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THE FORMATION OF THE HELLENIC IDENTITY IN LATE BYZANTINE PERIOD AND ITS REFLECTIONS IN BYZANTINE RELIGIOUS ICONOGRAPHY

Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 59 - 79, 23.02.2022

Öz

After the fourth Crusader army captured Constantinople in 1204, the exile conditions experienced by the Byzantine state in Nikea led to increasing in the awareness of Hellenism in the cultural life of Byzantines. The empire’s first association with the Hellenistic tradition appeared to emphasize its superiority over the Byzantines’ western rivals who claimed to be “true Roman”. The idea of Hellenism, which concentrated in the fourteenth century, led to the formation of a new Byzantine identity with the Orthodox Christian faith. This situation also brought with it the development of the Hesychast spirituality in theology as a reaction against Latin Christianity. In this respect, the new trends emerging in late Byzantine cultural life, as opposed to the Latin West, have an outline of national Greek identity, as it pointed out the Roman empire which was Hellenic and Orthodox. New trends, which are also effective in religious iconography, can be seen in iconographies such as the Tree of Jesus, Zoodochos Pege, Metamorfosiz, or Royal Deesis. In this article, I will try to analyze the ideological transformation of the Byzantines in perceiving themselves on the iconographies related to the topic and introduce the changes that created by the new trends in the previous iconographies, together with the new iconographies that emerged in the Byzantine painting art.

Kaynakça

  • Charalabopoulos, N. (2016). Two Images of Sokrates in the Art of the Greek East. (8 ed. Michael Trap). Socrates From Antiquity to the Engligtenment. Routledge. Pp.105-227.
  • Downey, G. (1958). Byzantium and the Classical Tradition. Phoenix. Vol. 12. No. 3. Classical Assciation of Canada. Pp.125-129.
  • Duffy, J. (2004). The Lonely Mission of Michael Psellos. (Ed. Ierodiakonou, K.) Byzantine Philosophy and its Ancient Sources. Pp. 139-156. Oxford Universitty Press.
  • Erdoğan, M. (2009). Anastasis: Ortodoks ve Batı İkonografisi’nde Betimleniş Biçimleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sanat Tarihi Anabilim Dalı, Yayınlamamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Fryde, E. (2000). The Early Palaelogan Renaissance (1261- c. 1360). (eds. Kennedy, H. and others). Brill.
  • Gkegkes, D. I. and Others. (2012). Breastfeeding in Byzantine icon art. Article in Archives of Gynecology. Februray.
  • Grishin, A. (2007). Eastern Christian Icongraphic and Architectural Traditions: Eastern Orthodox. (ed. Ken Parry). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 368-388.
  • Jenkins, R. J. H. (1963).The Hellenistic Origins of Byzantine Literature. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University.Vol. 17. Pp. 37-52.
  • Kaldelis, A. (2007). Hellenism in Byzantium the Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kazhdan, P. A. (Ed.). (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. Newyork.
  • Kitzinger, E. (1963). The Hellenistic Heritage in Byzantine Art. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 17. Dumberton Oaks, Trustess for Harvard University. Pp. 95-115.
  • Konstantinos, D. (2004). The World of the Byzantine Museum Ministry of Culture. Byzantine-Christian Museum.
  • Kotzabassi, S. (2002). Aristotle’s Organon and Its Byzantine Commentators. The Princeton University Library Chronicle. Vol. 64. No 1. Pp. 51-62. Princeton University Library.
  • Kriza, A. (2018). The Royal Deesis – An Anti-Latin Image of Late Byzantine Art. Cross-Cultural Interraction Between Byzantium and West, 1204-1669. (ed. Angeliki Lymberopoulou). Routledge.
  • Lexikon Der Christlichen Ikonographie 3. (1994). Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.
  • Mango, C. (1965). Byzantinism and Romantic Hellenism. Journal of the Warburg and Courtuld Institutes. Vol. 28. The Warburg Institute. S. 29-43
  • Markopoulos, A. (2008). Education. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. (Jeffreys, E. and Haldon, J. F.. Ed.). Pp. 785-796. Oxford University Press.
  • Mittal, R. (2010). Hellenism and the Shaping of the Byzantine Empire. e-Publications@Marquette.
  • Nicol, D. M. (1969). The Byzantine Church and Helenic Learning in the Fourteenth Century. The Church and Academic Learning. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 23-57.
  • Runciman, S. (1968). The Last Byzantine Renaissance. Cambridge University Press.
  • Steiris, G. (2020). History and Religion as Sources of Hellenic Identity in Late Byzantium and Post-Byzantine Era. Genealogy. 4. 16. https://www.mdpi.com/2313-5778/4/1/16
  • Strezova, A. (2014). Hesychasm and Art the Appearence of New Iconographic Trends in Byzantine and Slavic Lands in the 14th and 15th Centuries. The Australian National University Press.
  • Taylor, M. D. (1980/81). A Historiated Tree of Jesse. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 34/35. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University.Pp 125-176.
  • Tinnefeld, F. (2003). Intellectuals in Late Byzantine Thessalonike. Dumbaton Oaks Papers. Vol. 57. Syymposium on late Byzantine Thessalonike. Dumberton Oaks, Trustess for Harvard University. Pp. 153-172.
  • Zografidis, G. (2013). Plato in Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Art. (http://n1.intelibility.com/ime/lyceum/?p=lemma&id=786&lang=2)

