Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Determination of the species and mineralogical-petrographical properties of silicified wood in around Malkara-Keşan (SW Thrace)

Yıl 2020, Cilt 8, Sayı 4, 309 - 337, 29.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.31195/ejejfs.816578

Öz

Silicified wood samples around Malkara-Keşan located in the southwest of the Thrace Basin are found within terrestrial sediments belonging to the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Danişmen Formation. Tertiary aged silicified woods, defining in various regions of Turkey, are similar features each other and their formation associated with active volcanic activity and coeval sedimentation in this period as it is in Malkara-Keşan region. In silicified wood samples were made as transverse, tangential and radial sections and mineralogical-petrographical studies were carried out under polarizing microscope. In the nearly all silicified woods it has observed that silica has developed in different forms. Furthermore, the mineral types and amorphous formations of silica which are determined in this way are supported with XRD analyses. Hence, it has been determined Opal-A, Opal-CT, calcedon and quartz type amorphous/mineralogic formations. The paleobotanical interpretations of this time are done by determining fossil wood genus/species with researchs which are done on the thin sections taken from the silicified woods. The Glyptostroboxylon rudolphii finding with the identification of the silicified wood samples is defined for the first time in the Oligocene-Early Miyocene period in Thrace. In addition, the, cf. Quercoxylon caucasicum and cf. Ginkgoxylon lesboense species are also firstly defined with this research in Turkey. Another species which is determined is the Taxodioxylon gypsaceum. Considering the the growing site conditions of these species that it can be said that riparian-swamp conditions and subtropical climate prevailed in the region during Oligocene-Erarly Miocene periods.

