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THE AMERICAN HEGEMONY BETWEEN THE RISE OF NEO-PROTECTIONISM AND LIBERAL ECONOMIC ORDER

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 81, 258 - 274, 14.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.974697

Öz

The rise of protectionism against the economic liberal order is a much-debated issue which is also associated with the debates on the future of the liberal order. This paper argues that Trump’s economic protectionism is temporary and aims to strengthen the economic capacity of the United States rather than destroying the liberal economic order. As the USA ensures about the future of its hegemony and make himself the most beneficiary state, there can be less intervention to the functioning of the economic order. In doing this, he uses all power instruments of a hegemon which are material capability, institutions, and discourses. Trump aims to materially strengthen US position, and he supports this position with reorganized institutions and discourses within the liberal order. It is considered that reorganizing rules of institutions and creating a new language against the potential rivals is the most cost-effective way to preserve the global position of the United States.

Kaynakça

  • Albert, M. (1993). Capitalism vs. capitalism: How America's obsession with individual achievement and short-term profit has led it to the brink of collapse. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.
  • Allison, G. (2018). The myth of the liberal order: From historical accident to conventional widsom. Foreign Affairs, 97, 124.
  • Anderson, P. (2017). The h-word: The peripeteia of hegemon. London and New York: Verso.
  • BBC. (2018). Trade wars, Trump tariffs and protectionism explained. 26 July.
  • Beyer, A. C. (2012). Hegemony and power in the global war on terrorism. In Fels, E., Kremer, J. F., & Kronenberg, K. (Eds.). Power in the 21st century: international security and international political economy in a changing world. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Bloom, N., Handley, K., Kurmann, A., & Luck, P. (2019, July). The impact of Chinese trade on US employment: The good, the bad, and the debatable. Working Paper, https://nbloom.people.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj4746/f/bhkl_posted_draft.pdf.
  • Borger J. (2018). Donald Trump and Xi Jinping declare trade truce at G20. The Guardian, 2 December.
  • Borrus, M., & Goldstein, J. (1987). United States trade protectionism: Institutions, norms, and practices. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 8, 328.
  • Brooks, S. G., & Wohlforth, W. C. (2002). American primacy in perspective. Foreign affairs, 20-33.
  • Campanella, E. (2021). Free trade is over. Foreign Policy, 5 November.
  • Campbell, J. L., & Pedersen, O. K. (2001). The rise of neoliberalism and institutional analysis. Princeton University Press.
  • CBS News. (2019). Trump trade adviser Peter Navarro downplays China tariffs' impact on consumers. 18 August.
  • Cheng, E. (2021). Biden calls for the U.S. to become more competitive against a ‘deadly earnest’ China. CNBC, 29 April.
  • Colgan, J. D., & Keohane, R. O. (2017). The liberal order is rigged: Fix it now or watch it wither. Foreign Affairs, 96(3), 36-44.
  • Cox, R. W. (1981). Social forces, states and world orders: beyond international relations theory. Millennium, 10(2), 126-155.
  • Cox, R. W. (1983). Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method. Millennium, 12(2), 162-175.
  • Cox, R. W. (1987). Production, power, and world order: Social forces in the making of history (Vol. 1). Columbia University Press.
  • Cox, R. W. (1992). Multilateralism and world order. Review of International Studies, 18(2), 161-180.
  • Cox, R. W. (1993). Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method, in Stephen Gill (ed), Gramsci, historical materialism and international relations, Cambridge University Press.
  • Cox, R. W. (2004). Beyond empire and terror: critical reflections on the political economy of world order. New Political Economy, 9(3), 307-323.
  • Cox, R. W. & Sinclair, T. J. (1996). Approaches to world order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cozzolino, A. (2018). Trumpism as nationalist neoliberalism. A critical enquiry into Donald Trump’s political economy. Interdisciplinary Political Studies, 4(1), 47-73.
  • Crouch, C., & Streeck, W. (Eds.). (1997). Political economy of modern capitalism: Mapping convergence and diversity. Sage.
  • Cwik, P. F. (2011). The new neo‐mercantilism: Currency manipulation as a form of protectionism. Economic Affairs, 31(3), 7-11.
  • David, H., Dorn, D., & Hanson, G. H. (2013). The China syndrome: Local labor market effects of import competition in the United States. American Economic Review, 103(6), 2121-68.
  • De Graaff, N., & Van Apeldoorn, B. (2018). US–China relations and the liberal world order: contending elites, colliding visions?. International affairs, 94(1), 113-131.
  • Deng, Y., & Wang, F. L. (Eds.). (2004). China rising: Power and motivation in Chinese foreign policy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • DiChristopher, T. (2018). Trump and Juncker agree to take steps to boost US LNG exports to Europe. CNBC, 25 July.
  • Dopp, T. & Olurunnipa, T. (2018). Trump says EU is ‘taking advantage’ with $5 billion Google fine. Bloomberg, 19 July.
  • Duncombe, C., & Dunne, T. (2018). After liberal world order. International affairs, 94(1), 25-42.
  • Eichengreen, B., & Irwin, D. A. (2010). The slide to protectionism in the great depression: Who succumbed and why?. The Journal of Economic History, 70(4), 871-897.
  • Goh, E. (2013). The Struggle For Order: Hegemony, Hierarchy, And Transition In Post-Cold War East Asia, Oxford University Press.
  • Gendel, S. (2016, 27 September). Donald Trump says NAFTA was the worst trade deal the U.S. ever signed. Fortune.
  • Gill, S. & Law D. (1988). The global political economy: Perspectives, problems and policies, Johns Hopkins University Press
  • Gilpin, R. (1981). War and change in world politics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Gramer, R., Johnson, K., & De Luce, D. (2018). US Close to imposing sanctions on European companies in Russian pipeline project. Foreign Policy, 1 June.
