Yıl 2021, Cilt 6 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 275 - 288 2021-04-30

Neoliberalizm, Annelik ve Diktatörlük Arasında: Latin Amerika'da Kadın Yurttaşlığı ve Katılım
Between Neoliberalism, Motherhood and Dictatorship: Women’s Citizenship and Participation in Latin America

Elif GÖZLER ÇAMUR [1]


Kadınların tarihsel ve geleneksel olarak deneyimlediği hak ihlalleri, onların dolaylı bir yurttaşlık yaşamasına sebep olmuştur. Bu nedenle, kadınların sivil, politik ve ekonomik haklarını inceleyen, genel yurttaşlık olgusundan ayrı bir alan olan “kadın yurttaşlığı” kavramı ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu yazıda kadın vatandaşlığı kavramı ve Latin Amerika'daki yansımaları kadın hareketlerinden ve eşit yurttaşlık taleplerinden örneklerle birlikte incelenecektir. Farklı coğrafyalardaki kadınlar, aynı eşit hakları elde etmek için benzer yollardan geçmiş olsalar da, her deneyimin kendine özgü yanları vardır. Latin Amerika örneğini özel kılan, kadınların eşit vatandaşlık haklarını kazanma yolundaki hareketlerini şekillendiren diktatörlük, kilise, annelik ve neoliberal politikalar gibi benzersiz motifler ve ortamlardır. Bu yazıda ilk olarak kadın yurttaşlığının genel yurttaşlık bakış açısından farklılaşması bir giriş olarak belirtilmiştir. Daha sonra Latin Amerika’da kadınların eşit yurttaşlık talepleri ve onları harekete geçiren etkenler araştırılmış ve bunlar annelik, Kilise, askeri rejim ve neoliberal geçiş gibi kavramlar çerçevesinde bir anlatıyla belirtilmiştir. Son olarak, kadınların siyasete ve sivil topluma katılımı, resmi siyasette kadın temsil düzeyini artırmak için yaygın olarak benimsenen bir önlem olarak kotalara özel bir vurgu yapılarak anlatılmıştır. Ayrıca askeri rejim ve neoliberal süreçte kadın hareketleri bölge ülkelerinden örneklerle dile getirilmiştir.
Historically and traditionally women experience rights violations more widely and this caused them to practice an indirect citizenship form. Hence, a gendered perception has emerged to understand civil, political and economic rights of women apart from the general notion of citizenship. In this paper, the notion of women’s citizenship and its reflections in Latin America will be examined together with examples from women movements, motivations and claims. Although women in different geographies passed similar paths in order to achieve equal rights, every experience has its uniqueness. What makes the Latin American example special are unique motives and environments such as dictatorship, the Church, motherhood and neoliberalism. In this paper, firstly, women’s citizenship with a gendered viewpoint is stated. Then, the Latin American women’s claims and what mobilise them on realising equal citizenship were explored along with the concepts such as motherhood, religion, military regime and neoliberal transition. Finally, women’s political participation in formal politics and civil society is indicated with a special emphasis over quotas as commonly adopted measure to increase the level of women representation in formal politics. Also, women’s movements during the military regime and neoliberal process were stated with examples of women organisations from countries in the region.
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Birincil Dil en
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Yayınlanma Tarihi Nisan 2021
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0003-2394-1447
Yazar: Elif GÖZLER ÇAMUR (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: İZMİR DEMOKRASİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Nisan 2021

APA Gözler Çamur, E . (2021). Between Neoliberalism, Motherhood and Dictatorship: Women’s Citizenship and Participation in Latin America . Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (1) , 275-288 . DOI: 10.30784/epfad.865899