Kaynakça

  • Acarca Bayam, N.N., Akkemik, Ü., Poole, I., Akarsu, F. (2018). Further contributions to the early Miocene forest vegetation of the Galatian Volcanic Province, Turkey. Palaeontol. Electron. 21.3.40A, 1–42.
  • Akartuna, M. (1968). Armutlu Yarımadasının Jeolojisi. İ.Ü. Fen Fak. Monografisi sayı: 120.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Kose, N., Poole, I. (2005). Sequoioiodae (Cupressaceae) woods from the upper Oligocene of European Turkey (Thrace). Phytologia Balcanica, 11: 119-131.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Turkoğlu, N., Poole, I., Cicek, I., Kose, N., Gurgen, G. (2009). Woods of a Miocene petrified forest near Ankara, Turkey. Turk. J. Agric. For. 33, 89–97.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Sakınç, M. (2013). Sequoioxylon petrified woods from the Mid to Late Oligocene of Thrace (Turkey). IAWA Journal, 34 (2):177-182. https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-00000015
  • Akkemik, Ü., Arslan, M., Poole I., Tosun S., Köse N., Karlıoğlu Kılıç N., Aydın A. (2016). Silicified woods from two previously undescribed early Miocene forest sites near Seben, Northwest Turkey. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 31-50, Elsevier.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Acarca, N.N., Hatipoğlu, M. (2017). The first Glyptostroboxylon from the Miocene of Turkey. IAWA J. 38, 561–570.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Atıcı, G., Poole, I., Cobankaya, M. (2018). Three new silicified woods from a newly discovered earliest Miocene forest site in the Haymana Basin (Ankara, Turkey). Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 254, 49–64.
  • Akkemik, Ü. (2019). New fossil wood descriptions from Pliocene of central Anatolia and presence of Taxodioxylon in Turkey from Oligocene to Pliocene. Turkish Journal of Earth Science, 28: 398-409, DOI:10.3906/yer-1805-24.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Acarca Bayam, N.N. (2019) The first Glyptostroboxylon and Taxodioxylon descriptions from the late Miocene of Turkey. Fossil Imprint, 75(2): 268-280.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Yıldırım, D.K., Sakala, J., Akkılıc, H., Altınışık, A. (2019a). New petrified wood descriptions from west-central Anatolia: contribution to the composition of the Neogene forest of Turkey. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 292, 57–71.
  • Akkemik, Ü, Akkılıç, H., Güngör, Y. (2019b). Fossil wood from the Neogene of the Kilyos coastal area in Istanbul, Turkey. Palaeontographica Abteilung B Palaeobotany– Palaeophytology. 299 (4-6): 133-185.
  • Aras, A., Sakınç, M., Yaltırak, C. (2004). Petrified angiosperm woods in the Thrace Formation (Pliocene-E. Quaternary?) in eastern Thrace, NW Turkey. International Symposium On Wood Sciences Organised by IAWA-IAWS, Montpellier, France.
  • Aysal, N., Yılmaz Şahin, S., Güngör, Y., Peytcheva, I., Öngen, S. (2018). Middle Permian–early Triassic magmatism in the Western Pontides, NWTurkey: Geodynamic
  • significance for the evolution of the Paleo-Tethys. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 164, 83- 103.
  • Ballhaus, C., Gee, C.T., Bockrath, C., Greef, K., Mansfeldt, T., Rhede, D. (2012). The silicification of trees in volcanic ash - An experimental study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 84, 62–74p.
  • Batı, Z.,Erk, S. and Akça, N. (1993). Trakya Havzası Tersiyer birimlerinin palinomorf, foraminifer ve nannoplankton biyostratigrafisi. TPAO Araştırma Dairesi Arşivi, teknik rapor, 1947, 92 p. (unpublished).
  • Batı, Z. (1996). Palynostratigraphy and Coal Petrography of the Upper Oligocene Lignites of the Northern Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. PhD. Thesis. Middle East Technical University, p. 341.
  • Batı, Z., Alişan, C., Ediger, V.Ş., Teymur, S., Akça, N., Sancay, H., Ertuğ, K., Kirici, S., Erenler, M., and Aköz, Ö. (2002). Kuzey Trakya Havzası'nın Palinomorf, Foraminifer ve Nannoplankton Biyostratigrafisi. Türkiye Stratigrafi Komitesi Çalıştayı (Trakya Bölgesi'nin Litostratigrafi Adlamaları) Özleri, p. 14.
  • Burke, W.F., Uğurtaş, G. (1974). Seismic Interpretation of Thrace Basin. TPAO International Report, Ankara, Turkey. 
  • Çağlayan, M. A., Şengün, M. ve Yurtsever, A. (1988). Main fault systems shaping the Istıranca Massif, Turkey. Metu Journ. of Püre and Appl. Sci. Tokay Volume 1.3: 145 - 154.
  • Denk, T., Güner, T. H., Kvaček, Z., Bouchal, M. J. (2017). The early Miocene flora of Güvem (Central Anatolia, Turkey): a window into early Neogene vegetation and environments in the Eastern Mediterranean. ActaPalaeobot. 57(2): 237-338.
  • Denk, T., Güner, H.T., Bouchal, M.J. (2019). Early Miocene climate and biomes of Turkey: Evidence from leaf fossils, dispersed pollen, and petrified wood. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 530: 236–248.
  • Dietrich, D., Lampke, T., Röβler, R. (2013). A microstructure study on silicified wood from the Permian Petrified Forest of Chemitz. Palӓontol. Z. (Sci. Contrib. Paleont.) 87:814-834.
  • Dolezych, M., Van der Burgh, J. (2004). Xylotomische Untersuchungen an inkohlten Hölzern aus dem Braunkohlentagebau Berzdorf (Oberlausitz, Deutschland). Feddes Reportorium, 115(5-6): 397–437 https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200411044
  • Dolezych, M. (2011). Taxodiaceous woods in Lusatia (Central Europe), including curiosities in their nomenclature and taxonomy, with a focus on Taxodioxylon. Japanes Journal of Historical Botany, 19 (1-2): 25-46.
  • Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009). Conifers of the World: The complete reference. Timber Press, London.
  • Ediger, V.Ş., Alişan, C. (1989). Tertiary fungal and algal palynomorph biostratigraphy of the northern Thrace basin, Turkey. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 58, 139-161.