GEÇ BİZANS DÖNEMİNDE HELEN KİMLİK OLUŞUMU VE BİZANS DİNİ İKONOGRAFİSİNDE YANSIMALARI

Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 59 - 79, 23.02.2022

Öz

1204 yılında dördüncü Haçlı ordusunun Konstantinopolis’i ele geçirmesinden sonra Bizans devletinin Nikea’da yaşadığı sürgün koşulları Bizans kültürel yaşamında Helenlilik bilincinin artmasına yol açmıştır. İmparatorluğun ilk kez bu dönemde görülen Helenistik gelenekle ilişkilenmesi, Bizanslıların “gerçek Romalılık” iddiasında bulunan batılı rakiplerinden üstünlüğünü vurgulamak için ortaya çıkmıştır. On dördüncü yüzyılda giderek yoğunlaşan Helenlilik düşüncesi, Ortodoks Hıristiyan inancıyla birlikte yeni bir Bizans kimliğinin şekillenmesini sağlamıştır. Bu durum aynı zamanda teolojide Hesikast ruhsallığın Latin Hıristiyanlığına karşı bir tepki olarak gelişmesini beraberinde getirmiştir. Bu açıdan geç Bizans kültür yaşamında ortaya çıkan yeni eğilimler Latin batıya karşıt olarak Helen, Ortodoks bir Roma imparatorluğuna işaret ederken ulusal Yunan kimliğinin ana hatlarını oluşturan bir içeriğe sahiptir. Dini ikonografide de etkisini gösteren yeni eğilimler, resim sanatında İsa’nın Soyağacı (Tree of Jesse), Hayat Pınarı Meryem (Zoodokhos Pege), İsa’nın dönüşümü (Metamorfosis) ya da Krali Deesis gibi ikonografilerde görülebilir. Bu makalede Bizanslılar’ın kendilerini algılamadaki ideolojik dönüşümleri, konuyla ilgili ikonografi izleğinde analiz edilmeye; Bizans resim sanatında ortaya çıkan yeni ikonografiyle birlikte yeni eğilimlerin önceki ikonografide yarattığı değişiklikler ortaya konulmaya çalışılmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Charalabopoulos, N. (2016). Two Images of Sokrates in the Art of the Greek East. (8 ed. Michael Trap). Socrates From Antiquity to the Engligtenment. Routledge. Pp.105-227.
  • Downey, G. (1958). Byzantium and the Classical Tradition. Phoenix. Vol. 12. No. 3. Classical Assciation of Canada. Pp.125-129.
  • Duffy, J. (2004). The Lonely Mission of Michael Psellos. (Ed. Ierodiakonou, K.) Byzantine Philosophy and its Ancient Sources. Pp. 139-156. Oxford Universitty Press.
  • Erdoğan, M. (2009). Anastasis: Ortodoks ve Batı İkonografisi’nde Betimleniş Biçimleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sanat Tarihi Anabilim Dalı, Yayınlamamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Fryde, E. (2000). The Early Palaelogan Renaissance (1261- c. 1360). (eds. Kennedy, H. and others). Brill.
  • Gkegkes, D. I. and Others. (2012). Breastfeeding in Byzantine icon art. Article in Archives of Gynecology. Februray.
  • Grishin, A. (2007). Eastern Christian Icongraphic and Architectural Traditions: Eastern Orthodox. (ed. Ken Parry). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 368-388.
  • Jenkins, R. J. H. (1963).The Hellenistic Origins of Byzantine Literature. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University.Vol. 17. Pp. 37-52.
  • Kaldelis, A. (2007). Hellenism in Byzantium the Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kazhdan, P. A. (Ed.). (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. Newyork.
