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Yıl 2013, Sayı 8, 53 - 74, 23.07.2016

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, Gana eğitim sisteminin, eğitimde mükemmellik arayışın önündeki engelleri belirlemektir. Bir başka ifade ile Gana okul müdürlerinin mesleki gelişimi ve bu süreçte karşılaşılan sorunların üstesinden gelinmesi için öneriler geliştirmektir. Gana’da okul müdürlerinin öğrenme, öğretme ve öğrenci başarısındaki etkisi çok düşüktür. Gana’da okul yöneticileri, günlük rutin işlerde zamanlarının büyük bir kısmı harcamaktadırlar. Gana’da müdürlerin mesleki gelişimi ve eğitimi eğitim bakanlığı veya il milli eğitim müdürlükleri tarafından merkezi olarak hazırlanıp yürütülmektedir. Merkezden yürütülen hizmet içi eğitim çalışmaları oldukça yetersiz ve çoğu zamanda düzensiz, rastgele yapılmaktadır (Anamuah-Mensah, 2006). Ayrıca okul müdürlerinin atanmasında prosedürler ve atamalarında da yalnızca kıdemin esas alınması okul müdürlerinin etkililiğini düşüren en önemli sebeplerin başında gelmektedir. Bu bakımdan mesleki bilgi temelleri zayıf olan okul yöneticilerinin etkililiği de zayıf kalmaktadır (Godwyll 2008; Oduro, 2003). Bu çalışmada, il veya eğitim bakanlığa tarafından düzenlenen mesleki gelişim eğitimleri yerine okul temelli mesleki gelişimin esas alınması önerilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın sonucunda; okul merkezli mesleki gelişim, profesyonel öğrenme toplulukları anlayışı esas alınarak okul yöneticilerinin kapasitelerinin geliştirilmesinin öğrenci başarısı için daha yaralı olacağı sonucuna varılmıştır