  • Erarslan, C., Örgün, Y., Bozkurtoğlu, E. (2014). Geochemistry of trace elements in the Keşan coal and its effect on the physicochemical features of ground- and surface waters in the coal fields, Edirne, Thrace Region, Turkey. International Journal of Coal Geology. DOI: 10.1016/j.coal.2014.09.003
  • Erarslan, C., Örgün Tutay, Y. (2017). Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of coal ash from the Northwest Thrace region, Turkey: a case study. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 10, No. 10, ISSN: 1866-7511.
  • Erarslan, C. (2018). Saray (Tekirdağ) ve Pınarhisar (Kırklareli) Kömürlerinin Sülfür ve İz Element İçeriğinin Kökeni ve Kömürlerin Çevresel Etkisinin Hidrojeokimyasal Açıdan Değerlendirilmesi. Doktora Tezi, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Ercan, T. (1992). Trakya’daki Senozoyik volkanizması ve bölgesel yayılımı. Jeoloji Müh. Derg., 41, 37-50.
  • Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of theWorld’s Conifers. V.1-2, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden-Boston.
  • Folk, R.L., Andrews, P.B., Lewis, D.W. (1970). Detrital sedimentary rock classification and nomenclature for use in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of Geology Geophysics 13, 937–968.
  • Gerhard, J.E., Alişan, C. (1987). Palynostratigraphy, Paleoecology, and visual organic geochemistry Turgutbey-2, Değirmencik-3 and Pancarköy-1, Thrace Basin, Turkey. TPAO Araştırma Merkezi Grubu Arşivi, Yayınlanmamış teknik rapor, 983, 33 s.
  • Görür, N. (1988). Timing Of Opening Of The Black Sea Basin. Tectonophysics, 14, 247-262.
  • Gregory, M., Poole, I., Wheeler, E. (2009). Fossil Dicot Wood Names: An Annotated List with Full Bibliography. IAWA J. Suppl., 6: 1-220.
  • Güçtekin, A. (2017). Hisarlıdağ (Enez-Trakya) Volkanizması Ortaç ve Asidik Kayaçlarının Jeokimyasal ve Petrolojik Özellikleri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yerbilimleri Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Bülteni, Yerbilimleri, 2017, 38 (2), 141-160.
  • Güner, H. T., Bouchal, J. M., Köse, N., Göktaş, F., Mayda, S., Denk, T. (2017). Landscape heterogeneity in the Yatağan Basin (southwestern Turkey) during the middle Miocene inferred from plant macrofossils. Palaeontolographica Abt. B, 296 (1-6): 113-171.
  • Güngör, Y., Akkemik, Ü., Kasapçı, C., Başaran, E. (2019). Geology and woods of a new fosil forest from the Early Miocene of Gokçeada (Turkey). Forestist 69, 22–34.
  • Hassan, K. M. (2019). Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbonate and Organic Carbon from Silicified Tree Trunks, Petrified Forest, New Cairo, Egypt–Possible Interpretations of Palaeoenvironment. Geochemistry International, 2019, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 564–574.
  • Hatipoğlu, M., Türk N. (2009). Combined polarizing microscope, XRD, SEM, and specific gravity study of the petrified woods of volcanic origin from the Çamlıdere-Çeltikçi-Güdül fosil forest, in Ankara, Turkey. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 141-157.
  • I.A.W.A. Committe (1989). IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. In E.A. Wheeler, P. Baas, P.E. Gasson (Eds), IAWA Bulletin, 10, 219-332.
  • I.A.W.A. Committe (2004) IAWA list of microscopic features for softwood identification. IAWA Journal, 25, 1-70.
  • Insidewood (2004). Onwards. Published on the Internet. https://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search
  • Jiang, Z.,Wang, Y., Philippe, M., Zhang, W., Tian, N., Zheng, S. (2016). A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo woodevolution. Sci. Rep.6, 38191; doi: 10.1038/srep38191.
  • Kasar, S., Bürkan, K., Siyako, M., Demir, O. (1983). Tekirdağ- Şarköy-Keşan-Enez bölgesinin jeolojisi ve hidrokarbon olanakları. TPAO Arama Dairesi Arşivi, teknik rapor no: 1771, 71 p. (unpublished).
  • Kayacık, H., Aytuğ, B., Yaltırık, F., Şanlı, I., Efe, A., Akkemik, Ü., Inan, M. (1995). Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl) Buchh. trees living near Istanbul in Late Tertiary. Review of Faculty of Forestry, University of İstanbul, 45: 15-22.
  • Kesgin, Y., Varol, B. (2003). Gökçeada ve Bozcaada’nın Tersiyer jeolojisi (Çanakkale). Türkiye. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergis. 126, 49-67.
  • Keskin, C. (1974). Kuzey Trakya Havzası’nın Stratigrafisi. Türkiye İkinci Petrol Kongresi Tebliğleri Kitabı, s. 137 – 163.
  • Kvaček, J., Falcon-Lang, H., Dašková, J. (2005). A new Late Cretaceous ginkgoalean reproductive structure Nehvizdyella gen. nov. from the Czech Republic and its whole-plant reconstruction. American Journal of Botany 92(12):1958-69.
  • Lӓbe, S., Gee, C. T., Ballhaus, C., Nagel, T. (2012). Experimental silicification of the tree fern Dicksonia antarctica at high temperature with silica-enriched H 2 O vapor. Palaios, 27, 835-841.
  • Lukens, W.E., Eze, P., Schubert, B.A. (2019). The effect of diagenesis on carbon isotope values of fossil wood. The Geological Society of America,47 (10): 987–991.
  • Mustoe, G. (2017). Wood Petrifaction: A New View of Permineralization and Replacement. Geosciences, MDPI, USA.
  • Mustoe, G.,Viney, M. (2017). Mineralogy of Paleocene Petrified Wood from Cherokee Ranch Fossil Forest, Central Colorado, USA. Geosciences, MDPI, USA.
  • Mustoe, G.,Viney, M., Mills J. (2019). Mineralogy of Eocene Fossil Wood from the “Blue Forest” Locality, Southwestern Wyoming, United States. Geosciences, MDPI, USA.
  • Natal’in, B. A., Satır, M., Sunal, G., and Toraman, E. (2005a). Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Strandja massif. Project No: 101Y010: Ankara, Turkey, Unpubl. report, Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey.
  • Natal’in, B., Sunal, G., and Toraman, E. (2005b). The Strandja arc Anatomy of collision after long-lived arc-parallel tectonic transport, in Sklyarov, E. V., ed., Structural and tectonic correlation across the CentralAsia orogenic collage: Northeastern Segment. Guide-book and abstract volume of the Siberian WorkshopIGCP-480: Irkutsk, Russia, Russian Academy ofSciencesp.240–245.
