Yıl 2020, Cilt 1 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 24 - 29 2020-09-14

Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies from rice and amaranth flour blends

Utkarsha SHUKLA [1] , Mır SEHAR [2] , Thoithoi TONGBRAM [3] , Mıfftha YASEEN [4] , Jınku BORA [5]

In the present study, cookies containing amaranth flour (AF) at various substitution levels, viz. 5, 10, 15 and 20% with rice flour (RF) were studied in terms of physical and sensory characteristics. AF had significant higher protein and crude fiber content than RF. DPPH radical scavenging activity of AF was found to be 85.47%, which was higher than RF (4.57%). Increasing in the substitution levels of AF in the blend increased the cookies thickness and diameter, and decreased the hardness of cookies from 142.23 N to 128.45 N. Analysis of color characteristics of the cookies showed that increase in substitution levels of AF decreased the L* value, increased the a* value and decreased the b* value of the cookies. Overall acceptability of the cookies observed by principal component analysis, was positively correlated to flavor (r=0.991) and mouth feel (r=0.975). Both the sensory evaluation and principal component analysis results indicated that the 10% amaranth flour substituted cookies had better sensory properties in comparison to the other four cookie samples.
Cookies, Rice flour, Amaranth flour, Sensory, Principal component analysis
  • AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists). (2000). Approved methods of the AACC.
  • Abboud, A. M., Rubenthaler, G. L., & Hoseney, R. C. (1985). Effect of fat and sugar in sugar-snap cookies and evaluation of tests to measure cookie flour quality. Cereal Chemistry, 62(2), 124-129.
  • Adeola, A. A., & Ohizua, E. R. (2018). Physical, chemical, and sensory properties of biscuits prepared from flour blends of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweet potato. Food Science & Nutrition, 6(3), 532-540. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.590
  • Akin-Idowu, P. E., Ademoyegun, O. T., Olagunju, Y. O., Aduloju, A. O., & Adebo, U. G. (2017). Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of five grain amaranth species. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5(6), 249-255. DOI:10.12691/ajfst-5-6-5
  • Ayo, J. A. (2001). The effect of amaranth grain flour on the quality of bread. International Journal of Food Properties, 4(2), 341-351. https://doi.org/10.1081/JFP-100105198
  • Becker, R., Wheeler, E. L., Lorenz, K., Stafford, A. E., Grosjean, O. K., Betschart, A. A., & Saunders, R. M. (1981). A compositional study of amaranth grain. Journal of Food Science, 46(4), 1175-1180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1981.tb03018.x
  • Bensch, C. N., Horak, M. J., & Peterson, D. (2003). Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis) in soybean. Weed Science, 51(1), 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2003)051[0037:IORPAR]2.0.CO;2
  • Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., & Berset, C. L. W. T. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food science and Technology, 28(1), 25-30.
  • Brennan, M. A., Menard, C., Roudaut, G., & Brennan, C. S. (2012). Amaranth, millet and buckwheat flours affect the physical properties of extruded breakfast cereals and modulates their potential glycaemic impact. Starch‐Stärke, 64(5), 392-398. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201100150
  • Chauhan, A., Saxena, D. C., & Singh, S. (2015). Total dietary fibre and antioxidant activity of gluten free cookies made from raw and germinated amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) flour. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 63(2), 939-945. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.115
  • Chavan, J. K., Kadam, S. S., & Reddy, N. R. (1993). Nutritional enrichment of bakery products by supplementation with nonwheat flours. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 33(3), 189-226. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408399309527620
  • Chillo, S., Laverse, J., Falcone, P. M., & Del Nobile, M. A. (2007). Effect of carboxymethylcellulose and pregelatinized corn starch on the quality of amaranthus spaghetti. Journal of Food Engineering, 83(4), 492-500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.03.037
  • Choi, H., Kim, W., & Shin, M. (2004). Properties of Korean amaranth starch compared to waxy millet and waxy sorghum starches. Starch‐stärke, 56(10), 469-477. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200300273
  • de la Barca, A. M. C., Rojas-Martínez, M. E., Islas-Rubio, A. R., & Cabrera-Chávez, F. (2010). Gluten-free breads and cookies of raw and popped amaranth flours with attractive technological and nutritional qualities. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 65(3), 241-246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-010-0187-z
  • de la Hera, E., Gomez, M., & Rosell, C. M. (2013). Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 98(1), 421-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.06.002
  • de la Rosa, A. B., Fomsgaard, I. S., Laursen, B., Mortensen, A. G., Olvera-Martínez, L., Silva-Sánchez, C., ... & De León-Rodríguez, A. (2009). Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as an alternative crop for sustainable food production: Phenolic acids and flavonoids with potential impact on its nutraceutical quality. Journal of Cereal Science, 49(1), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2008.07.012
