Araştırma Makalesi
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Medikal Turistlerin Tercihinde Etkili Olan Faktörlerin İncelenmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 79 - 98, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.52148/ehta.991799

Öz

Bu araştırmanın amacı, medikal turistlerin tercihinde etkili olan faktörlerin (ülke ortamı, hizmetler/tesisler, maliyetler, turizm destinasyonu), bazı sosyo-demografik özellikler (cinsiyet, yaş, medeni durum, aylık gelir, eğitim, kıta/bölge) dikkate alınarak incelenmesidir. Bu amaçla, çalışmada Fetscherin ve Stephano’nun (2016) dört boyut ve 34 ifadeden oluşan Medikal Turizm İndeksi (MTI) kullanılmıştır. Ölçekte yer alan faktörler, medikal turistlerin ülke ve sağlık kuruluşu tercihinde de etkili olan faktörler arasında yer aldığından tercih edilmiştir. Çalışmanın evrenini, Türkiye’de medikal turizm açısından tercih edilen iller arasında yer alan İstanbul ve Ankara’ya tedavi olmak için yurt dışından gelen 302.416 medikal turist oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemi ise 415 medikal turistten oluşmuştur. Araştırma sonucunda; medikal turizm tercihinde etkili olan “ülke ortamı” faktörünün medikal turistlerin cinsiyeti, gelir durumu, eğitim durumu ve geldikleri ülkeye göre; “turizm varış noktası” faktörünün medikal turistlerin geliri ve geldikleri kıta/bölgeye göre; “tıbbi turizm maliyetleri” faktörünün medikal turistlerin geliri ve geldikleri kıta/bölgeye göre; “tesis ve hizmetler” faktörünün medikal turistlerin eğitim durumu ve geldikleri kıta/bölgeye göre farklılık gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Akbaş, Y.Z., (2016), Hastanelerin sağlık turizmi kapsamında tüketici odaklı yaklaşımla değerlendirilmesi: Samsun İli Örneği, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erciyes Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Kayseri.
  • 2. An, D. (2014). Understanding medical tourists in Korea: Cross-cultural perceptions of medical tourism among patients from the USA, Russia, Japan, and China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(10), 1141-1169.
  • 3. Aniza,I., Aidalina, M, Nirmalini, R, MCH Inggit, TE Ajeng, (2009), Health Tourısm In Malaysıa: The Strength And Weaknesses, Jurnal of Community Health 2009: Vol 15 Number 1, p.7-15,.
  • 4. Balcı, S., (2019), Medikal turizm kapsamında hizmet alan hastaların sağlık hizmetine ilişkin algıları: İstanbul’daki özel hastanelerde bir araştırma, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Sakarya Üniversitesi,İşletme Enstitüsü, Sakarya.
  • 5. Belber, B. G. (2015). Yaş ve Medeni Duruma Göre,“Özel Hastanelerin Yaptığı Tanıtımın”, Hastanenin Prestijine, Tanınırlığına ve Tercih Edilirliğine Etkisi: Nevşehir Uygulaması. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, 1(2), 518-535.
  • 6. Bookman,M.Z.,Bookman,K.R., , (2007). Medical Tourism in Developing Countries, Palgrave Macmillan ISBN: 0-230-60006-9, s.1-229.
  • 7. Bostan, S., Yalçın, B.,(2016). Sağlık Turistlerinin Medikal Destinasyon Seçimini Etkileyen Faktörler, Journal of International Social Research, 9(43), 1729-1735.
  • 8. Caballero-Danell, S., & Mugomba, C. (2007). Medical tourism and its entrepreneurial opportunities: A conceptual framework for entry into the industry. Master Thesis No. 2006.
  • 9. Can, B,(2019), Türkiye ve dünyada sağlık turizmi ve hastaların Türkiye’yi tercih etme nedenleri :Özel bir hastane örneği, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • 10. Cavmak, D., & Cavmak, S. (2020). Using AHP to prioritize barriers in developing medical tourism: case of Turkey. Int J Travel Med Glob Health, 8(2), 73-79.
  • 11. Cham, T. H., Lim, Y. M., Sia, B. C., Cheah, J. H., & Ting, H. (2021). Medical tourism destination image and its relationship with the intention to revisit: A study of Chinese medical tourists in Malaysia. Journal of China Tourism Research, 17(2), 163-191.