Kaynakça

  • Amuzu-Kpeglo, A. (1990). Educational administrator preparation: Survey of the training needs of headmasters. An unpublished paper, Institute for Educational Planning and
  • Administration (IEPA), Cape Coast, Ghana: University of Cape Coast.
  • Anamuah-Mensah, J. (2006). Teacher education in Ghana: Theory and practice. In K. T. Raheem P. Kupari, & J. Lasonen (Eds.), Educational issues for sustainable development in Africa (pp. 28-40). Jyväskylä, Finland: Institute for Educational Research.
  • Barber, L. (1983). In-service education. Practical Applications of Research 5 (3), 4.
  • Bell, L. & Stevenson, H. (2006). Education policy: Process, themes and impact. NY: Routledge.
  • Bruder, M. B. & Nikitas, T. (1982). Changing the professional practice of early interventionists: An in-service model to meet the service needs of Public Law 99-457. Journal of Early Intervention, 16 (2), 173-180.
  • Bush, T. (1998). The national professional qualification for headship: The key to effective school leadership. School Leadership and Management, 18 (3), 321-333.
  • Bush, T. & Jackson, D. (2003). A preparation for school leadership: International perspectives. Educational Leadership and Administration, 30 (4), 417-429.
  • Bush, T. & Oduro, G. K. T. (2006). New head teachers in Africa: Preparation, induction and practice. Journal of Educational Administration, 44 (4), 359-375.
  • Chermack, T. J. & van der Merwe, L. (2003). The role of constructivist learning in scenario planning. Futures, 35 (5), 445-460.
  • Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (1994). Research methods in education (4th ed.). London: Routledge. Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th ed.).
  • London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
  • Cohen L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
  • Cole, R. (1982). In-service is not a verb. Phi Delta Kappan, 63, 370. Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., Meyerson, D., Orr, M. T., & Cohen, C. (2007).
  • Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development programs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.
  • Darling-Hammond, L., Orphanos, S., LaPointe, M., & Weeks, S. (2007). Leadership development in California. (Getting Down to Facts: Effectiveness Studies series). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Institute for Research on Education Policy & Practice and the School Redesign.
  • Davis, S., Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., & Meyerson, D. (2005). School leadership study: Developing successful principals. Stanford, CA: Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.
  • Davis, T. L. (2002). The voices of gender role conflict: The social construction of college men’s identity. Journal of College Student Development, 43 (4), 508-521.
  • Dimmock, C. (1996). Dilemmas for school leaders and administrators in restructuring. In K. Leithwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson, P. Hallinger, and A, Hart (Eds.), International handbook in educational leadership and administration (pp.135-170) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Dimmock, C. (2003). Leadership in learning-centered schools: Cultural context, functions and qualities. In M. Brundrett, N. Burton, and R. Smith (Eds.), Leadership in Education (pp. 3-22). London: Sage Publications.
  • Dufour, R. (2004). What is a professional learning community? Educational Leadership, 61 (8), 6-11
  • Dufour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Education Service.
  • Elmore, R. (2000). Building a new structure for school leadership. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
  • EQUIP 1. (2003). Educational quality in the developing world. EQ Review, 1 (1), 1-3. Evans, K. (1993). School-based in-service education: Case studies and guidelines for implementation. Culemborg, Netherlands: Phaedon Press.
  • Ghana Education Service. (2001). School management committee, parent teacher association handbook: Improving quality education through community participation. Accra, Ghana.
  • Godwyll, F. E. (2008). Education at the crossroads: The Ghanaian dilemma and puzzle. In G. Wan (Ed.), The education of diverse student population: A global perspective (pp. 56-58). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Graham, C. K. (1971). The history of education in Ghana: From the earliest times to the declaration of independence. Abingdon, Oxonshire, United Kingdom: Frank Cass and Company Limited.
  • Guskey, R. T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. CA: Corwin. Hallinger, P. & Murphy, J. (1987). Instructional leadership in the school context. In W.
  • Greenfield (Ed.), Instructional leadership: Concepts, issue, and controversies (pp. 179-201). Boston, MA: Allyn-Bacon.
  • Harris, A. (2004). Distributive leadership and school improvement: Leading or misleading. Educational Management, Administration, & Leadership, 32 (1), 11-24.
  • Harris, A. & Lambert, L. (2003). Building leadership capacity for school improvement. South African Journal of Education, 30, 401-419.
  • Harris, B. (1989). In-service education for staff development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Harris, B., & Bessent, W. (1969). Inservice education: A guide to better practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Harris, H. & Kumra, S. (2000). International manager development: Cross-cultural training in highly diverse environments. Journal of Management Development, 19 (7), 602-614.
  • Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale on intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developing Psychology, 17, 300-312.
  • Hillman, J. (1992). Preparation, selection, and development of head teachers. In National commission on education (p. 13). London, United Kingdom: Heinemann.
  • Hoyle, E. (1986). The management of schools: Theory and practice. In E. Hoyle & S. McMahon (Eds.), World yearbook of education, 1986: The management of schools (pp. 11-28). Abingdon, Oxonshire, United Kingdom: Routledge.
  • Hulme, G. (2006, September). Distributed leadership: An evolving view of school leadership. Issue Brief, 9 (1). Atlanta, GA: Professional Association of Georgia Educators.
  • Husman, J., Derryberry, W. P., Crowson, H. M., & Lomax, R. (2004). Instrumentality, task value, and intrinsic motivation: Making sense of their independence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 63-76. Kennedy, C. (2002). The principalship: Too much for one person. Principal, 82 (1), 28- 31.
  • Kitavi, M. W. & Westhuizan V. D. P. C. (1997). Problems facing beginning principals in developing countries: A study of beginning principals in Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development, 17 (3), 251-263.
  • Knowles, Malcolm S. (1989). The Making of an Adult Educator. San Francisco: JosseyBass.
  • Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2008). Seven strong claims about school leadership. School Leadership and Management, 28 (1), 27-42.
  • Leithwood, K. & Jantzi, D. (2006). Transformational school leadership for large-scale reform: Effects on students, teachers, and their classroom practices. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 202-227.
  • Leithwood, K. & Poplin, M. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 49 (5), 8.
  • Leithwood, K., Seashore Louis, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning, New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/schoolleadership/key-research/Pages/How-Leadership-Influences-Student-Learning. aspx.
  • Levine, A. (2005). Educating school leaders. The Education Schools Project: Retrieved from http://www.edschools.org/pdf/Embargoed_Report_050315.pdf.
  • Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Journal of Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157-189.
  • McWilliam, H. O. A. & Kwamena-Poh, M. A. (1978). The development of education in Ghana. London, United Kingdom: Routledge and Kegan.
  • Ministry of Education. (1994). Head teachers’ handbook. Accra, Ghana: Paramount Printing Works Limited.
  • Ministry of Education. (2002). Circuit supervisors’ handbook. Accra, Ghana: Paramount Printing Work Limited.
  • National Association of State Boards of Education. (1991). Caring communities: Supporting young children and families. Alexandria, VA.
  • Oduro, G. K. T. (2003). Perspectives of Ghanaian head teachers on their role and professional development: The case of KEEA district primary schools. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • Oduro, G. K. T. & MacBeath, J. (2003). Traditions and tensions in leadership: The Ghana experience. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33 (3), 441-455.
  • Reiman, A. J. & Thies-Sprinthall, L. (1993). Promoting the development of mentor teachers: Theory and research programs using guided reflection. Journal of Research and Development, 26 (3), 179-185.
  • Report of the President’s Committee on the Review of Education Reforms in Ghana. (2002). Meeting the challenges of education in the Twenty-first Century. Accra, Ghana: Adwinsa Publications.
  • Sadowski, L, (1993). Staff development 101 for administrators: Alternative for thirteen management myths. Journal of Staff Development, 14 (3), 46-51.
  • Schein, E. H. (1984). Coming to a new awareness of corporate culture. Sloan Management Review 25 3-16.
  • Schein, E. H. (1996). Culture: The missing concept in organization studies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44 (2), 229-240.
  • Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday.
  • Speck, B. W. (1998). Unveiling some of the mystery of professional judgment in classroom assessment. In R. S. Anderson & B. W. Speck (Eds.), Changing the way we grade student performance: Classroom assessment and the new learning paradigm (pp. 17-31). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Southworth, G. (2002). Instructional Leadership in Schools: Reflections and empirical evidence. School Leadership & Management, 22 (1), 73-91.
  • Thies-Sprinthall, L. (1984). Promoting the developmental growth of supervising teachers: Theory, research programs, and implications. Journal of Teacher Education, 35 (3), 53-60.
  • Urick, R., Pendergast, D., & Hillman, S. (1981). Pre-conditions for staff development. Educational Leadership, 38 (7), 547-548.
  • Weller, L. D., Jr. (2001). Department Heads: The Most Underutilized Leadership Position. Journal of National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, 85 (625), 73-81.
  • Westhuizan, V. D. P., Mosoge, M., & Vuureen, V. H. (2004). Capacity building for educational managers in South Africa: A case study of the Mpumalanga province. International Journal of Educational Development, 24, 705-719.
  • Zachariah O. W. (1994). Rethinking teacher evaluation in the Third World: The case of Kenya. Journal Educational Management & Administration, 30 (2), 213–229.
  • Zame, M. Y., Hope, W. C., & Respress, T. (2008). Educational reform in Ghana: The leadership challenge. International Journal of Educational Management, 22 (2), 115-128.

