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Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği

Yıl 2014, Cilt 11, Sayı 3, 211 - 220, 01.12.2014

Öz

Ruminantların gastrointestinal nematod enfeksiyonlarının kontrolünde anthelmentiklerin yoğun kullanılması sonucunda

bu ilaçlara karşı direnç gelişmiş ve bu durum dünya genelinde birçok ülkede büyük bir sorun haline gelmiştir.

Sürekli kullanılan, benzimidazol, imidazothiazol ve makrosiklik laktonlara karşı Haemonchus, Teladorsagia ve

Trichostrongylus gibi önemli nematod cinslerinde direnç olguları bildirilmektedir. Buna ilaveten gastrointestinal nematod

popülasyonlarında çoklu ilaç direnci de tespit edilmiştir. Gastrointestinal nematodların bu anthelmentiklere karşı direnç

kazanması ruminantlarda büyük ekonomik kayıplara, sağlık ve hayvan refahı problemlerine yol açmaktadır. Bu derlemede

direnç gelişiminin mekanizmaları, direnç tespit yöntemleri, direnç kontrol stratejileri ve anthelmentik dirençliliğinin

Türkiye’deki durumu ele alınmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Álvarez-Sánchez MÁ, Mainar-Jaime R, Pérez García J, Rojo-Vázquez FÁ. A review of the methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance. Rev Ibérica Parasitol 2002; 62 (1-2): 51-9.
  • 2. Álvarez-Sánchez MA, Perez-Garcia J, Cruz-Rojo MA, Rojo-Vazquez FA. Real time PCR for the diagnosis of benzimidazole resistance in trichostrongylids of sheep. Vet Parasitol 2005; 129 (3): 291-8.
  • 3. Barnes EH, Dobson RJ, Barger IA. Worm control and anthelmintic resistance: adventures with a model. Parasitol Today 1995; 11 (2): 56–63.
  • 4. Blackhall WJ, Pouliot JF, Prichard RK, Beech RN. Haemonchus contortus: selection at a glutamate-gated chloride channel gene in ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains. Exp Parasitol 1998; l90(1): 42-8.
  • 5. Coles GC, Bauer C, Borgsteede FHM, Geerts S, Klei TR, Taylor MA, Waller PJ. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology(WAAVP) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol 1992; 44 (1): 35-44.
  • 6. Coles GC, Giordano-fenton DJ, Tritschler JP. Efficacy of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep. Vet Rec 1994; 135 (2): 38-9.
  • 7. Coles GC. Anthelmintic resistance and the control of worms. J Med Microbiol 1999; 48 (4): 323-8.
  • 8. Coles GC, Jackson F, Pomroy WE, Prichard RK, Von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Silvestre A, Taylor MA, Vercruysse J. The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol 2006; 136 (3): 167–185.
  • 9. Çırak VY, Güleğen E, Bauer C. Benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomin populations on horse farms in western Anatolia, Turkey. Vet Res 2004; 93: 392-5.
  • 10. Çırak VY, Kar S, Girişkin O. İvermektin ve pirantele karşı at Strongylidae’lerinde antelmentik direnç araştırılması ve Parascaris equorum’da makrosiklik lakton direnci. T Parazitol Derg 2010; 34 (1): 35-9.
  • Çırak VY, Koşum N, Bauer C. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a trichostrongylid population in Saanen goats imported into Turkey from Australia. DVG-Jahrestagung der Fachgruppe „Parasitologie und parasitäre Krankheiten“, 7.–9. Juli 2010 in München.
  • 12. De Graef J, Claerebout E, Geldhof P. Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal cattle nematodes. Vlaams Diergen Tijds 2013; 82: 113-23.
  • 13. Dent JA, Smith MM, Vassilatis DK, Avery L. The genetics of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97 (6): 2674-90.
  • 14. Dobson RJ, Le Jambre LF, Gill JH. Management of anthelmintic resistance: inheritance of resistance and selection with persistent drugs. Int J Parasitol 1996; 26 (8): 993-1000.
  • 15. Dobson RJ, Besier RB, Barnes EH, Love SC, Vizard A, Bell K, Le Jambre LF. Principles for the use of macrocyclic lactones to minimise selection for resistance. Aust Vet J 2001; 79 (11): 756-61.
  • 16. Dorny P, Claerebout E, Vercruysse J, Sani R, Jalila A. Anthelmintic resistance in goats in peninsular Malaysia. Vet Parasitol 1994; 55 (4): 327-42.