  • Deepa, G., Singh, V., & Naidu, K. A. (2008). Nutrient composition and physicochemical properties of Indian medicinal rice–Njavara. Food Chemistry, 106(1), 165-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.062
  • Dias, A. B., Müller, C. M., Larotonda, F. D., & Laurindo, J. B. (2010). Biodegradable films based on rice starch and rice flour. Journal of Cereal Science, 51(2), 213-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2009.11.014
  • Ding, Q. B., Ainsworth, P., Tucker, G., & Marson, H. (2005). The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 66(3), 283-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.03.019
  • Falade, K. O., & Christopher, A. S. (2015). Physical, functional, pasting and thermal properties of flours and starches of six Nigerian rice cultivars. Food Hydrocolloids, 44, 478-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.10.005
  • Fuhr, F. R. (1962). Cookie spread: its effects on production and quality. Bakers Digest, 36(4), 56-60.
  • Gidamis, A. B., Panga, J. T., Sarwatt, S. V., Chove, B. E., & Shayo, N. B. (2003). Nutrient and antinutrient contents in raw and cooked young leaves and immature pods of Moringa oleifera, Lam. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 42(6), 399-411. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670240390268857
  • Gorinstein, S., Vargas, O. J. M., Jaramillo, N. O., Salas, I. A., Ayala, A. L. M., Arancibia-Avila, P., ... & Trakhtenberg, S. (2007). The total polyphenols and the antioxidant potentials of some selected cereals and pseudocereals. European Food Research and Technology, 225(3-4), 321-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0417-7
  • Gujral, H. S., & Rosell, C. M. (2004). Functionality of rice flour modified with a microbial transglutaminase. Journal of Cereal Science, 39(2), 225-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2003.10.004
  • Gujral, H. S., Mehta, S., Samra, I. S., & Goyal, P. (2003). Effect of wheat bran, coarse wheat flour, and rice flour on the instrumental texture of cookies. International Journal of Food Properties, 6(2), 329-340. https://doi.org/10.1081/JFP-120017816
  • Ikuomola, D. S., Otutu, O. L., & Oluniran, D. D. (2017). Quality assessment of cookies produced from wheat flour and malted barley (Hordeum vulgare) bran blends. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 3(1), 1293471. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2017.1293471
  • Jekle, M., Houben, A., Mitzscherling, M., & Becker, T. (2010). Effects of selected lactic acid bacteria on the characteristics of amaranth sourdough. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(13), 2326-2332. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4091
  • Joshi, A. U., Liu, C., & Sathe, S. K. (2015). Functional properties of select seed flours. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 60(1), 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.08.038
  • Kaur, M., & Singh, N. (2005). Studies on functional, thermal and pasting properties of flours from different chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Food Chemistry, 91(3), 403-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.015
  • Kaur, M., Singh, V., & Kaur, R. (2017). Effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with varying levels of flaxseed flour on physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory characteristics of cookies. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 9, 14-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2016.12.002
  • Kunyanga, C. N., Imungi, J. K., Okoth, M. W., Biesalski, H. K., & Vadivel, V. (2012). Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 45(2), 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.08.006
  • L Kim, H. Y., Lee, I. S., Kang, J. Y., & Kim, G. Y. (2002). Quality characteristics of cookies with various levels of functional rice flour. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 34(4), 642-646.
  • Leach, H. W. (1959). Structure of starch granules. I. Swelling and solubility patterns of various starches. Cereal Chemistry, 36, 534-544.
  • Lee, J. S., & Oh, M. S. (2006). Quality characteristics of cookies with black rice flour. Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science, 22(2), 193-203.
  • Lee, M. H., & Oh, M. S. (2006). Quality characteristics of cookies with brown rice flour. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, 21(6), 685-694.
  • Lorenz, K. (1981). Amarantus hypochondriacus–Characteristics of the starch and baking potential of the flour. Starch‐Stärke, 33(5), 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19810330502
  • Lucarini, M., Canali, R., Cappelloni, M., Di Lullo, G., & Lombardi-Boccia, G. (1999). In vitro calcium availability from brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L.) and as consumed in composite dishes. Food Chemistry, 64(4), 519-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00159-9
  • Marcilío, R., Amaya-Farfan, J., Silva, M. A. A. P., & SPEHAR, C. (2005). Avaliação da farinha de amaranto na elaboração de biscoito sem glúten do tipo cookie. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 8(2), 175-181.