  • 12. Connell, J. (2013). Contemporary medical tourism: Conceptualisation, culture and commodification. Tourism management, 34, 1-13.
  • 13. Connell,J, (2006), “Medical Tourism: Sea, Sun, Sand And .. Surgery”, Tourism Management 27 (2006) s.1093–1100.
  • 14. Crooks, V.A.,.Kingsbury, P, Snyder, j.,.Johnston, R ,(2010), What is known about the patient’s experience of medical tourism? A scoping review, BMC Health Services Research 10:266.
  • 15. Demir, Y., Oruç, P.,., Baştürk,Y. A., & Övey, İ. S. (2020). Medi̇kal Turi̇stleri̇n Terci̇h Nedenleri̇: Samsun İli̇ Örneği̇. Turizm Ekonomi Ve İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(1), 18-30.
  • 16. Ehrbeck,Guevara,Mango,2008:4, Mapping the market for travel,The McKinsey Quarterly http://www.heal-wheel-india.com/white-pappers/McKinsey-Report-Medical-Travel.pdf).
  • 17. Falk,L. K., Prinsen, T. J., Decisions, Decisions: Factors that Influence a Patient's Medical Tourism Choices, Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 3 – Issue 3 – November 2016, web kaynak:https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb1a/d679ba4d162e706b13548c914e5c66336c4b.pdf.
  • 18. Fetscherin, M., & Stephano, R. M. (2016). The medical tourism index: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 52, 539-556.
  • 19. Freire, N. A. (2012). The emergent medical tourism: Advantages and disadvantages of the medical treatments abroad. International Business Research, 5(2), 41.
  • 20. Gredičak, T., & Demonja, D. (2020). Potential directions of strategic development of medical tourism: The case of the Republic of Croatia. Geographica Pannonica, 24(1), 67-87.
  • 21. Hall, C. M. (2011). Health and medical tourism: a kill or cure for global public health?. Tourism review., Vol. 66 Issue: 1/2, pp.4-15.
  • 22. Heung, V. C. S., Kucukusta., D.ve Song, H,(2010), “A Conceptual Model of Medical Tourism: Implications for Future Research, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27:3, s. 236-251.
  • 23. Heung, V. C., Kucukusta, D., & Song, H. (2011). Medical tourism development in Hong Kong: An assessment of the barriers. Tourism management, 32(5), 995-1005.
  • 24. Hill, C. J., & Joonas, K. (2006). The impact of unacceptable wait time on health care patients' attitudes and actions. Health marketing quarterly, 23(2), 69-87.
  • 25. Jotikasthira,N, 2010 , Salient Factors Influencing Medical Tourism Destination Choice, A Research Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Degree Of Doctor Of Business Administration Southern Cross University, Australia Dba Thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Nsw. Copyright.
  • 26. Kayhan, E.M.,(2018), Türkiye’ye sağlık turizmi kapsamında başvuran hastaların tercihlerini etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • 27. Lajevardi, M. (2016). A comprehensive perspective on medical tourism context and create a conceptual framework. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 5(5).
  • 28. Lawthaweesawat, S.(2009) (2013). Medical tourism: specific preference of foreign tourists in selected hospitals in Bangkok, Master of Business Administration in Tourism Management, Graduate School of Business Assumption University Bangkok, Thailand.
  • 29. Lunt, N., & Carrera, P. (2010). Medical tourism: assessing the evidence on treatment abroad. Maturitas, 66(1), 27-32.
  • 30. Manaf, N. H. A., Hussin,H. , Kassim,P.N. J., Alavi,R. , Dahari,Z ,(2015), Country perspective on medical tourism: the Malaysian experience, Leadership in Health Services Vol. 28 No. 1, 2015 pp. 43-56 © Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1751-1879 DOI 10.1108/LHS-11-2013-0038.
  • 31. Maung, N., Walsh,J, (2014). Decision factors in medical tourism: Evidence from Burmese visitors to a hospital in Bangkok. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 6(2), 84-94.
  • 32. Moghimehfar, F., & Nasr-Esfahani, M. H. (2011). Decisive factors in medical tourism destination choice: A case study of Isfahan, Iran and fertility treatments. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1431-1434.
  • 33. Omisore, E. O., & Agbabiaka, H. I. (2016). Factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 5(4), 32-41.
  • 34. Rahman, M. K. (2019). Medical tourism: tourists’ perceived services and satisfaction lessons from Malaysian hospitals. Tourism Review. vol.74 No.3 ,739-758.