  • 17. Egerton JR, Suhayda D, Eary CH. Laboratory selection of H. contortus for resistance to ivermectin. J Parasitol 1988; 74 (4): 614-7.
  • 18. Fleming JT, Squire MD, Barnes TM, Tornoe C, Matsuda K, Ahnn J, Fire Asulston JE, Barnard EA, Sattelle DB, Lewis JA. Caenorhabditis elegans levamisole resistance genes lev-1, unc-29, and unc-38 encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. J Neurosci 1997; 17 (15): 5843-57.
  • 19. Folz SD, Pax RA, Thomas EM, Bennnet JL, Lee BL, Conder GA. Detecting in vitro anthelmintic effects with a micromotility meter. Vet Parasitol 1987; 24 (3): 241-50.
  • 20. Gill JH, Redwin JM, Van Wyk JA, Lacey E. Detection of resistance to ivermectin in Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol 1991; 21 (7): 771-6.
  • Gill JH, Lacey E. Avermectin/milbemycin resistance in trychostrongyloid nematodes. Int J Parasitol 1998; 28 (6): 863-77.
  • 22. Hennessy DR. The disposition of antiparasitic drugs in relation to the development of resistance by parasites of livestock. Acta Trop 1994; 56 (2-3): 125-41.
  • 23. Herlich H, Rew RS., Colglazier ML. Inheritance of cambendazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Am J Vet Res 1981; 42 (8): 1342-4.
  • 24. Hubert J, Kerboeuf D. A microlarval development assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Vet Rec 1992; 130(16): 442-6.
  • 25. Hughes P, Dowling A, Callinan A. Resistance to macrocylic lactone anthelmintics and associated risk factors on sheep farms in the lower North Island of New Zealand New Zealand Vet J 2007; 55 (4): 177-83.
  • 26. Ihler CF. Anthelmintic resistance. An overview of the situation in the Nordic countries. ACTA Vet Scand 2010; 52 (1): 24-8.
  • 27. Jabbar A, Iqbal Z, Kerboeuf D, Muhammad G, Khan MN, Afaq M. Anthelmintic resistance: The state of play revisited Life Sci 2006; 79 (26): 2413-31.
  • 28. Johansen MY. An evaluation oftechniques used for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of domestic livestock. Vet Res Commun 1989; 13 (6): 455-66.
  • 29. Kaplan RM. Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report. Trends Parasitol 2004; 20 (10): 477-81.
  • 30. Kotze AC. Effects of macrocyclic lactones on ingestion in susceptible and resistant Haemonchus contortus lavrae. J Parasitol 1998; 84 (3): 631-5.
  • Köhler P. The biochemical basis of anthelmintic action and resistance. Int J Parasitol 2001; 31: 336-45.
  • 32. Köse M, Kozan E, Sevimli Kırcalı F, Eser M. The resistance of nematode parasites in sheep against anthelmintic drugs widely used in Western Turkey. Vet Res 2007; 101: 563-7.
  • 33. Kwa MSG, Veenstra JG, Roos MH. Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus is correlated with a conserved mutation at amino acid 200 in beta-tubulin isotype 1. Mol Biochem Parasitol 1994; 63: 299-303.
  • 34. Lacey E, Snowden KL. A routine diagnostic assay for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematodes using tritriated benzimidazole carbamates. Vet Parasitol 1988; 27: 309-24.
  • 35. Lalchhandama K. Anthelmintic resistance: the song remains the same. Sci Vis 2010; 10 (4): 111-22.
  • 36. Le Jambre LF, Gill JH, Lenane IJ, Baker P. Inheritance of avermectin resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol 2000; 30: 105-11.
  • 37. Martin RJ, Murray I, Robertson AP, Bjorn H, Sangster N. Anthelmintics and ion-channels: after a puncture, use a patch. Int J Parasitol 1998; 28 (6): 849-62.
  • 38. Michel JE. Strategies for the use of anthelmintics in livestock and their implications for the development of drug resistance. Parasitology 1985; 90 (4): 621-8.
  • 39. Papadopoulos E, Gallidis E, Ptochos S. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep in Europe: A selected review. Vet Parasitol 2012; 189 (1): 85-8.
  • 40. Papadopoulos E. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Small Ruminant Res 2008; 76 (1): 99-103.
  • 41. Pape M, Posedi J, Failing K, Schnieder T, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G. Analysis of the beta-tubulin codon 200 genotype distribution in a benzimidazole-susceptible and –resistant cyathostome population. Parasitology 2003; 127 (01): 53-9.