  • Okay, A.I., Satır, M., Tüysüz, O., Akyüz, S. & Chen, F. (2001). The tectonics of the Strandja Massif: Variscan and mid-Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism in the northern Aegean. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geologische Rundschau), 90, 217-233
  • Okay, A.I., Simmons, M., Özcan, E., Starkie, S., Bidgood, M. & Kylander-Clark, A.R.C. (2020). Eocene-Oligocene succession at Kıyıköy (Midye) on the Black Sea coast in Thrace. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 29, 139-153.
  • Özgüven-Ertan, K. (1971). Sur un bois fossile de Taxodiaceaedans la flore Neogene d'Istanbul (Turquied'Europe): Sequoioxylon egemeni n.sp. Rev FacScil'Universitéd'Istanbul, 36 (B): 89–114.
  • Pe-Piper, G., Imperial, A., Piper, David J.W., Zouros, Nickolas C., Anastasakis, G. (2019). Mineral data (SEM, electron microprobe, Ramanspectroscopy) from epithermal hydrothermal
  • alteration of the Miocene Sigri Petrified Forestand host pyroclastic rocks, Western Lesbos, Greece. Published by Elsevier Inc., 24, 103987.
  • Perinçek, D. (1987). Trakya Havzası Renç Fay Zonunun Sismik Özellikleri. Türkiye 7. Petrol Kongresi Bildirileri, 11-20.
  • Perinçek, D. (1991). Possible strand of the North Anatolian Fault in the Thrace Basin, Turkey-An Interpretation. AAPG Bulletin 75, 241 – 257.
  • Perinçek, D., Ataş, N., Karatut, Ş., Erensoy, E. (2015). Geological factors controlling potential of lignite beds within the Danişmen Formation in the Thrace Basin. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi, 150, 77 – 108.
  • Polat, S., Güney, Y., Ege, İ., Akkemik, Ü. (2019). Banaz’da (Uşak) Yeni Bulunan Petrifiye Alanı ile İlgili İlk Bulgular. Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, 17(2), 384-402, doi:10.33688/ aucbd.532176.
  • Sakınç, M., Aras, A., Yaltırak, C., Batı, Z., Çağatay, N. (2007). Trakya Karasal Tersiyerinde Silisleşmiş Ağaçlar, Paleoflora, Paleoklimatoloji, Paleocoğrafya. TÜBİTAK Proje No: 103Y137.
  • Saner, S. (1985). Saros Körfezi dolayının çökelme istifleri ve tektonik yerleşimi, Kuzeydoğu Ege Denizi, Türkiye. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni, 28, 1-10.
  • Scott, R.A., Barghoorn, E.S., Prakash, U. (1962). Wood of Ginkgo in the Tertiary of western North America. American Journal of Botany, 49, 1095-1101, https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537- 2197.1962.tb15052.x.
  • Siyako, M., Bürkan, K., Okay, A.I. (1989). Biga ve Gelibolu Yarımadalarının Tersiyer jeolojisi ve hidrokarbon olanakları. Türkiye Petrol Jeologları Derneği Bülteni, 1/3, 183-199.
  • Siyako, M. (2005). Trakya ve yakın çevresinin Tersiyer stratigrafisi. TPAO Arama Dairesi Arşivi, teknik rapor no: 4608, 104 p, (unpublished).
  • Siyako, M. (2006). Lignitic Sandstones of the Trakya Basin. Mineral Res. Exp., Bull., 132, 63-72.
  • Sunal, G., Natal'in, B. A., Satir, M., Toraman, E. (2006). Paleozoic magmatic events in the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey. Geodinamica Acta 19, 283–300.
  • Sunal, G. Satır, M, Natal’in, B., Topuz, G. ve Vonderschmidt, O. (2011). Metamorphism and diachronous cooling in a contractional orogen: the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey. Geological Magazine, DOI: 10.1017/S0016756810001020, 1-17.
  • Sümengen, M., Terlemez, İ., Şentürk, K., Karaköse, C., Erkan, E.N., Ünay, E., Gürbüz, M., Atalay, Z. (1987). Gelibolu Yarımadası ve güneybatı Trakya Tersiyer havzasının stratigrafisi, sedimantolojisi ve tektoniği. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, teknik rapor, 8218. (unpublished).
  • Süss, H. (2003). Zwei neue fossile Hölzer der Morphogattung Ginkgoxylon Saporta emend. Süss aus tertiären Schichten der Insel Lesbos, Griechenland, mit einer Übersicht über Fossilien mit ginkgoaler Holzstruktur. Feddes Repertorum 114 (5-6): 301–319.https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200311001
  • Şanlı, I. (1982). Trakya’nın Tersiyer florası üzerinde ksilolojik arastırmalar (Linyit analizleriyle). İ. Ü. Orman Fakültesi Dergisi A 1: 84-138.
  • Şengüler, İ. (2013). Ergene (Trakya) Havzası’nın jeolojisi ve kömür potansiyeli. Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Doğal Kaynaklar ve Ekonomi Bülteni Sayı 16, 109-114.
  • Teodoridis, V., Sakala, J. (2008). Early Miocene conifer macrofossils from the Most Basin (Czech Republic). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie- Abhandlungen, 250: 287–312.
  • Turgut, S., Siyako, M., Dilki, A. (1983). Trakya havzasının jeolojisi ve hidrokarbon olanakları. Tür. Jeoloji Kong. Bülteni 4:35 - 46.
  • Turgut, S., Türkaslan, M., Perinçek, D. (1991). Evolution of the Thrace sedimentary basin and its hydrocarbon prospectivity. Spencer AM (ed) Generation, accumulation, and production of Europe's hydrocarbons. Special Publication of Eurapean Association of Petroleum Geoscientists, 1, 415-437.
  • Ünal, O. T. (1967). Trakya jeolojisi ve petrol imkanları. TPAO Arama Grubu Arşivi, yayınlanmamış teknik rapor, 391, 80 s.
  • Viney, M., Hickey, R. D., Mustoe, G. E. (2019). A Silicified Carboniferous Lycopsid Forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA. Geosciences, MDPI, Switzerland.
  • Voudouris, P., Velitzelos, D., Velitzelos, E., Thewald U. (2007). Petrified wood occurrences in western Thrace and Limnos Island: mineralogy, geochemistry and depositional environment. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece vol.40 No.1.
  • Yılmaz Şahin, S., Aysal, N. Güngör, Y., Peytcheva, I., Neubauer, F. (2014). Geochemistry and U–Pb zircon geochronology of metagranites in Istranca (Strandja) Zone, NW Pontides, Turkey: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of Cadomian orogeny. Gondwana Research, DOI: 10.1016/j.gr.2013.07.011
  • Yurtseven, N. (2018). Osmancalı (Manisa) köyünde taşlaşmış ormanlar üzerine coğrafi inceleme. TÜCAUM 30. Yıl Uluslararası Coğrafya Sempozyumu, 3-6 Ekim 2018, 875-892, Ankara.