Challenges of Head Teachers as Instructional Leaders: A Ghanaian Perspective

Yıl 2013, Sayı 8, 53 - 74, 23.07.2016

Öz

This paper identifies a limitation in the Ghanaian educational system, which is respected for its pursuit of excellence. Recommendations are offered for the remediation of the shortcoming that reflects an inadequacy in the professional development that is provided for the country’s head teachers. The significance of the shortcoming is that it influences instruction, learning, and student achievement in the country’s schools. Professional development for the head teachers has typically been organized by the Ghana Education Service, the operational office of the country’s Ministry of Education. The nationally-based endeavor tends to be delivered in a limited manner, which contributes to the unsystematic and ineffective development of the head teachers (Anamuah-Mensah, 2006). To make matters worse, the procedures, which are used to appoint and train the head teachers, are respectively seniority-based and ineffective. The outcome is head teachers, who are without the knowledge-base and skill-set that are needed to provide relevant instructional leadership and management (Godwyll 2008; Oduro, 2003). A proposal is offered to implement school-based, as opposed to the current district and regional-based, professional development. The school-based approach would be framed based upon the tenets of a professional learning community, with an ultimate objective of improving the capacity of the head teachers to provide leadership for student achievement (Bell & Stevenson, 2006; Hoyle, 1986)