  • 42. Petersen MB, Friis C, Bjorn H. A new in vitro assay for the quantification of benzimidazole activity against adult Oesophagostomum dentatum. Int J Parasitol 1997; 27: 1333-9.
  • 43. Petersen MB, Craven J, Bjorn H, Nansen P. Use of a migration assay for the separation of adult pyrantel-susceptible and resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum. Vet Parasitol 2000; 91: 141-5.
  • 44. Prichard RK, Hall CA, Kelly JD, Martin ICA, Donald AD. The problem of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Aust Vet J 1980; 56: 239-50.
  • 45. Prichard R. Anthelmintic resistance. Vet Parasitol 1994; 54: 259-68.
  • 46. Prichard, R. Genetic variability following selection of Haemonchus contortus with anthelmintics. Trends Parasitol 2001; 17 (9): 445-53.
  • 47. Robertson AP, Bjorn HE, Martin RJ. Resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level. FASEB J 1999; 13: 749-60.
  • 48. Robertson AP, Bjorn HE, Martin RJ. Pyrantel resistance alters nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor single-channel properties. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 394: 1-8.
  • 49. Roos MH, Kwa MSG, Grant WN. New genetic and practical implications of selection for anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematodes. Parasitol Today 1995; 11: 148-50.
  • 50. Rothwell J, Sangster N. Haemonchus contortus: the uptake and metabolism of closantel. Int J Parasitol 1997; 27: 313-9.
  • Sangster NC, Prichard RK, Lacey E. Tubulin and benzimidazole resistance in Trichostrongylus colubriformis (nematoda). J Parasitol 1985; 71: 645-51.
  • 52. Sangster NC, Redwin JM, Bjorn H. Inheritance of levamisole and benzimidazole resistance in an isolate of Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol 1998; 28: 503-10.
  • 53. Sangster NC, Gill J. Pharmacology of anthelmintic resistance. Parasitol Today 1999; 15 (4): 141-6.
  • 54. Scheuerle M, Mahling M, Muntwyler J, Pfister K. The accuracy of the FAMACHA-method in detecting anaemia and haemonchosis in goat flocks in Switzerland under field conditions. Vet Res 2010; 170 (1-2): 71-7.
  • 55. Silvestre A, Humbert JF. A molecular tool for species identification and benzimidazole resistance diagnosis in larval communities of small ruminant parasites. Exp Parasitol 2000; 95: 271-6.
  • 56. Sutherland IA, Lee DL. Colorimetric assay for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in trichostrongyles. Res Vet Sci 1989; 46 (3): 363-6.
  • 57. Sutherland IA, Lee DL. A larval paralysis assay for the detection of thiabendazole resistance in trichostrongyles. Parasitology 1990; 100: 131–135.
  • 58. Tınar R, Akyol ÇV, Çırak VY, Şenlik B, Bauer C. Investigations on the seasonal patterns of strongyle infections in grazing lambs, and the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in western Anatolia, Turkey. Vet Res 2005; 96: 18-23.
  • 59. Van Wyk JA. Refugia – overlooked as perhaps the most potent factor concerning the development of anthelmintic resistance. J Vet Res 2001; 68: 55–67.
  • 60. Van Wyk JA, Bath GF. The FAMACHA system for managing haemonchosis in sheep by clinically identifying individual animals for treatment. Vet Res 2002; 33: 509-29.
  • Varady M, Papadopoulos E, Dolinska M, Königova A. Anthelmintic resistance in parasites of small ruminants: sheep versus goats. Helminthologia 2011; 48(3): 137-44.
  • 62. von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Buschbaum S, Wirtherle N, Pape M, Schnieder T. TaqMan minor groove binder real-time PCR analysis of b-tubulin codon 200 polymorphism in small strongyles (cyathostominae) indicates that TAC allele is only moderately selected in benzimidazole-resistant populations. Parasitology 2003; 127: 489-96.
  • 63. Waller PJ. International approaches to the concept of integrated control of nematode parasites of livestock. Int J Parasitol 1999; 29: 155-64.
  • 64. Wood IB, Amaral NK, Bairden K, Duncan JL, Kassai T, Malone JB, Pankawich JA, Reinecke J. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine). Vet Parasitol 1995; 58: 181-213.

Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes of Ruminants

Yıl 2014, Cilt 11, Sayı 3, 211 - 220, 01.12.2014

Öz

The intensive use of anthelmintics for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode infections of ruminants has

resulted in the development of resistance that has become a major practical problem in many countries worldwide.

Anthelmintic resistance to benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles and macrocyclic lactones has continuously been reported,

particularly for the important genera, Haemonchus, Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus. Furthermore, multiple

drug-resistant populations of these gastro-intestinal nematodes have also been detected. Anthelmintic resistance

developed in these nematode parasites of ruminants causes a large amount of economic losses, health and welfare

problems worldwide. In this review, it is aimed to explain the mechanism, various detection methods, control strategies

and the status of anthelmintic resistance in Turkey.

Kaynakça

  • Álvarez-Sánchez MÁ, Mainar-Jaime R, Pérez García J, Rojo-Vázquez FÁ. A review of the methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance. Rev Ibérica Parasitol 2002; 62 (1-2): 51-9.
  • 2. Álvarez-Sánchez MA, Perez-Garcia J, Cruz-Rojo MA, Rojo-Vazquez FA. Real time PCR for the diagnosis of benzimidazole resistance in trichostrongylids of sheep. Vet Parasitol 2005; 129 (3): 291-8.
  • 3. Barnes EH, Dobson RJ, Barger IA. Worm control and anthelmintic resistance: adventures with a model. Parasitol Today 1995; 11 (2): 56–63.
  • 4. Blackhall WJ, Pouliot JF, Prichard RK, Beech RN. Haemonchus contortus: selection at a glutamate-gated chloride channel gene in ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains. Exp Parasitol 1998; l90(1): 42-8.
  • 5. Coles GC, Bauer C, Borgsteede FHM, Geerts S, Klei TR, Taylor MA, Waller PJ. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology(WAAVP) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol 1992; 44 (1): 35-44.
  • 6. Coles GC, Giordano-fenton DJ, Tritschler JP. Efficacy of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep. Vet Rec 1994; 135 (2): 38-9.
  • 7. Coles GC. Anthelmintic resistance and the control of worms. J Med Microbiol 1999; 48 (4): 323-8.
  • 8. Coles GC, Jackson F, Pomroy WE, Prichard RK, Von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Silvestre A, Taylor MA, Vercruysse J. The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol 2006; 136 (3): 167–185.
  • 9. Çırak VY, Güleğen E, Bauer C. Benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomin populations on horse farms in western Anatolia, Turkey. Vet Res 2004; 93: 392-5.
  • 10. Çırak VY, Kar S, Girişkin O. İvermektin ve pirantele karşı at Strongylidae’lerinde antelmentik direnç araştırılması ve Parascaris equorum’da makrosiklik lakton direnci. T Parazitol Derg 2010; 34 (1): 35-9.
  • Çırak VY, Koşum N, Bauer C. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a trichostrongylid population in Saanen goats imported into Turkey from Australia. DVG-Jahrestagung der Fachgruppe „Parasitologie und parasitäre Krankheiten“, 7.–9. Juli 2010 in München.
  • 12. De Graef J, Claerebout E, Geldhof P. Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal cattle nematodes. Vlaams Diergen Tijds 2013; 82: 113-23.
  • 13. Dent JA, Smith MM, Vassilatis DK, Avery L. The genetics of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97 (6): 2674-90.
  • 14. Dobson RJ, Le Jambre LF, Gill JH. Management of anthelmintic resistance: inheritance of resistance and selection with persistent drugs. Int J Parasitol 1996; 26 (8): 993-1000.
  • 15. Dobson RJ, Besier RB, Barnes EH, Love SC, Vizard A, Bell K, Le Jambre LF. Principles for the use of macrocyclic lactones to minimise selection for resistance. Aust Vet J 2001; 79 (11): 756-61.
  • 16. Dorny P, Claerebout E, Vercruysse J, Sani R, Jalila A. Anthelmintic resistance in goats in peninsular Malaysia. Vet Parasitol 1994; 55 (4): 327-42.
  • 17. Egerton JR, Suhayda D, Eary CH. Laboratory selection of H. contortus for resistance to ivermectin. J Parasitol 1988; 74 (4): 614-7.
