  • Brislin R. W., Lonner, W. J. & Thorndike, R. M. (1973). Cross-cultural research methods, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
  • Burroughs, J. E., & Rindfleisch, A. (2002). Materialism and Well-Being: A Conflicting Values Perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(3), 348-370.
  • Calder, B.J., Lynn, W.P., & Alice, M. (1981). Designing research for application. Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 197-207.
  • Campbell, Colin (1987). The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism, New York: Basil Blackwell. Clump, M. A., Brandel, J. M., & Sharpe, P. J. (2002). Differences in environmental responsibility between materialistic groups. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 45(3), 155-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.2117/psysoc.2002.155
  • Emmons, R. A. (1984). Factor analysis and construct validity of the narcissistic personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(3), 291-300.
  • Gecas, V. (2009). The Self as a Social Force, available at: https://books.google.com.tr/books?hl=tr&lr=&id=2Nazn5H_cNYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA85&dq=Gecas,+Viktor+(2009).+The+Self+as+a+Social+Force.&ots=u0SaFh2Ec4&sig=PPP1Bdpd5V2K6MfPfXSYh6pdBuA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 4 April 2018).
  • Ger, G. & Belk, R.W. (1996). Cross-cultural differences in materialism. Journal of Economic Psychology, 17, 55-77.
  • Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th Ed.), Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Heatherton, T. F. & Vohs, K. D. (2000). Interpersonal evaluations following threats to self: Role of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 725–736.Hirschman, E. C. & LaBarbera, P. A. (1990). Dimensions of possession importance. Psychology & Marketing, 7(3), 215-233.
  • Hofstede, G. (1990). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  • Holman, R. H. (1981). Apparel as communication, avaliable at: http://acrwebsite.org/volumes/12220/volumes/sv04/SV-04 (accessed 4 April 2018).
  • Johnson, R. E., Silverman, S. B., Shyamsunder, A., Swee, H. Y., Rodopman, O. B., Cho, E. & Bauer, J. (2010). Acting superior but actually inferior? Correlates and consequences of workplace arrogance. Human Performance, 23(5), 403-427.
  • Karabati, S. & Cemalcilar, Z. (2010). Values, materialism, and well-being: A Study with Turkish university students. Journal of Economic Psychology, 31(4), 624–633.
  • Kasser, T (2002). The High Price of Materialism. MIT Press, London.
  • Kastanakis, M. N. & Balabanis, G. (2012). Between the mass and the class: Antecedents of the bandwagon luxury consumption behavior. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), 1399-1407.
  • Kilbourne, W. & Pickett, G. (2008). How materialism affects environmental beliefs, concern, and environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of Business Research, 61, 885-893.
  • Kirkman, B. L. Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. (2006). A quarter century of Culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 285–320.
  • Levy, S.J. (1959). Symbols for sale, Harvard Business Review, 37(4), 117-124.
  • Lewis, M. (2016). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, and hubris in Lewis, B. and Jones H. (Ed.). Handbook of emotions, Guilford Press, New York, 792-814.
  • Lewis, M. (2000). Self-conscious eotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In Lewis, M.& Haviland-Jones, J. M. (Ed.). Handbook of emotions 2nd ed., Guilford Press, New York, 623–636.
  • Locke, K. D. & Nekich, J.C. (2000). Agency and communion in naturalistic social comparison. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(7), 864–874.
  • Maheswaran, D. & Shavitt, S. (2000). Issues and New Directions in Cultural Psychology. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(2), 59-66.
  • Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
  • Newman, B. M. & Newman, P. R. (2014). Development through Life: A psychosocial approach, available at https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=_Vk8AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA61&hl=tr&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 05 April 2018).
  • Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd Ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
  • Paulhus, D. L. & Williams, K. M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(6), 556 -563.Podsakoff, P. M. & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.
  • Richins, M. & F.W. Rudmin, (1994). Materialism and economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15, 217-232.
  • Richins, M. L. & Dawson S. (1992). Consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3), 303-316.
  • Ruvio, A., Shoham, A. & Shlomo, H. (2007). Consumers’ arrogance: Construct conceptualization and preliminary validation evidence. Available at http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/v34 (accessed 4 April 2018).
  • Ruvio, A. A. & Shoham, A. (2016). Consumer arrogance: Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 3989-3997.
  • Shrum, L. J., Wong, N., Arif, F., Chugani, S. K., Gunz, A., Lowrey, T. M…Sundie, J. (2013). Reconceptualizing materialism as identity goal pursuits: functions, processes, and consequences. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1179-1185.
  • Silverman, S. B., Johnson, R. E., McConnell, N., & Carr, A. (2012). Arrogance: A formula for leadership failure. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 50(1), 21-28.
  • Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 580-591.
  • Sirgy, M. Joseph (1998). Materialism and Quality of Life. Social Indicators Research, 43, 227-260
  • Solomon, M. (1983). The role of products as social stimuli: a symbolic interactionism perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 319 –329.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th Ed.). Pearson Allyn & Bacon, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Tracy, J. L. & Robins, R. W. (2007). The psychological structure of pride: A tale of two facets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 506.
  • Verbeke, W., Belschak, F. & Bagozzi, R. P. (2004). The adaptive consequences of pride in personal selling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32 (4), 386-402.
  • Veselka L, Giammarco, E. A., Vernon, P. A. (2014). The Dark Triad and the seven deadly sins. Personality and Individual Differences 67:75-80.
  • Vignoles, V. L., Golledge, J., Regalia, C., Manzi, C. & Scabini, E. (2006). Beyond self-esteem: Influence of multiple motives on identity construction. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 90(2), 308–333.
  • Zait, A. & Mihalache, C. M. (2014). How do we value what we see on tv? Television's consumption and the cultivation of materialism in Romania. International Business and Economic Review, 5, 24-43.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular İktisat
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Betul BALIKÇIOĞLU> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration
0000-0001-7043-2544
Türkiye