  • 35. Ridderstaat, J., & Singh, D. (2019). Increasing Health Tourism Spending in the United States. Rosen Research Review, 1(2), 9.
  • 36. Rokni, L., & Sam-Hun, P. A. R. K. (2019). Medical tourism in Iran, reevaluation on the new trends: a narrative review. Iranian journal of public health, 48(7), 1191-1202.
  • 37. Sarwar, A.,A., Manaf, N. A., Omar, A., (2012) Medical Tourist’s Perception in Selecting their Destination: A Global Perspective, Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 41, No.8, Aug 2012, pp. 1-7.
  • 38. Sevim, E., Sevim, E. (2019). Medikal turizm tercihini etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi: Türkiye örneği. Hacettepe Sağlık İdaresi Dergisi, 22(3), 633-652.
  • 39. Smith, P. C., & Forgione, D. A. (2007). Global outsourcing of healthcare: a medical tourism decision model. Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research, 9(3), 19-30.
  • 40. Stephano, Renée-Marie Medical Tourism Magazine,2019,s.38 https://www.magazine.medicaltourism.com/print-edition erişim tarihi: 12.04.2021 .
  • 41. T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı, Sağlık Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Sağlık Turizmi Daire Başkanlığı, Sağlık Turizmi sayısal verileri, 2020.
  • 42. Terzi, S., (2019), Sağlık Turizminde Uluslararası Hastaların Destinasyon Seçimlerini Etkileyen Faktörler Üzerine Bir Çalışma:Türkiye Örneği, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi,Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • 43. Ulaş,D., Anadol, Y.,(2016), “A case study for medical tourism : investigating a private hospital venture in Turkey”, Anatolıa, Vol 27, No.3, s.327-338.
  • 44. World Tourism Organization and European Travel Commission (2018), Exploring Health Tourism – Executive Summary, UNWTO, Madrid, DOI: https://doi.org/10.18111/978928442030.8.
  • 45. Yamane, T. (2001). Temel Örnekleme Yöntemleri. 1. baskı, (Çev. A. ESİN, M. A. BAKIR, C. AYDIN ve E. GÜRBÜZSEL). İstanbul: Literatür Yayıncılık.

Examination Of Factors That Are Effective in The Preferences Of Medical Tourists

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 79 - 98, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.52148/ehta.991799

Öz

The aim of this research is to examine the factors (country environment, services/facilities, costs, tourism destination) which have impacts on preference of medical tourists by considering some socio-demographic qualities (gender, age, marital status, monthly income, education, continent/region). the Medical Tourism Index (MTI) of Fetscherin and Stephano’s (2016) study, which consists of four dimensions and 34 expressions, was used for this purpose. The factors in the scale were selected because they are among the factors that are also effective in choice of country and health institution of medical tourists. The population of the study consists of 302,416 medical tourists coming from abroad to be treated in Istanbul and Ankara, which are among the preferred cities in terms of medical tourism in Turkey. The sample of the study covered 415 medical tourists. As a result of the research; the “country environment” factor which is effective in medical tourism preference, differs according to gender, income status, education level and country of origin of the medical tourists; the “tourism destination” factor differs according to the income of medical tourists and the continent/region they come from; the factor of “medical tourism costs” differs according to the income of medical tourists and the continent/region they come from and, it has been determined that the "facility and services" factor differs according to the education level of the medical tourists and the continent/region they come from.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Akbaş, Y.Z., (2016), Hastanelerin sağlık turizmi kapsamında tüketici odaklı yaklaşımla değerlendirilmesi: Samsun İli Örneği, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erciyes Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Kayseri.
  • 2. An, D. (2014). Understanding medical tourists in Korea: Cross-cultural perceptions of medical tourism among patients from the USA, Russia, Japan, and China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(10), 1141-1169.
  • 3. Aniza,I., Aidalina, M, Nirmalini, R, MCH Inggit, TE Ajeng, (2009), Health Tourısm In Malaysıa: The Strength And Weaknesses, Jurnal of Community Health 2009: Vol 15 Number 1, p.7-15,.
  • 4. Balcı, S., (2019), Medikal turizm kapsamında hizmet alan hastaların sağlık hizmetine ilişkin algıları: İstanbul’daki özel hastanelerde bir araştırma, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Sakarya Üniversitesi,İşletme Enstitüsü, Sakarya.