Malkara-Keşan (GB Trakya) çevresinde bulunan silisleşmiş ağaçların türlerinin tespiti ve mineralojik-petrografik özellikleri

Yıl 2020, Cilt 8, Sayı 4, 309 - 337, 29.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.31195/ejejfs.816578

Öz

Trakya Havzası güneybatısında yer alan Malkara-Keşan çevresinde silisleşmiş ağaç örnekleri, Geç Oligosen-Erken Miyosen yaşlı Danişmen Formasyonuna ait karasal sedimanlar içerisinde bulunmaktadır. Türkiye’nin çeşitli bölgelerinde tespit edilen, özellikle Tersiyer yaş aralığındaki silisleşmiş ağaçların oluşumları birbirine benzer özellikte olup, Malkara-Keşan bölgesinde de olduğu gibi bu dönemdeki etkin volkanizma faaliyetleri ve eşzamanlı sedimantasyonla ilişkilidir. Silisleşmiş ağaç örneklerinde enine, teğet ve radyal yönde kesitler yapılarak, bunlarda polarizan mikroskop altında mineralojik-petrografik çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Silisleşmiş ağaçların tamamına yakınında, silisin çeşitli formlarda geliştiği gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca, bu yolla tespit edilen silisin mineral tür ve amorf oluşumları XRD analizleri ile de desteklenmiştir. Buna göre Opal-A, Opal-CT, kalsedon ve kuvars türü amorf/mineralojik oluşumlar saptanmıştır. Silisleşmiş ağaçlardan alınan ince kesitler üzerinde yapılan çalışmalarla fosil ağaç cins/türleri tespit edilerek o dönemin paleobotanik yorumları yapılmıştır. Silisleşmiş ağaç örneklerinin tanısıyla Glyptostroboxylon rudolphii bulgusu, Oligosen-Erken Miyosen döneminde Trakya’da ilk kez, cf. Quercoxylon caucasicum ve cf. Ginkgoxylon lesboense türleri ise Türkiye’de ilk defa bu çalışma ile tanımlanmıştır. Tespit edilen diğer tür ise; Taxodioxylon gypsaceum‘dur. Bu türlerin yaşam ortamları göz önüne alındığında, bölgede Oligosen-ErkenMiyosen dönemlerinde su kenarı-bataklık koşullarının ve subtropikal iklimin hâkim olduğu söylenebilir.