Müzeyyen ARSLAN Bu kişi benim

0000-0002-9852-7243

Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Ekim 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 19, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { eab476419, journal = {Ege Academic Review}, issn = {1303-099X}, address = {EGE AKADEMİK BAKIŞ DERGİSİ EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ BORNOVA İZMİR}, publisher = {Ege Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {19}, number = {4}, pages = {411 - 424}, doi = {10.21121/eab.476419}, title = {A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania}, key = {cite}, author = {Balıkçıoğlu, Betul and Arslan, Müzeyyen} }
APA Balıkçıoğlu, B. & Arslan, M. (2019). A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania . Ege Academic Review , 19 (4) , 411-424 . DOI: 10.21121/eab.476419
MLA Balıkçıoğlu, B. , Arslan, M. "A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania" . Ege Academic Review 19 (2019 ): 411-424 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/eab/issue/49778/476419>
Chicago Balıkçıoğlu, B. , Arslan, M. "A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania". Ege Academic Review 19 (2019 ): 411-424
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Tüketici Kibiri Ölçeğinin Türkiye ve Romanya’da Çapraz Kültürel Geçerliliği AU - BetulBalıkçıoğlu, MüzeyyenArslan Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.21121/eab.476419 DO - 10.21121/eab.476419 T2 - Ege Academic Review JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 411 EP - 424 VL - 19 IS - 4 SN - 1303-099X- M3 - doi: 10.21121/eab.476419 UR - https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.476419 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Ege Akademik Bakış Dergisi A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania %A Betul Balıkçıoğlu , Müzeyyen Arslan %T A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania %D 2019 %J Ege Academic Review %P 1303-099X- %V 19 %N 4 %R doi: 10.21121/eab.476419 %U 10.21121/eab.476419
ISNAD Balıkçıoğlu, Betul , Arslan, Müzeyyen . "A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania". Ege Academic Review 19 / 4 (Ekim 2019): 411-424 . https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.476419
AMA Balıkçıoğlu B. , Arslan M. A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania. eab. 2019; 19(4): 411-424.
Vancouver Balıkçıoğlu B. , Arslan M. A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania. Ege Academic Review. 2019; 19(4): 411-424.
IEEE B. Balıkçıoğlu ve M. Arslan , "A Cross-Cultural Validation of Consumer Arrogance Scale in Turkey and Romania", Ege Academic Review, c. 19, sayı. 4, ss. 411-424, Eki. 2019, doi:10.21121/eab.476419