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Energy Intensity and Climate Change: Convergence Analysis for Turkey

Yıl 2020, Sayı 32, 1 - 14, 26.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.32.0099

Öz

The aim of this study is to analyze Turkey’s convergence to the European Union (EU) in terms of energy intensity. In the study, first of all the relationship between energy intensity and climate change has been examined. Afterwards, Turkey’s convergence to EU countries and EU average has been analyzed using the annual energy intensity data including the years 1990-2018. In the analysis, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS), Philips-Perron (PP), NG-Perron and Fourier ADF unit root tests were used. According to the findings obtained, it was concluded that Turkey converges to Italy, Spain, and Portugal with regards to energy intensity, on the other hand doesn’t converge to Germany, United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Holland, Sweden, Czechia, Poland, Romania, and EU average.

Kaynakça

  • Balcılar, M., Emir, F., & Shahbaz, M. (2018). The dynamics of energy intensity convergence in the EU-28 countries. Discussion Paper, 15-37.
  • Becker, R., Enders W., & Lee, J. (2006). A stationary test in the presence of an unknown number of smooth breaks. Journal of Time Series Analysis, 27(3), 381-409.
  • Canel, C., Guris, S., Guris, B., Öktem, B., & Oktem R. (2017). Convergence of energy intensity in OECD countries. Modern Economy, 8, 946-958.
  • Enders, W., & Lee, J. (2012a). A unit root test using a fourier series to approximate smooth breaks. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 74(4), 574-599.
  • Enders, W., & Lee, J. (2012b). The flexible fourier form and Dickey–Fuller type unit root tests. Economics Letters, 117, 196-199.
  • EnerData (2019). Energy intensity. Global Energy Statistical Yearbook. Retrieved from https://yearbook.enerdata.net/total-energy/world-energy-intensity-gdp-data.html
  • Güriş, B. (2017). A new nonlinear unit root test with fourier function. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, MPRA Paper No. 83080. Retrieved from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/83080/1/MPRA_paper_83080.pdf
  • Güriş, S., Çağlayan-Akay, E. ve Güriş, B. (2020). R ile Temel Ekonometri, İstanbul: Der Yayınları.
  • Hajko, V. (2013). The energy intensity in the EU countries. Proceedings of the International Masaryk Conference for Ph.D. Students and Young Researchers, 4, 639-644. https://www.vedeckekonference.cz/library/proceedings/mmk_2013.pdf
  • Hajko, V. (2014). The energy intensity convergence in the transport sector. Procedia Economics and Finance, 12, 199-205. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1990). Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Markandya, A., Pedroso-Galinato, S., & Streimikiene, D. (2006). Energy intensity in transition economies: Is there convergence towards the EU average? Energy Economics, 28, 121-145.
  • Mussini, M. (2020). Inequality and convergence in energy intensity in the European Union. Applied Energy, 261, 1-12.
  • Paoli, L. (2014). The EU climate and energy policy: What about the new targets for 2030? Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment, 1, 27-51.
  • Perron, P., & Ng, S. (1996). Useful modifications to some unit root tests with dependent errors and their local asymptotic properties. Review of Economic Studies, 63, 435-463.
  • Szep, T. S. (2016). Energy convergence of the European Union toward 2020. The Central European Journal of Regional Development and Tourism, 8(3), 88-107.
  • Yıldırım, S., Ertuğrul, H. M. ve Soytaş, U. (2015). Türkiye’de aylık istihdam serisinin durağanlığı: Geleneksel, yapısal kırılmalı ve mevsimsel birim kök test uygulamaları. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 15(4), 91-102.