  • 18. Fleming JT, Squire MD, Barnes TM, Tornoe C, Matsuda K, Ahnn J, Fire Asulston JE, Barnard EA, Sattelle DB, Lewis JA. Caenorhabditis elegans levamisole resistance genes lev-1, unc-29, and unc-38 encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. J Neurosci 1997; 17 (15): 5843-57.
  • 19. Folz SD, Pax RA, Thomas EM, Bennnet JL, Lee BL, Conder GA. Detecting in vitro anthelmintic effects with a micromotility meter. Vet Parasitol 1987; 24 (3): 241-50.
  • 20. Gill JH, Redwin JM, Van Wyk JA, Lacey E. Detection of resistance to ivermectin in Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol 1991; 21 (7): 771-6.
  • Gill JH, Lacey E. Avermectin/milbemycin resistance in trychostrongyloid nematodes. Int J Parasitol 1998; 28 (6): 863-77.
  • 22. Hennessy DR. The disposition of antiparasitic drugs in relation to the development of resistance by parasites of livestock. Acta Trop 1994; 56 (2-3): 125-41.
  • 23. Herlich H, Rew RS., Colglazier ML. Inheritance of cambendazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Am J Vet Res 1981; 42 (8): 1342-4.
  • 24. Hubert J, Kerboeuf D. A microlarval development assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Vet Rec 1992; 130(16): 442-6.
  • 25. Hughes P, Dowling A, Callinan A. Resistance to macrocylic lactone anthelmintics and associated risk factors on sheep farms in the lower North Island of New Zealand New Zealand Vet J 2007; 55 (4): 177-83.
  • 26. Ihler CF. Anthelmintic resistance. An overview of the situation in the Nordic countries. ACTA Vet Scand 2010; 52 (1): 24-8.
  • 27. Jabbar A, Iqbal Z, Kerboeuf D, Muhammad G, Khan MN, Afaq M. Anthelmintic resistance: The state of play revisited Life Sci 2006; 79 (26): 2413-31.
  • 28. Johansen MY. An evaluation oftechniques used for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of domestic livestock. Vet Res Commun 1989; 13 (6): 455-66.
  • 29. Kaplan RM. Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report. Trends Parasitol 2004; 20 (10): 477-81.
  • 30. Kotze AC. Effects of macrocyclic lactones on ingestion in susceptible and resistant Haemonchus contortus lavrae. J Parasitol 1998; 84 (3): 631-5.
  • Köhler P. The biochemical basis of anthelmintic action and resistance. Int J Parasitol 2001; 31: 336-45.
  • 32. Köse M, Kozan E, Sevimli Kırcalı F, Eser M. The resistance of nematode parasites in sheep against anthelmintic drugs widely used in Western Turkey. Vet Res 2007; 101: 563-7.
  • 33. Kwa MSG, Veenstra JG, Roos MH. Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus is correlated with a conserved mutation at amino acid 200 in beta-tubulin isotype 1. Mol Biochem Parasitol 1994; 63: 299-303.
  • 34. Lacey E, Snowden KL. A routine diagnostic assay for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematodes using tritriated benzimidazole carbamates. Vet Parasitol 1988; 27: 309-24.
  • 35. Lalchhandama K. Anthelmintic resistance: the song remains the same. Sci Vis 2010; 10 (4): 111-22.
  • 36. Le Jambre LF, Gill JH, Lenane IJ, Baker P. Inheritance of avermectin resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol 2000; 30: 105-11.
  • 37. Martin RJ, Murray I, Robertson AP, Bjorn H, Sangster N. Anthelmintics and ion-channels: after a puncture, use a patch. Int J Parasitol 1998; 28 (6): 849-62.
  • 38. Michel JE. Strategies for the use of anthelmintics in livestock and their implications for the development of drug resistance. Parasitology 1985; 90 (4): 621-8.
  • 39. Papadopoulos E, Gallidis E, Ptochos S. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep in Europe: A selected review. Vet Parasitol 2012; 189 (1): 85-8.
  • 40. Papadopoulos E. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Small Ruminant Res 2008; 76 (1): 99-103.
  • 41. Pape M, Posedi J, Failing K, Schnieder T, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G. Analysis of the beta-tubulin codon 200 genotype distribution in a benzimidazole-susceptible and –resistant cyathostome population. Parasitology 2003; 127 (01): 53-9.
  • 42. Petersen MB, Friis C, Bjorn H. A new in vitro assay for the quantification of benzimidazole activity against adult Oesophagostomum dentatum. Int J Parasitol 1997; 27: 1333-9.