  • Haass, R. N. (2018). Liberal world order, RIP. Council on Foreign Relations. 21 March.
  • Hall, P. A., & Taylor, R. C. (1996). Political science and the three new institutionalisms. Political studies, 44(5), 936-957.
  • Hirst, P., Thompson, G., & Bromley, S. (2009). Globalization in question. 3rd Edition, Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2000). After victory. Princeton University Press.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2001). Getting hegemony right. The National Interest, (63), 17-24.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2005). Power and liberal order: America's postwar world order in transition. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 5(2), 133-152.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2011). Liberal leviathan: The origins, crisis, and transformation of the American world order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2018). The end of liberal international order?. International Affairs, 94(1), 7-23.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2018). Why the liberal world order will survive. Ethics & International Affairs, 32(1), 17-29.
  • Jesse, N. G., Lobell, S. E., Press-Barnathan, G., & Williams, K. P. (2012). The leader can’t lead when the followers won’t follow: The limitations of hegemony. na.
  • Kagan, R. (2018). Things will not be okay. The Washington Post, 12 July.
  • Keohane, R. O. (1984). After hegemony. Princeton university press.
  • Keohane, R. O., & Nye Jr, J. S. (1977). Power and interdependence. Boston: Little Brown.
  • Kindleberger, C. P. (1973). The world in depression, 1929-1939. University of California Press
  • Kirchick, J. (2018). Trump wants to destroy the world order. So what?. Foreign Policy, 26 July.
  • Knight, J., & Jack, K. (1992). Institutions and social conflict. Cambridge University Press.
  • Krasner, S. D. (1976). State power and the structure of international trade. World politics, 28(3), 317-347.
  • Kugler, J., & Lemke, D. (2000). The power transition. Handbook of War Studies II, 129.
  • Lake, D. A. (1993). Leadership, hegemony, and the international economy: Naked emperor or tattered monarch with potential?. International Studies Quarterly, 37(4), 459-489.
  • Levin, S. (2016). Donald Trump backs Brexit, saying UK would be 'better off' without EU. The Guardian, 6 May.
  • Magnusson, L. (1994). Mercantilism: the shaping of an economic language. Routledge.
  • Mathews, J. T. (2021). Present at the Re-Creation?: US foreign policy must be remade, not restored. Foreign Affairs, 100, 10.
  • Mcdonald J. & Wiseman P. (2021). Under Biden, China faces renewed trade pressure. The Associated Press, 26 Januvary.
  • Mearsheimer, J. (2018). The rise & fall of the liberal inter-national order. Notre Dame International Security Center.
  • Mearsheimer, J. J. (2001). The tragedy of great power politics. WW Norton & Compan
  • Miller D. P. (2018, 12 July). This is how the liberal international order dies. Atlantic Council.
  • National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2018). China statistical yearbook 2018. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ ndsj/2018/indexeh.htm.
  • Noack, R. (2018). The Russian pipeline to Germany that Trump is so mad about, explained. The Washinton Post, 11 July.
  • Nye Jr, J. S. (1990). Bound to lead: The changing nature of American power. New York: Basic books
  • Nye Jr, J. S. (2004). Soft power: The means to success in world politics. Public affairs.
  • Nye, J. S. (2018). Human rights and the fate of the liberal order. Project syndicate. 9 May.
  • Pape, R. A. (2005). Soft balancing against the United States. International security, 30(1), 7-45.
  • Paul, T. V. (2005). Soft balancing in the age of US primacy. International security, 30(1), 46-71.
  • Payne, A. (1994). US Hegemony and the reconfiguration of the Caribbean. Review of International Studies, 20(2), 149-168.
  • Porter, P. (2018). A world imagined: Nostalgia and liberal order. Cato Institute Policy Analysis, 843.
  • Posen, A. S. (2018). The post-American world economy: Globalization in the Trump era. Foreign Affairs, 97, 28.
  • Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. (Eds.). (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. University of Chicago press.
  • Preble, C. A. (2018). Is this the end of the liberal world order. The National Interest, 3 August.
  • Przeworski, A., Bardhan, P. K., Kolarska-Bobińska, L., Pereira, L. C. B., Wiatr, J. J., & Bruszt, L. (1995). Sustainable democracy. Cambridge University Press.
  • Ruggie, J. G. (1982). International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order. International organization, 36(2), 379-415.
  • Salvatore, D. (1987). The new protectionist threat to world welfare. New York: North-Holland.
  • Salvatore, D. (Ed.). (1993). Protectionism and world welfare. Cambridge University Press.
  • Schake, K. (2018). The Trump doctrine is winning and the world is losing. New York Times, 15 June.
  • Schmidt, V. A. (2017). Britain-out and Trump-in: a discursive institutionalist analysis of the British referendum on the EU and the US presidential election. Review of International Political Economy, 24(2), 248-269
  • Schweller, R. L., & Pu, X. (2011). After unipolarity: China's visions of international order in an era of US decline. International security, 36(1), 41-72.
  • Simon, R. (1999). Gramsci's political thought: An introduction. London: Electric Book Company
  • Snidal, D. (1985). The limits of hegemonic stability theory. International organization, 39(4), 579-614.
  • Stokes, D. (2018). Trump, American hegemony and the future of the liberal international order. International Affairs, 94(1), 133-150.
  • Strange, S. (1987). The persistent myth of lost hegemony. International organization, 41(4), 551-574.
  • Swanson, A. (2018). Trump’s trade war with China is officially underway. The New York Times, 5 July.
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THE AMERICAN HEGEMONY BETWEEN THE RISE OF NEO-PROTECTIONISM AND LIBERAL ECONOMIC ORDER