Enerji Yoğunluğu Ve İklim Değişikliği: Türkiye İçin Yakınsama Analizi

Yıl 2020, Sayı 32, 1 - 14, 26.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.32.0099

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, enerji yoğunluğu açısından Türkiye’nin Avrupa Birliği (AB)’ne yakınsamasının analiz edilmesidir. Çalışmada; öncelikle enerji yoğunluğu ile iklim değişikliği arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Daha sonra, 1990-2018 yılları arası yıllık enerji yoğunluğu verileri kullanılarak Türkiye’nin AB ülkelerine ve AB ortalamasına yakınsaması analiz edilmiştir. Analizde, Genişletilmiş Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS), Philips-Perron (PP), NG-Perron ve Fourier ADF birim kök testleri kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, enerji yoğunluğu açısından Türkiye’nin İtalya, İspanya ve Portekiz’e yakınsadığı; buna karşılık, Almanya, Birleşik Krallık, Belçika, Fransa, Hollanda, İsveç, Çekya, Polonya, Romanya ve AB ortalamasına yakınsamadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Balcılar, M., Emir, F., & Shahbaz, M. (2018). The dynamics of energy intensity convergence in the EU-28 countries. Discussion Paper, 15-37.
  • Becker, R., Enders W., & Lee, J. (2006). A stationary test in the presence of an unknown number of smooth breaks. Journal of Time Series Analysis, 27(3), 381-409.
  • Canel, C., Guris, S., Guris, B., Öktem, B., & Oktem R. (2017). Convergence of energy intensity in OECD countries. Modern Economy, 8, 946-958.
  • Enders, W., & Lee, J. (2012a). A unit root test using a fourier series to approximate smooth breaks. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 74(4), 574-599.
  • Enders, W., & Lee, J. (2012b). The flexible fourier form and Dickey–Fuller type unit root tests. Economics Letters, 117, 196-199.
  • EnerData (2019). Energy intensity. Global Energy Statistical Yearbook. Retrieved from https://yearbook.enerdata.net/total-energy/world-energy-intensity-gdp-data.html
  • Güriş, B. (2017). A new nonlinear unit root test with fourier function. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, MPRA Paper No. 83080. Retrieved from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/83080/1/MPRA_paper_83080.pdf
  • Güriş, S., Çağlayan-Akay, E. ve Güriş, B. (2020). R ile Temel Ekonometri, İstanbul: Der Yayınları.
  • Hajko, V. (2013). The energy intensity in the EU countries. Proceedings of the International Masaryk Conference for Ph.D. Students and Young Researchers, 4, 639-644. https://www.vedeckekonference.cz/library/proceedings/mmk_2013.pdf
  • Hajko, V. (2014). The energy intensity convergence in the transport sector. Procedia Economics and Finance, 12, 199-205. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1990). Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Markandya, A., Pedroso-Galinato, S., & Streimikiene, D. (2006). Energy intensity in transition economies: Is there convergence towards the EU average? Energy Economics, 28, 121-145.
  • Mussini, M. (2020). Inequality and convergence in energy intensity in the European Union. Applied Energy, 261, 1-12.
  • Paoli, L. (2014). The EU climate and energy policy: What about the new targets for 2030? Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment, 1, 27-51.
  • Perron, P., & Ng, S. (1996). Useful modifications to some unit root tests with dependent errors and their local asymptotic properties. Review of Economic Studies, 63, 435-463.
  • Szep, T. S. (2016). Energy convergence of the European Union toward 2020. The Central European Journal of Regional Development and Tourism, 8(3), 88-107.
  • Yıldırım, S., Ertuğrul, H. M. ve Soytaş, U. (2015). Türkiye’de aylık istihdam serisinin durağanlığı: Geleneksel, yapısal kırılmalı ve mevsimsel birim kök test uygulamaları. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 15(4), 91-102.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Feyza SERT> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6790-8548
Türkiye


Seyhun DOĞAN Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3450-0612
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Yazarlar bu çalışma için finansal destek almadığını beyan etmiştir.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Kasım 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 27 Şubat 2020
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 32

Kaynak Göster

APA Sert, F. & Doğan, S. (2020). Enerji Yoğunluğu Ve İklim Değişikliği: Türkiye İçin Yakınsama Analizi . Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics , (32) , 1-14 . DOI: 10.26650/ekoist.2020.32.0099