  • Mariotti, M., Lucisano, M., Pagani, M. A., & Ng, P. K. (2009). The role of corn starch, amaranth flour, pea isolate, and Psyllium flour on the rheological properties and the ultrastructure of gluten-free doughs. Food Research International, 42(8), 963-975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.04.017
  • Park, J. K., Kim, S. S., & Kim, K. O. (2001). Effect of milling ratio on sensory properties of cooked rice and on physicochemical properties of milled and cooked rice. Cereal Chemistry, 78(2), 151-156. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2001.78.2.151
  • Rodríguez-Ambriz, S. L., Islas-Hernández, J. J., Agama-Acevedo, E., Tovar, J., & Bello-Pérez, L. A. (2008). Characterization of a fibre-rich powder prepared by liquefaction of unripe banana flour. Food Chemistry, 107(4), 1515-1521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.007
  • Sindhuja, A., Sudha, M. L., & Rahim, A. (2005). Effect of incorporation of amaranth flour on the quality of cookies. European Food Research and Technology, 221(5), 597. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-0039-5
  • Singh, N., Singh, P., Shevkani, K., & Virdi, A. S. (2019). Amaranth: Potential source for flour enrichment. In Flour and breads and their fortification in health and disease prevention (pp. 123-135). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814639-2.00010-1
  • Singhal, R. S., & Kulkarni, P. R. (1991). Puffing effects on functional properties of Amaranthus paniculatas (Rajgeera) seed flour. Journal of Food Science, 56(4), 1121-1122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb14661.x
  • Sivaramakrishnan, H. P., Senge, B., & Chattopadhyay, P. K. (2004). Rheological properties of rice dough for making rice bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 62(1), 37-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00169-9
  • Sripum, C., Kukreja, R. K., Charoenkiatkul, S., Kriengsinyos, W., & Suttisansanee, U. (2017). The effect of extraction conditions on antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of different processed Thai Jasmine rice. International Food Research Journal, 24(4).
  • Staudt, E., & Ziegler, E. (Eds.). (1973). Flour Chemistry. Buhler Brothers.
  • Suntharalingam, S., & Ravindran, G. (1993). Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 43(1), 19-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01088092
  • Suriya, M., Rajput, R., Reddy, C. K., Haripriya, S., & Bashir, M. (2017). Functional and physicochemical characteristics of cookies prepared from Amorphophallus paeoniifolius flour. Journal of Food science and Technology, 54(7), 2156-2165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2656-y
  • Thanuja, B., & Parimalavalli, R. (2020). Comparison of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of native and dual modified rice flour. Int J Pharm Sci & Res, 11(3), 1203-09. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.11(3).1203-09.
  • Tiengo, A., Faria, M., & Netto, F. M. (2009). Characterization and ACE‐inhibitory activity of amaranth proteins. Journal of Food Science, 74(5), H121-H126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01145.x
  • Tironi, V. A., & Añón, M. C. (2010). Amaranth proteins as a source of antioxidant peptides: Effect of proteolysis. Food Research International, 43(1), 315-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.10.001
  • Torbica, A., Hadnađev, M., & Hadnađev, T. D. (2012). Rice and buckwheat flour characterisation and its relation to cookie quality. Food Research International, 48(1), 277-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.05.001
  • Tosi, E. A., Ciappini, M. C., & Masciarelli, R. (1996). Utilisation of whole amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus) flour in the manufacture of biscuits for coeliacs. Alimentaria, 34(269), 49-51.
  • Zhu, L. J., Liu, Q. Q., Wilson, J. D., Gu, M. H., & Shi, Y. C. (2011). Digestibility and physicochemical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) flours and starches differing in amylose content. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86(4), 1751-1759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.017
Birincil Dil en
Konular Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi
Bölüm Research Articles

Orcid: 0000-0001-7295-8769
Yazar: Utkarsha SHUKLA
Kurum: Department of Food Technology, SIST, Jamia Hamdard
Ülke: India

Orcid: 0000-0002-0666-2190
Yazar: Mır SEHAR
Kurum: Department of Food Technology, SIST, Jamia Hamdard
Ülke: India

Orcid: 0000-0002-4177-3347
Yazar: Thoithoi TONGBRAM
Kurum: Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Tezpur University
Ülke: India

Orcid: 0000-0003-0468-174X
Yazar: Mıfftha YASEEN
Kurum: Department of Food Technology, SIST, Jamia Hamdard
Ülke: India

Orcid: 0000-0003-1185-5138
Yazar: Jınku BORA (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Department of Food Technology, SIST, Jamia Hamdard
Ülke: India


Başvuru Tarihi : 11 Temmuz 2020
Kabul Tarihi : 9 Eylül 2020
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 14 Eylül 2020

APA Shukla, U , Sehar, M , Tongbram, T , Yaseen, M , Bora, J . (2020). Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies from rice and amaranth flour blends . European Food Science and Engineering , 1 (1) , 24-29 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/efse/issue/54144/768016