Kaynakça

  • Acarca Bayam, N.N., Akkemik, Ü., Poole, I., Akarsu, F. (2018). Further contributions to the early Miocene forest vegetation of the Galatian Volcanic Province, Turkey. Palaeontol. Electron. 21.3.40A, 1–42.
  • Akartuna, M. (1968). Armutlu Yarımadasının Jeolojisi. İ.Ü. Fen Fak. Monografisi sayı: 120.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Kose, N., Poole, I. (2005). Sequoioiodae (Cupressaceae) woods from the upper Oligocene of European Turkey (Thrace). Phytologia Balcanica, 11: 119-131.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Turkoğlu, N., Poole, I., Cicek, I., Kose, N., Gurgen, G. (2009). Woods of a Miocene petrified forest near Ankara, Turkey. Turk. J. Agric. For. 33, 89–97.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Sakınç, M. (2013). Sequoioxylon petrified woods from the Mid to Late Oligocene of Thrace (Turkey). IAWA Journal, 34 (2):177-182. https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-00000015
  • Akkemik, Ü., Arslan, M., Poole I., Tosun S., Köse N., Karlıoğlu Kılıç N., Aydın A. (2016). Silicified woods from two previously undescribed early Miocene forest sites near Seben, Northwest Turkey. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 31-50, Elsevier.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Acarca, N.N., Hatipoğlu, M. (2017). The first Glyptostroboxylon from the Miocene of Turkey. IAWA J. 38, 561–570.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Atıcı, G., Poole, I., Cobankaya, M. (2018). Three new silicified woods from a newly discovered earliest Miocene forest site in the Haymana Basin (Ankara, Turkey). Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 254, 49–64.
  • Akkemik, Ü. (2019). New fossil wood descriptions from Pliocene of central Anatolia and presence of Taxodioxylon in Turkey from Oligocene to Pliocene. Turkish Journal of Earth Science, 28: 398-409, DOI:10.3906/yer-1805-24.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Acarca Bayam, N.N. (2019) The first Glyptostroboxylon and Taxodioxylon descriptions from the late Miocene of Turkey. Fossil Imprint, 75(2): 268-280.
  • Akkemik, Ü., Yıldırım, D.K., Sakala, J., Akkılıc, H., Altınışık, A. (2019a). New petrified wood descriptions from west-central Anatolia: contribution to the composition of the Neogene forest of Turkey. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 292, 57–71.
  • Akkemik, Ü, Akkılıç, H., Güngör, Y. (2019b). Fossil wood from the Neogene of the Kilyos coastal area in Istanbul, Turkey. Palaeontographica Abteilung B Palaeobotany– Palaeophytology. 299 (4-6): 133-185.
  • Aras, A., Sakınç, M., Yaltırak, C. (2004). Petrified angiosperm woods in the Thrace Formation (Pliocene-E. Quaternary?) in eastern Thrace, NW Turkey. International Symposium On Wood Sciences Organised by IAWA-IAWS, Montpellier, France.
  • Aysal, N., Yılmaz Şahin, S., Güngör, Y., Peytcheva, I., Öngen, S. (2018). Middle Permian–early Triassic magmatism in the Western Pontides, NWTurkey: Geodynamic
  • significance for the evolution of the Paleo-Tethys. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 164, 83- 103.
  • Ballhaus, C., Gee, C.T., Bockrath, C., Greef, K., Mansfeldt, T., Rhede, D. (2012). The silicification of trees in volcanic ash - An experimental study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 84, 62–74p.
  • Batı, Z.,Erk, S. and Akça, N. (1993). Trakya Havzası Tersiyer birimlerinin palinomorf, foraminifer ve nannoplankton biyostratigrafisi. TPAO Araştırma Dairesi Arşivi, teknik rapor, 1947, 92 p. (unpublished).
  • Batı, Z. (1996). Palynostratigraphy and Coal Petrography of the Upper Oligocene Lignites of the Northern Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. PhD. Thesis. Middle East Technical University, p. 341.
  • Batı, Z., Alişan, C., Ediger, V.Ş., Teymur, S., Akça, N., Sancay, H., Ertuğ, K., Kirici, S., Erenler, M., and Aköz, Ö. (2002). Kuzey Trakya Havzası'nın Palinomorf, Foraminifer ve Nannoplankton Biyostratigrafisi. Türkiye Stratigrafi Komitesi Çalıştayı (Trakya Bölgesi'nin Litostratigrafi Adlamaları) Özleri, p. 14.
  • Burke, W.F., Uğurtaş, G. (1974). Seismic Interpretation of Thrace Basin. TPAO International Report, Ankara, Turkey. 
  • Çağlayan, M. A., Şengün, M. ve Yurtsever, A. (1988). Main fault systems shaping the Istıranca Massif, Turkey. Metu Journ. of Püre and Appl. Sci. Tokay Volume 1.3: 145 - 154.
  • Denk, T., Güner, T. H., Kvaček, Z., Bouchal, M. J. (2017). The early Miocene flora of Güvem (Central Anatolia, Turkey): a window into early Neogene vegetation and environments in the Eastern Mediterranean. ActaPalaeobot. 57(2): 237-338.
  • Denk, T., Güner, H.T., Bouchal, M.J. (2019). Early Miocene climate and biomes of Turkey: Evidence from leaf fossils, dispersed pollen, and petrified wood. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 530: 236–248.
  • Dietrich, D., Lampke, T., Röβler, R. (2013). A microstructure study on silicified wood from the Permian Petrified Forest of Chemitz. Palӓontol. Z. (Sci. Contrib. Paleont.) 87:814-834.
  • Dolezych, M., Van der Burgh, J. (2004). Xylotomische Untersuchungen an inkohlten Hölzern aus dem Braunkohlentagebau Berzdorf (Oberlausitz, Deutschland). Feddes Reportorium, 115(5-6): 397–437 https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200411044
  • Dolezych, M. (2011). Taxodiaceous woods in Lusatia (Central Europe), including curiosities in their nomenclature and taxonomy, with a focus on Taxodioxylon. Japanes Journal of Historical Botany, 19 (1-2): 25-46.
  • Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009). Conifers of the World: The complete reference. Timber Press, London.
  • Ediger, V.Ş., Alişan, C. (1989). Tertiary fungal and algal palynomorph biostratigraphy of the northern Thrace basin, Turkey. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 58, 139-161.
  • Erarslan, C., Örgün, Y., Bozkurtoğlu, E. (2014). Geochemistry of trace elements in the Keşan coal and its effect on the physicochemical features of ground- and surface waters in the coal fields, Edirne, Thrace Region, Turkey. International Journal of Coal Geology. DOI: 10.1016/j.coal.2014.09.003
  • Erarslan, C., Örgün Tutay, Y. (2017). Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of coal ash from the Northwest Thrace region, Turkey: a case study. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 10, No. 10, ISSN: 1866-7511.