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 81, 258 - 274, 14.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.974697

Öz

Ekonomik liberal düzene karşı korumacılığın yükselişi, liberal düzenin geleceğine ilişkin tartışmalarla çokça ilişkilendirilen bir konudur. Bu makale, Trump'ın ekonomik korumacılığının geçici olduğunu ve liberal ekonomik düzeni yok etmek yerine ABD'nin ekonomik kapasitesini güçlendirmeyi amaçladığını savunmaktadır. ABD hegemonyasının geleceğini güvence altına aldığı ve düzenden en çok faydalanan ülke olmaya devam ettiği sürece, ekonomik düzenin işleyişine daha az müdahale edecektir. Bunu yaparken de bir hegemon maddi imkânlar, kurumlar ve söylemleri birer güç aracı olarak kullanır. Trump, ABD'nin konumunu maddi olarak güçlendirmeyi hedeflerken, liberal düzen içinde yeniden düzenlenen kurumlar ve söylemlerle bu amacını desteklemektedir. Kurumların kurallarının yeniden düzenlenmesi ve potansiyel rakiplere karşı yeni bir dil yaratılmasının ABD'nin küresel konumunu korumanın en maliyet etkin yolu olduğu düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Albert, M. (1993). Capitalism vs. capitalism: How America's obsession with individual achievement and short-term profit has led it to the brink of collapse. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.
  • Allison, G. (2018). The myth of the liberal order: From historical accident to conventional widsom. Foreign Affairs, 97, 124.
  • Anderson, P. (2017). The h-word: The peripeteia of hegemon. London and New York: Verso.
  • BBC. (2018). Trade wars, Trump tariffs and protectionism explained. 26 July.
  • Beyer, A. C. (2012). Hegemony and power in the global war on terrorism. In Fels, E., Kremer, J. F., & Kronenberg, K. (Eds.). Power in the 21st century: international security and international political economy in a changing world. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Bloom, N., Handley, K., Kurmann, A., & Luck, P. (2019, July). The impact of Chinese trade on US employment: The good, the bad, and the debatable. Working Paper, https://nbloom.people.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj4746/f/bhkl_posted_draft.pdf.
  • Borger J. (2018). Donald Trump and Xi Jinping declare trade truce at G20. The Guardian, 2 December.
  • Borrus, M., & Goldstein, J. (1987). United States trade protectionism: Institutions, norms, and practices. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 8, 328.
  • Brooks, S. G., & Wohlforth, W. C. (2002). American primacy in perspective. Foreign affairs, 20-33.
  • Campanella, E. (2021). Free trade is over. Foreign Policy, 5 November.
  • Campbell, J. L., & Pedersen, O. K. (2001). The rise of neoliberalism and institutional analysis. Princeton University Press.
  • CBS News. (2019). Trump trade adviser Peter Navarro downplays China tariffs' impact on consumers. 18 August.
  • Cheng, E. (2021). Biden calls for the U.S. to become more competitive against a ‘deadly earnest’ China. CNBC, 29 April.
  • Colgan, J. D., & Keohane, R. O. (2017). The liberal order is rigged: Fix it now or watch it wither. Foreign Affairs, 96(3), 36-44.
  • Cox, R. W. (1981). Social forces, states and world orders: beyond international relations theory. Millennium, 10(2), 126-155.
  • Cox, R. W. (1983). Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method. Millennium, 12(2), 162-175.
  • Cox, R. W. (1987). Production, power, and world order: Social forces in the making of history (Vol. 1). Columbia University Press.
  • Cox, R. W. (1992). Multilateralism and world order. Review of International Studies, 18(2), 161-180.
  • Cox, R. W. (1993). Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method, in Stephen Gill (ed), Gramsci, historical materialism and international relations, Cambridge University Press.