  • 43. Petersen MB, Craven J, Bjorn H, Nansen P. Use of a migration assay for the separation of adult pyrantel-susceptible and resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum. Vet Parasitol 2000; 91: 141-5.
  • 44. Prichard RK, Hall CA, Kelly JD, Martin ICA, Donald AD. The problem of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Aust Vet J 1980; 56: 239-50.
  • 45. Prichard R. Anthelmintic resistance. Vet Parasitol 1994; 54: 259-68.
  • 46. Prichard, R. Genetic variability following selection of Haemonchus contortus with anthelmintics. Trends Parasitol 2001; 17 (9): 445-53.
  • 47. Robertson AP, Bjorn HE, Martin RJ. Resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level. FASEB J 1999; 13: 749-60.
  • 48. Robertson AP, Bjorn HE, Martin RJ. Pyrantel resistance alters nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor single-channel properties. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 394: 1-8.
  • 49. Roos MH, Kwa MSG, Grant WN. New genetic and practical implications of selection for anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematodes. Parasitol Today 1995; 11: 148-50.
  • 50. Rothwell J, Sangster N. Haemonchus contortus: the uptake and metabolism of closantel. Int J Parasitol 1997; 27: 313-9.
  • Sangster NC, Prichard RK, Lacey E. Tubulin and benzimidazole resistance in Trichostrongylus colubriformis (nematoda). J Parasitol 1985; 71: 645-51.
  • 52. Sangster NC, Redwin JM, Bjorn H. Inheritance of levamisole and benzimidazole resistance in an isolate of Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol 1998; 28: 503-10.
  • 53. Sangster NC, Gill J. Pharmacology of anthelmintic resistance. Parasitol Today 1999; 15 (4): 141-6.
  • 54. Scheuerle M, Mahling M, Muntwyler J, Pfister K. The accuracy of the FAMACHA-method in detecting anaemia and haemonchosis in goat flocks in Switzerland under field conditions. Vet Res 2010; 170 (1-2): 71-7.
  • 55. Silvestre A, Humbert JF. A molecular tool for species identification and benzimidazole resistance diagnosis in larval communities of small ruminant parasites. Exp Parasitol 2000; 95: 271-6.
  • 56. Sutherland IA, Lee DL. Colorimetric assay for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in trichostrongyles. Res Vet Sci 1989; 46 (3): 363-6.
  • 57. Sutherland IA, Lee DL. A larval paralysis assay for the detection of thiabendazole resistance in trichostrongyles. Parasitology 1990; 100: 131–135.
  • 58. Tınar R, Akyol ÇV, Çırak VY, Şenlik B, Bauer C. Investigations on the seasonal patterns of strongyle infections in grazing lambs, and the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in western Anatolia, Turkey. Vet Res 2005; 96: 18-23.
  • 59. Van Wyk JA. Refugia – overlooked as perhaps the most potent factor concerning the development of anthelmintic resistance. J Vet Res 2001; 68: 55–67.
  • 60. Van Wyk JA, Bath GF. The FAMACHA system for managing haemonchosis in sheep by clinically identifying individual animals for treatment. Vet Res 2002; 33: 509-29.
  • Varady M, Papadopoulos E, Dolinska M, Königova A. Anthelmintic resistance in parasites of small ruminants: sheep versus goats. Helminthologia 2011; 48(3): 137-44.
  • 62. von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Buschbaum S, Wirtherle N, Pape M, Schnieder T. TaqMan minor groove binder real-time PCR analysis of b-tubulin codon 200 polymorphism in small strongyles (cyathostominae) indicates that TAC allele is only moderately selected in benzimidazole-resistant populations. Parasitology 2003; 127: 489-96.
  • 63. Waller PJ. International approaches to the concept of integrated control of nematode parasites of livestock. Int J Parasitol 1999; 29: 155-64.
  • 64. Wood IB, Amaral NK, Bairden K, Duncan JL, Kassai T, Malone JB, Pankawich JA, Reinecke J. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine). Vet Parasitol 1995; 58: 181-213.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Mustafa KÖSE
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi, Veteriner Fakültesi, Parazitoloji Anabilim Dalı, Afyonkarahisar, Türkiye
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2014
Başvuru Tarihi 15 Ocak 2017
Kabul Tarihi 1 Kasım 2014
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2014, Cilt 11, Sayı 3