Kaynakça

  • Amuzu-Kpeglo, A. (1990). Educational administrator preparation: Survey of the training needs of headmasters. An unpublished paper, Institute for Educational Planning and
  • Administration (IEPA), Cape Coast, Ghana: University of Cape Coast.
  • Anamuah-Mensah, J. (2006). Teacher education in Ghana: Theory and practice. In K. T. Raheem P. Kupari, & J. Lasonen (Eds.), Educational issues for sustainable development in Africa (pp. 28-40). Jyväskylä, Finland: Institute for Educational Research.
  • Barber, L. (1983). In-service education. Practical Applications of Research 5 (3), 4.
  • Bell, L. & Stevenson, H. (2006). Education policy: Process, themes and impact. NY: Routledge.
  • Bruder, M. B. & Nikitas, T. (1982). Changing the professional practice of early interventionists: An in-service model to meet the service needs of Public Law 99-457. Journal of Early Intervention, 16 (2), 173-180.
  • Bush, T. (1998). The national professional qualification for headship: The key to effective school leadership. School Leadership and Management, 18 (3), 321-333.
  • Bush, T. & Jackson, D. (2003). A preparation for school leadership: International perspectives. Educational Leadership and Administration, 30 (4), 417-429.
  • Bush, T. & Oduro, G. K. T. (2006). New head teachers in Africa: Preparation, induction and practice. Journal of Educational Administration, 44 (4), 359-375.
  • Chermack, T. J. & van der Merwe, L. (2003). The role of constructivist learning in scenario planning. Futures, 35 (5), 445-460.
  • Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (1994). Research methods in education (4th ed.). London: Routledge. Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th ed.).
  • London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
  • Cohen L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
  • Cole, R. (1982). In-service is not a verb. Phi Delta Kappan, 63, 370. Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., Meyerson, D., Orr, M. T., & Cohen, C. (2007).
  • Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development programs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.
  • Darling-Hammond, L., Orphanos, S., LaPointe, M., & Weeks, S. (2007). Leadership development in California. (Getting Down to Facts: Effectiveness Studies series). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Institute for Research on Education Policy & Practice and the School Redesign.
  • Davis, S., Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., & Meyerson, D. (2005). School leadership study: Developing successful principals. Stanford, CA: Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.
  • Davis, T. L. (2002). The voices of gender role conflict: The social construction of college men’s identity. Journal of College Student Development, 43 (4), 508-521.
  • Dimmock, C. (1996). Dilemmas for school leaders and administrators in restructuring. In K. Leithwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson, P. Hallinger, and A, Hart (Eds.), International handbook in educational leadership and administration (pp.135-170) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Dimmock, C. (2003). Leadership in learning-centered schools: Cultural context, functions and qualities. In M. Brundrett, N. Burton, and R. Smith (Eds.), Leadership in Education (pp. 3-22). London: Sage Publications.
  • Dufour, R. (2004). What is a professional learning community? Educational Leadership, 61 (8), 6-11
  • Dufour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Education Service.
  • Elmore, R. (2000). Building a new structure for school leadership. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
  • EQUIP 1. (2003). Educational quality in the developing world. EQ Review, 1 (1), 1-3. Evans, K. (1993). School-based in-service education: Case studies and guidelines for implementation. Culemborg, Netherlands: Phaedon Press.
  • Ghana Education Service. (2001). School management committee, parent teacher association handbook: Improving quality education through community participation. Accra, Ghana.
  • Godwyll, F. E. (2008). Education at the crossroads: The Ghanaian dilemma and puzzle. In G. Wan (Ed.), The education of diverse student population: A global perspective (pp. 56-58). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Graham, C. K. (1971). The history of education in Ghana: From the earliest times to the declaration of independence. Abingdon, Oxonshire, United Kingdom: Frank Cass and Company Limited.
  • Guskey, R. T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. CA: Corwin. Hallinger, P. & Murphy, J. (1987). Instructional leadership in the school context. In W.
  • Greenfield (Ed.), Instructional leadership: Concepts, issue, and controversies (pp. 179-201). Boston, MA: Allyn-Bacon.
  • Harris, A. (2004). Distributive leadership and school improvement: Leading or misleading. Educational Management, Administration, & Leadership, 32 (1), 11-24.
  • Harris, A. & Lambert, L. (2003). Building leadership capacity for school improvement. South African Journal of Education, 30, 401-419.
  • Harris, B. (1989). In-service education for staff development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Harris, B., & Bessent, W. (1969). Inservice education: A guide to better practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Harris, H. & Kumra, S. (2000). International manager development: Cross-cultural training in highly diverse environments. Journal of Management Development, 19 (7), 602-614.
  • Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale on intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developing Psychology, 17, 300-312.
  • Hillman, J. (1992). Preparation, selection, and development of head teachers. In National commission on education (p. 13). London, United Kingdom: Heinemann.