  • 5. Belber, B. G. (2015). Yaş ve Medeni Duruma Göre,“Özel Hastanelerin Yaptığı Tanıtımın”, Hastanenin Prestijine, Tanınırlığına ve Tercih Edilirliğine Etkisi: Nevşehir Uygulaması. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, 1(2), 518-535.
  • 6. Bookman,M.Z.,Bookman,K.R., , (2007). Medical Tourism in Developing Countries, Palgrave Macmillan ISBN: 0-230-60006-9, s.1-229.
  • 7. Bostan, S., Yalçın, B.,(2016). Sağlık Turistlerinin Medikal Destinasyon Seçimini Etkileyen Faktörler, Journal of International Social Research, 9(43), 1729-1735.
  • 8. Caballero-Danell, S., & Mugomba, C. (2007). Medical tourism and its entrepreneurial opportunities: A conceptual framework for entry into the industry. Master Thesis No. 2006.
  • 9. Can, B,(2019), Türkiye ve dünyada sağlık turizmi ve hastaların Türkiye’yi tercih etme nedenleri :Özel bir hastane örneği, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • 10. Cavmak, D., & Cavmak, S. (2020). Using AHP to prioritize barriers in developing medical tourism: case of Turkey. Int J Travel Med Glob Health, 8(2), 73-79.
  • 11. Cham, T. H., Lim, Y. M., Sia, B. C., Cheah, J. H., & Ting, H. (2021). Medical tourism destination image and its relationship with the intention to revisit: A study of Chinese medical tourists in Malaysia. Journal of China Tourism Research, 17(2), 163-191.
  • 12. Connell, J. (2013). Contemporary medical tourism: Conceptualisation, culture and commodification. Tourism management, 34, 1-13.
  • 13. Connell,J, (2006), “Medical Tourism: Sea, Sun, Sand And .. Surgery”, Tourism Management 27 (2006) s.1093–1100.
  • 14. Crooks, V.A.,.Kingsbury, P, Snyder, j.,.Johnston, R ,(2010), What is known about the patient’s experience of medical tourism? A scoping review, BMC Health Services Research 10:266.
  • 15. Demir, Y., Oruç, P.,., Baştürk,Y. A., & Övey, İ. S. (2020). Medi̇kal Turi̇stleri̇n Terci̇h Nedenleri̇: Samsun İli̇ Örneği̇. Turizm Ekonomi Ve İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(1), 18-30.
  • 16. Ehrbeck,Guevara,Mango,2008:4, Mapping the market for travel,The McKinsey Quarterly http://www.heal-wheel-india.com/white-pappers/McKinsey-Report-Medical-Travel.pdf).
  • 17. Falk,L. K., Prinsen, T. J., Decisions, Decisions: Factors that Influence a Patient's Medical Tourism Choices, Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 3 – Issue 3 – November 2016, web kaynak:https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb1a/d679ba4d162e706b13548c914e5c66336c4b.pdf.
  • 18. Fetscherin, M., & Stephano, R. M. (2016). The medical tourism index: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 52, 539-556.
  • 19. Freire, N. A. (2012). The emergent medical tourism: Advantages and disadvantages of the medical treatments abroad. International Business Research, 5(2), 41.
  • 20. Gredičak, T., & Demonja, D. (2020). Potential directions of strategic development of medical tourism: The case of the Republic of Croatia. Geographica Pannonica, 24(1), 67-87.
  • 21. Hall, C. M. (2011). Health and medical tourism: a kill or cure for global public health?. Tourism review., Vol. 66 Issue: 1/2, pp.4-15.
  • 22. Heung, V. C. S., Kucukusta., D.ve Song, H,(2010), “A Conceptual Model of Medical Tourism: Implications for Future Research, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27:3, s. 236-251.
  • 23. Heung, V. C., Kucukusta, D., & Song, H. (2011). Medical tourism development in Hong Kong: An assessment of the barriers. Tourism management, 32(5), 995-1005.
  • 24. Hill, C. J., & Joonas, K. (2006). The impact of unacceptable wait time on health care patients' attitudes and actions. Health marketing quarterly, 23(2), 69-87.
  • 25. Jotikasthira,N, 2010 , Salient Factors Influencing Medical Tourism Destination Choice, A Research Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Degree Of Doctor Of Business Administration Southern Cross University, Australia Dba Thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Nsw. Copyright.