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Bibtex @derleme { ercivet285969, journal = {Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1304-7280}, eissn = {2667-5498}, address = {}, publisher = {Erciyes Üniversitesi}, year = {2014}, volume = {11}, number = {3}, pages = {211 - 220}, title = {Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği}, key = {cite}, author = {Köse, Mustafa} }
APA Köse, M. (2014). Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 11 (3) , 211-220 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ercivet/issue/27051/285969
MLA Köse, M. "Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği" . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 11 (2014 ): 211-220 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ercivet/issue/27051/285969>
Chicago Köse, M. "Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 11 (2014 ): 211-220
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği AU - Mustafa Köse Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - DO - T2 - Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 211 EP - 220 VL - 11 IS - 3 SN - 1304-7280-2667-5498 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2014 ER -
EndNote %0 Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği %A Mustafa Köse %T Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği %D 2014 %J Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1304-7280-2667-5498 %V 11 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Köse, Mustafa . "Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 11 / 3 (Aralık 2014): 211-220 .
AMA Köse M. Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği. Erciyes Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2014; 11(3): 211-220.
Vancouver Köse M. Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği. Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2014; 11(3): 211-220.
IEEE M. Köse , "Ruminantların Gastro-intestinal Nematodlarında Anthelmentik Dirençliliği", Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 11, sayı. 3, ss. 211-220, Ara. 2014