  • Hoyle, E. (1986). The management of schools: Theory and practice. In E. Hoyle & S. McMahon (Eds.), World yearbook of education, 1986: The management of schools (pp. 11-28). Abingdon, Oxonshire, United Kingdom: Routledge.
  • Hulme, G. (2006, September). Distributed leadership: An evolving view of school leadership. Issue Brief, 9 (1). Atlanta, GA: Professional Association of Georgia Educators.
  • Husman, J., Derryberry, W. P., Crowson, H. M., & Lomax, R. (2004). Instrumentality, task value, and intrinsic motivation: Making sense of their independence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 63-76. Kennedy, C. (2002). The principalship: Too much for one person. Principal, 82 (1), 28- 31.
  • Kitavi, M. W. & Westhuizan V. D. P. C. (1997). Problems facing beginning principals in developing countries: A study of beginning principals in Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development, 17 (3), 251-263.
  • Knowles, Malcolm S. (1989). The Making of an Adult Educator. San Francisco: JosseyBass.
  • Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2008). Seven strong claims about school leadership. School Leadership and Management, 28 (1), 27-42.
  • Leithwood, K. & Jantzi, D. (2006). Transformational school leadership for large-scale reform: Effects on students, teachers, and their classroom practices. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 202-227.
  • Leithwood, K. & Poplin, M. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 49 (5), 8.
  • Leithwood, K., Seashore Louis, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning, New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/schoolleadership/key-research/Pages/How-Leadership-Influences-Student-Learning. aspx.
  • Levine, A. (2005). Educating school leaders. The Education Schools Project: Retrieved from http://www.edschools.org/pdf/Embargoed_Report_050315.pdf.
  • Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Journal of Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157-189.
  • McWilliam, H. O. A. & Kwamena-Poh, M. A. (1978). The development of education in Ghana. London, United Kingdom: Routledge and Kegan.
  • Ministry of Education. (1994). Head teachers’ handbook. Accra, Ghana: Paramount Printing Works Limited.
  • Ministry of Education. (2002). Circuit supervisors’ handbook. Accra, Ghana: Paramount Printing Work Limited.
  • National Association of State Boards of Education. (1991). Caring communities: Supporting young children and families. Alexandria, VA.
  • Oduro, G. K. T. (2003). Perspectives of Ghanaian head teachers on their role and professional development: The case of KEEA district primary schools. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • Oduro, G. K. T. & MacBeath, J. (2003). Traditions and tensions in leadership: The Ghana experience. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33 (3), 441-455.
  • Reiman, A. J. & Thies-Sprinthall, L. (1993). Promoting the development of mentor teachers: Theory and research programs using guided reflection. Journal of Research and Development, 26 (3), 179-185.
  • Report of the President’s Committee on the Review of Education Reforms in Ghana. (2002). Meeting the challenges of education in the Twenty-first Century. Accra, Ghana: Adwinsa Publications.
  • Sadowski, L, (1993). Staff development 101 for administrators: Alternative for thirteen management myths. Journal of Staff Development, 14 (3), 46-51.
  • Schein, E. H. (1984). Coming to a new awareness of corporate culture. Sloan Management Review 25 3-16.
  • Schein, E. H. (1996). Culture: The missing concept in organization studies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44 (2), 229-240.
  • Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday.
  • Speck, B. W. (1998). Unveiling some of the mystery of professional judgment in classroom assessment. In R. S. Anderson & B. W. Speck (Eds.), Changing the way we grade student performance: Classroom assessment and the new learning paradigm (pp. 17-31). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Southworth, G. (2002). Instructional Leadership in Schools: Reflections and empirical evidence. School Leadership & Management, 22 (1), 73-91.
  • Thies-Sprinthall, L. (1984). Promoting the developmental growth of supervising teachers: Theory, research programs, and implications. Journal of Teacher Education, 35 (3), 53-60.
  • Urick, R., Pendergast, D., & Hillman, S. (1981). Pre-conditions for staff development. Educational Leadership, 38 (7), 547-548.
  • Weller, L. D., Jr. (2001). Department Heads: The Most Underutilized Leadership Position. Journal of National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, 85 (625), 73-81.
  • Westhuizan, V. D. P., Mosoge, M., & Vuureen, V. H. (2004). Capacity building for educational managers in South Africa: A case study of the Mpumalanga province. International Journal of Educational Development, 24, 705-719.
  • Zachariah O. W. (1994). Rethinking teacher evaluation in the Third World: The case of Kenya. Journal Educational Management & Administration, 30 (2), 213–229.
  • Zame, M. Y., Hope, W. C., & Respress, T. (2008). Educational reform in Ghana: The leadership challenge. International Journal of Educational Management, 22 (2), 115-128.

Ayrıntılar

Diğer ID JA57MT64GK
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Francis GODWYLL Bu kişi benim
?


William LARSON Bu kişi benim
?


Doreen AHWIRENG Bu kişi benim
?

Yayımlanma Tarihi 23 Temmuz 2016
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Temmuz 2016
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2013, Cilt , Sayı 8

Kaynak Göster

APA Godwyll, F. , Larson, W. & Ahwıreng, D. (2016). Challenges of Head Teachers as Instructional Leaders: A Ghanaian Perspective . Eğitim Ve İnsani Bilimler Dergisi: Teori Ve Uygulama , (8) , 53-74 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/eibd/issue/22670/242087