  • 26. Kayhan, E.M.,(2018), Türkiye’ye sağlık turizmi kapsamında başvuran hastaların tercihlerini etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • 27. Lajevardi, M. (2016). A comprehensive perspective on medical tourism context and create a conceptual framework. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 5(5).
  • 28. Lawthaweesawat, S.(2009) (2013). Medical tourism: specific preference of foreign tourists in selected hospitals in Bangkok, Master of Business Administration in Tourism Management, Graduate School of Business Assumption University Bangkok, Thailand.
  • 29. Lunt, N., & Carrera, P. (2010). Medical tourism: assessing the evidence on treatment abroad. Maturitas, 66(1), 27-32.
  • 30. Manaf, N. H. A., Hussin,H. , Kassim,P.N. J., Alavi,R. , Dahari,Z ,(2015), Country perspective on medical tourism: the Malaysian experience, Leadership in Health Services Vol. 28 No. 1, 2015 pp. 43-56 © Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1751-1879 DOI 10.1108/LHS-11-2013-0038.
  • 31. Maung, N., Walsh,J, (2014). Decision factors in medical tourism: Evidence from Burmese visitors to a hospital in Bangkok. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 6(2), 84-94.
  • 32. Moghimehfar, F., & Nasr-Esfahani, M. H. (2011). Decisive factors in medical tourism destination choice: A case study of Isfahan, Iran and fertility treatments. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1431-1434.
  • 33. Omisore, E. O., & Agbabiaka, H. I. (2016). Factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 5(4), 32-41.
  • 34. Rahman, M. K. (2019). Medical tourism: tourists’ perceived services and satisfaction lessons from Malaysian hospitals. Tourism Review. vol.74 No.3 ,739-758.
  • 35. Ridderstaat, J., & Singh, D. (2019). Increasing Health Tourism Spending in the United States. Rosen Research Review, 1(2), 9.
  • 36. Rokni, L., & Sam-Hun, P. A. R. K. (2019). Medical tourism in Iran, reevaluation on the new trends: a narrative review. Iranian journal of public health, 48(7), 1191-1202.
  • 37. Sarwar, A.,A., Manaf, N. A., Omar, A., (2012) Medical Tourist’s Perception in Selecting their Destination: A Global Perspective, Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 41, No.8, Aug 2012, pp. 1-7.
  • 38. Sevim, E., Sevim, E. (2019). Medikal turizm tercihini etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi: Türkiye örneği. Hacettepe Sağlık İdaresi Dergisi, 22(3), 633-652.
  • 39. Smith, P. C., & Forgione, D. A. (2007). Global outsourcing of healthcare: a medical tourism decision model. Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research, 9(3), 19-30.
  • 40. Stephano, Renée-Marie Medical Tourism Magazine,2019,s.38 https://www.magazine.medicaltourism.com/print-edition erişim tarihi: 12.04.2021 .
  • 41. T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı, Sağlık Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Sağlık Turizmi Daire Başkanlığı, Sağlık Turizmi sayısal verileri, 2020.
  • 42. Terzi, S., (2019), Sağlık Turizminde Uluslararası Hastaların Destinasyon Seçimlerini Etkileyen Faktörler Üzerine Bir Çalışma:Türkiye Örneği, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi,Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • 43. Ulaş,D., Anadol, Y.,(2016), “A case study for medical tourism : investigating a private hospital venture in Turkey”, Anatolıa, Vol 27, No.3, s.327-338.
  • 44. World Tourism Organization and European Travel Commission (2018), Exploring Health Tourism – Executive Summary, UNWTO, Madrid, DOI: https://doi.org/10.18111/978928442030.8.
  • 45. Yamane, T. (2001). Temel Örnekleme Yöntemleri. 1. baskı, (Çev. A. ESİN, M. A. BAKIR, C. AYDIN ve E. GÜRBÜZSEL). İstanbul: Literatür Yayıncılık.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Politikaları ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Şafak ÇINAR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA HACI BAYRAM VELI UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-1472-3931
Türkiye


Derya SİVUK>
ANKARA HACI BAYRAM VELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Çınar, Ş. & Sivuk, D. (2021). Medikal Turistlerin Tercihinde Etkili Olan Faktörlerin İncelenmesi . Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment , 5 (2) , 79-98 . DOI: 10.52148/ehta.991799

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