  • Erarslan, C. (2018). Saray (Tekirdağ) ve Pınarhisar (Kırklareli) Kömürlerinin Sülfür ve İz Element İçeriğinin Kökeni ve Kömürlerin Çevresel Etkisinin Hidrojeokimyasal Açıdan Değerlendirilmesi. Doktora Tezi, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Ercan, T. (1992). Trakya’daki Senozoyik volkanizması ve bölgesel yayılımı. Jeoloji Müh. Derg., 41, 37-50.
  • Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of theWorld’s Conifers. V.1-2, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden-Boston.
  • Folk, R.L., Andrews, P.B., Lewis, D.W. (1970). Detrital sedimentary rock classification and nomenclature for use in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of Geology Geophysics 13, 937–968.
  • Gerhard, J.E., Alişan, C. (1987). Palynostratigraphy, Paleoecology, and visual organic geochemistry Turgutbey-2, Değirmencik-3 and Pancarköy-1, Thrace Basin, Turkey. TPAO Araştırma Merkezi Grubu Arşivi, Yayınlanmamış teknik rapor, 983, 33 s.
  • Görür, N. (1988). Timing Of Opening Of The Black Sea Basin. Tectonophysics, 14, 247-262.
  • Gregory, M., Poole, I., Wheeler, E. (2009). Fossil Dicot Wood Names: An Annotated List with Full Bibliography. IAWA J. Suppl., 6: 1-220.
  • Güçtekin, A. (2017). Hisarlıdağ (Enez-Trakya) Volkanizması Ortaç ve Asidik Kayaçlarının Jeokimyasal ve Petrolojik Özellikleri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yerbilimleri Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Bülteni, Yerbilimleri, 2017, 38 (2), 141-160.
  • Güner, H. T., Bouchal, J. M., Köse, N., Göktaş, F., Mayda, S., Denk, T. (2017). Landscape heterogeneity in the Yatağan Basin (southwestern Turkey) during the middle Miocene inferred from plant macrofossils. Palaeontolographica Abt. B, 296 (1-6): 113-171.
  • Güngör, Y., Akkemik, Ü., Kasapçı, C., Başaran, E. (2019). Geology and woods of a new fosil forest from the Early Miocene of Gokçeada (Turkey). Forestist 69, 22–34.
  • Hassan, K. M. (2019). Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbonate and Organic Carbon from Silicified Tree Trunks, Petrified Forest, New Cairo, Egypt–Possible Interpretations of Palaeoenvironment. Geochemistry International, 2019, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 564–574.
  • Hatipoğlu, M., Türk N. (2009). Combined polarizing microscope, XRD, SEM, and specific gravity study of the petrified woods of volcanic origin from the Çamlıdere-Çeltikçi-Güdül fosil forest, in Ankara, Turkey. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 141-157.
  • I.A.W.A. Committe (1989). IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. In E.A. Wheeler, P. Baas, P.E. Gasson (Eds), IAWA Bulletin, 10, 219-332.
  • I.A.W.A. Committe (2004) IAWA list of microscopic features for softwood identification. IAWA Journal, 25, 1-70.
  • Insidewood (2004). Onwards. Published on the Internet. https://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search
  • Jiang, Z.,Wang, Y., Philippe, M., Zhang, W., Tian, N., Zheng, S. (2016). A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo woodevolution. Sci. Rep.6, 38191; doi: 10.1038/srep38191.
  • Kasar, S., Bürkan, K., Siyako, M., Demir, O. (1983). Tekirdağ- Şarköy-Keşan-Enez bölgesinin jeolojisi ve hidrokarbon olanakları. TPAO Arama Dairesi Arşivi, teknik rapor no: 1771, 71 p. (unpublished).
  • Kayacık, H., Aytuğ, B., Yaltırık, F., Şanlı, I., Efe, A., Akkemik, Ü., Inan, M. (1995). Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl) Buchh. trees living near Istanbul in Late Tertiary. Review of Faculty of Forestry, University of İstanbul, 45: 15-22.
  • Kesgin, Y., Varol, B. (2003). Gökçeada ve Bozcaada’nın Tersiyer jeolojisi (Çanakkale). Türkiye. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergis. 126, 49-67.
  • Keskin, C. (1974). Kuzey Trakya Havzası’nın Stratigrafisi. Türkiye İkinci Petrol Kongresi Tebliğleri Kitabı, s. 137 – 163.
  • Kvaček, J., Falcon-Lang, H., Dašková, J. (2005). A new Late Cretaceous ginkgoalean reproductive structure Nehvizdyella gen. nov. from the Czech Republic and its whole-plant reconstruction. American Journal of Botany 92(12):1958-69.
  • Lӓbe, S., Gee, C. T., Ballhaus, C., Nagel, T. (2012). Experimental silicification of the tree fern Dicksonia antarctica at high temperature with silica-enriched H 2 O vapor. Palaios, 27, 835-841.
  • Lukens, W.E., Eze, P., Schubert, B.A. (2019). The effect of diagenesis on carbon isotope values of fossil wood. The Geological Society of America,47 (10): 987–991.
  • Mustoe, G. (2017). Wood Petrifaction: A New View of Permineralization and Replacement. Geosciences, MDPI, USA.
  • Mustoe, G.,Viney, M. (2017). Mineralogy of Paleocene Petrified Wood from Cherokee Ranch Fossil Forest, Central Colorado, USA. Geosciences, MDPI, USA.
  • Mustoe, G.,Viney, M., Mills J. (2019). Mineralogy of Eocene Fossil Wood from the “Blue Forest” Locality, Southwestern Wyoming, United States. Geosciences, MDPI, USA.
  • Natal’in, B. A., Satır, M., Sunal, G., and Toraman, E. (2005a). Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Strandja massif. Project No: 101Y010: Ankara, Turkey, Unpubl. report, Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey.
  • Natal’in, B., Sunal, G., and Toraman, E. (2005b). The Strandja arc Anatomy of collision after long-lived arc-parallel tectonic transport, in Sklyarov, E. V., ed., Structural and tectonic correlation across the CentralAsia orogenic collage: Northeastern Segment. Guide-book and abstract volume of the Siberian WorkshopIGCP-480: Irkutsk, Russia, Russian Academy ofSciencesp.240–245.
  • Okay, A.I., Satır, M., Tüysüz, O., Akyüz, S. & Chen, F. (2001). The tectonics of the Strandja Massif: Variscan and mid-Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism in the northern Aegean. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geologische Rundschau), 90, 217-233
  • Okay, A.I., Simmons, M., Özcan, E., Starkie, S., Bidgood, M. & Kylander-Clark, A.R.C. (2020). Eocene-Oligocene succession at Kıyıköy (Midye) on the Black Sea coast in Thrace. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 29, 139-153.
  • Özgüven-Ertan, K. (1971). Sur un bois fossile de Taxodiaceaedans la flore Neogene d'Istanbul (Turquied'Europe): Sequoioxylon egemeni n.sp. Rev FacScil'Universitéd'Istanbul, 36 (B): 89–114.
  • Pe-Piper, G., Imperial, A., Piper, David J.W., Zouros, Nickolas C., Anastasakis, G. (2019). Mineral data (SEM, electron microprobe, Ramanspectroscopy) from epithermal hydrothermal