  • Kitzinger, E. (1963). The Hellenistic Heritage in Byzantine Art. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 17. Dumberton Oaks, Trustess for Harvard University. Pp. 95-115.
  • Konstantinos, D. (2004). The World of the Byzantine Museum Ministry of Culture. Byzantine-Christian Museum.
  • Kotzabassi, S. (2002). Aristotle’s Organon and Its Byzantine Commentators. The Princeton University Library Chronicle. Vol. 64. No 1. Pp. 51-62. Princeton University Library.
  • Kriza, A. (2018). The Royal Deesis – An Anti-Latin Image of Late Byzantine Art. Cross-Cultural Interraction Between Byzantium and West, 1204-1669. (ed. Angeliki Lymberopoulou). Routledge.
  • Lexikon Der Christlichen Ikonographie 3. (1994). Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.
  • Mango, C. (1965). Byzantinism and Romantic Hellenism. Journal of the Warburg and Courtuld Institutes. Vol. 28. The Warburg Institute. S. 29-43
  • Markopoulos, A. (2008). Education. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. (Jeffreys, E. and Haldon, J. F.. Ed.). Pp. 785-796. Oxford University Press.
  • Mittal, R. (2010). Hellenism and the Shaping of the Byzantine Empire. e-Publications@Marquette.
  • Nicol, D. M. (1969). The Byzantine Church and Helenic Learning in the Fourteenth Century. The Church and Academic Learning. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 23-57.
  • Runciman, S. (1968). The Last Byzantine Renaissance. Cambridge University Press.
  • Steiris, G. (2020). History and Religion as Sources of Hellenic Identity in Late Byzantium and Post-Byzantine Era. Genealogy. 4. 16. https://www.mdpi.com/2313-5778/4/1/16
  • Strezova, A. (2014). Hesychasm and Art the Appearence of New Iconographic Trends in Byzantine and Slavic Lands in the 14th and 15th Centuries. The Australian National University Press.
  • Taylor, M. D. (1980/81). A Historiated Tree of Jesse. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 34/35. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University.Pp 125-176.
  • Tinnefeld, F. (2003). Intellectuals in Late Byzantine Thessalonike. Dumbaton Oaks Papers. Vol. 57. Syymposium on late Byzantine Thessalonike. Dumberton Oaks, Trustess for Harvard University. Pp. 153-172.
  • Zografidis, G. (2013). Plato in Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Art. (http://n1.intelibility.com/ime/lyceum/?p=lemma&id=786&lang=2)

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sanat, Tarih
Bölüm makaleler
Yazarlar

Hüseyin Hakan GAZİOĞLU> (Sorumlu Yazar)
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2262-9462
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 23 Şubat 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Gazioğlu, H. H. (2022). GEÇ BİZANS DÖNEMİNDE HELEN KİMLİK OLUŞUMU VE BİZANS DİNİ İKONOGRAFİSİNDE YANSIMALARI . Ege Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 3 (1) , 59-79 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/esbd/issue/68634/873925