  • alteration of the Miocene Sigri Petrified Forestand host pyroclastic rocks, Western Lesbos, Greece. Published by Elsevier Inc., 24, 103987.
  • Perinçek, D. (1987). Trakya Havzası Renç Fay Zonunun Sismik Özellikleri. Türkiye 7. Petrol Kongresi Bildirileri, 11-20.
  • Perinçek, D. (1991). Possible strand of the North Anatolian Fault in the Thrace Basin, Turkey-An Interpretation. AAPG Bulletin 75, 241 – 257.
  • Perinçek, D., Ataş, N., Karatut, Ş., Erensoy, E. (2015). Geological factors controlling potential of lignite beds within the Danişmen Formation in the Thrace Basin. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi, 150, 77 – 108.
  • Polat, S., Güney, Y., Ege, İ., Akkemik, Ü. (2019). Banaz’da (Uşak) Yeni Bulunan Petrifiye Alanı ile İlgili İlk Bulgular. Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, 17(2), 384-402, doi:10.33688/ aucbd.532176.
  • Sakınç, M., Aras, A., Yaltırak, C., Batı, Z., Çağatay, N. (2007). Trakya Karasal Tersiyerinde Silisleşmiş Ağaçlar, Paleoflora, Paleoklimatoloji, Paleocoğrafya. TÜBİTAK Proje No: 103Y137.
  • Saner, S. (1985). Saros Körfezi dolayının çökelme istifleri ve tektonik yerleşimi, Kuzeydoğu Ege Denizi, Türkiye. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni, 28, 1-10.
  • Scott, R.A., Barghoorn, E.S., Prakash, U. (1962). Wood of Ginkgo in the Tertiary of western North America. American Journal of Botany, 49, 1095-1101, https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537- 2197.1962.tb15052.x.
  • Siyako, M., Bürkan, K., Okay, A.I. (1989). Biga ve Gelibolu Yarımadalarının Tersiyer jeolojisi ve hidrokarbon olanakları. Türkiye Petrol Jeologları Derneği Bülteni, 1/3, 183-199.
  • Siyako, M. (2005). Trakya ve yakın çevresinin Tersiyer stratigrafisi. TPAO Arama Dairesi Arşivi, teknik rapor no: 4608, 104 p, (unpublished).
  • Siyako, M. (2006). Lignitic Sandstones of the Trakya Basin. Mineral Res. Exp., Bull., 132, 63-72.
  • Sunal, G., Natal'in, B. A., Satir, M., Toraman, E. (2006). Paleozoic magmatic events in the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey. Geodinamica Acta 19, 283–300.
  • Sunal, G. Satır, M, Natal’in, B., Topuz, G. ve Vonderschmidt, O. (2011). Metamorphism and diachronous cooling in a contractional orogen: the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey. Geological Magazine, DOI: 10.1017/S0016756810001020, 1-17.
  • Sümengen, M., Terlemez, İ., Şentürk, K., Karaköse, C., Erkan, E.N., Ünay, E., Gürbüz, M., Atalay, Z. (1987). Gelibolu Yarımadası ve güneybatı Trakya Tersiyer havzasının stratigrafisi, sedimantolojisi ve tektoniği. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, teknik rapor, 8218. (unpublished).
  • Süss, H. (2003). Zwei neue fossile Hölzer der Morphogattung Ginkgoxylon Saporta emend. Süss aus tertiären Schichten der Insel Lesbos, Griechenland, mit einer Übersicht über Fossilien mit ginkgoaler Holzstruktur. Feddes Repertorum 114 (5-6): 301–319.https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200311001
  • Şanlı, I. (1982). Trakya’nın Tersiyer florası üzerinde ksilolojik arastırmalar (Linyit analizleriyle). İ. Ü. Orman Fakültesi Dergisi A 1: 84-138.
  • Şengüler, İ. (2013). Ergene (Trakya) Havzası’nın jeolojisi ve kömür potansiyeli. Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Doğal Kaynaklar ve Ekonomi Bülteni Sayı 16, 109-114.
  • Teodoridis, V., Sakala, J. (2008). Early Miocene conifer macrofossils from the Most Basin (Czech Republic). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie- Abhandlungen, 250: 287–312.
  • Turgut, S., Siyako, M., Dilki, A. (1983). Trakya havzasının jeolojisi ve hidrokarbon olanakları. Tür. Jeoloji Kong. Bülteni 4:35 - 46.
  • Turgut, S., Türkaslan, M., Perinçek, D. (1991). Evolution of the Thrace sedimentary basin and its hydrocarbon prospectivity. Spencer AM (ed) Generation, accumulation, and production of Europe's hydrocarbons. Special Publication of Eurapean Association of Petroleum Geoscientists, 1, 415-437.
  • Ünal, O. T. (1967). Trakya jeolojisi ve petrol imkanları. TPAO Arama Grubu Arşivi, yayınlanmamış teknik rapor, 391, 80 s.
  • Viney, M., Hickey, R. D., Mustoe, G. E. (2019). A Silicified Carboniferous Lycopsid Forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA. Geosciences, MDPI, Switzerland.
  • Voudouris, P., Velitzelos, D., Velitzelos, E., Thewald U. (2007). Petrified wood occurrences in western Thrace and Limnos Island: mineralogy, geochemistry and depositional environment. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece vol.40 No.1.
  • Yılmaz Şahin, S., Aysal, N. Güngör, Y., Peytcheva, I., Neubauer, F. (2014). Geochemistry and U–Pb zircon geochronology of metagranites in Istranca (Strandja) Zone, NW Pontides, Turkey: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of Cadomian orogeny. Gondwana Research, DOI: 10.1016/j.gr.2013.07.011
  • Yurtseven, N. (2018). Osmancalı (Manisa) köyünde taşlaşmış ormanlar üzerine coğrafi inceleme. TÜCAUM 30. Yıl Uluslararası Coğrafya Sempozyumu, 3-6 Ekim 2018, 875-892, Ankara.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fen, Orman Mühendisliği
Bölüm Articles
Yazarlar

Burcu ÇEVİK ÜNER> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ - CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0003-2235-7337
Türkiye


Ünal AKKEMİK>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ - CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0003-2099-5589
Türkiye


Sabah YILMAZ ŞAHİN Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ - CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0002-6928-0923
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimi (BAP)
Proje Numarası 33806
Teşekkür Bu çalışma, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimi (BAP) tarafından desteklenen 33806 numaralı Doktora Tez Projesi kapsamında gerçekleştirilmiştir.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Aralık 2020
Gönderilme Tarihi 26 Ekim 2020
Kabul Tarihi 20 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 8, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Çevik Üner, B. , Akkemik, Ü. & Yılmaz Şahin, S. (2020). Malkara-Keşan (GB Trakya) çevresinde bulunan silisleşmiş ağaçların türlerinin tespiti ve mineralojik-petrografik özellikleri . Eurasian Journal of Forest Science , Ek Sayı 8(4) 2020 , 309-337 . DOI: 10.31195/ejejfs.816578

 

hbarist@gmail.com 

 

ISSN: 2147-7493