  • Cox, R. W. (2004). Beyond empire and terror: critical reflections on the political economy of world order. New Political Economy, 9(3), 307-323.
  • Cox, R. W. & Sinclair, T. J. (1996). Approaches to world order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cozzolino, A. (2018). Trumpism as nationalist neoliberalism. A critical enquiry into Donald Trump’s political economy. Interdisciplinary Political Studies, 4(1), 47-73.
  • Crouch, C., & Streeck, W. (Eds.). (1997). Political economy of modern capitalism: Mapping convergence and diversity. Sage.
  • Cwik, P. F. (2011). The new neo‐mercantilism: Currency manipulation as a form of protectionism. Economic Affairs, 31(3), 7-11.
  • David, H., Dorn, D., & Hanson, G. H. (2013). The China syndrome: Local labor market effects of import competition in the United States. American Economic Review, 103(6), 2121-68.
  • De Graaff, N., & Van Apeldoorn, B. (2018). US–China relations and the liberal world order: contending elites, colliding visions?. International affairs, 94(1), 113-131.
  • Deng, Y., & Wang, F. L. (Eds.). (2004). China rising: Power and motivation in Chinese foreign policy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • DiChristopher, T. (2018). Trump and Juncker agree to take steps to boost US LNG exports to Europe. CNBC, 25 July.
  • Dopp, T. & Olurunnipa, T. (2018). Trump says EU is ‘taking advantage’ with $5 billion Google fine. Bloomberg, 19 July.
  • Duncombe, C., & Dunne, T. (2018). After liberal world order. International affairs, 94(1), 25-42.
  • Eichengreen, B., & Irwin, D. A. (2010). The slide to protectionism in the great depression: Who succumbed and why?. The Journal of Economic History, 70(4), 871-897.
  • Goh, E. (2013). The Struggle For Order: Hegemony, Hierarchy, And Transition In Post-Cold War East Asia, Oxford University Press.
  • Gendel, S. (2016, 27 September). Donald Trump says NAFTA was the worst trade deal the U.S. ever signed. Fortune.
  • Gill, S. & Law D. (1988). The global political economy: Perspectives, problems and policies, Johns Hopkins University Press
  • Gilpin, R. (1981). War and change in world politics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Gramer, R., Johnson, K., & De Luce, D. (2018). US Close to imposing sanctions on European companies in Russian pipeline project. Foreign Policy, 1 June.
  • Haass, R. N. (2018). Liberal world order, RIP. Council on Foreign Relations. 21 March.
  • Hall, P. A., & Taylor, R. C. (1996). Political science and the three new institutionalisms. Political studies, 44(5), 936-957.
  • Hirst, P., Thompson, G., & Bromley, S. (2009). Globalization in question. 3rd Edition, Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2000). After victory. Princeton University Press.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2001). Getting hegemony right. The National Interest, (63), 17-24.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2005). Power and liberal order: America's postwar world order in transition. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 5(2), 133-152.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2011). Liberal leviathan: The origins, crisis, and transformation of the American world order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2018). The end of liberal international order?. International Affairs, 94(1), 7-23.
  • Ikenberry, G. J. (2018). Why the liberal world order will survive. Ethics & International Affairs, 32(1), 17-29.
  • Jesse, N. G., Lobell, S. E., Press-Barnathan, G., & Williams, K. P. (2012). The leader can’t lead when the followers won’t follow: The limitations of hegemony. na.
  • Kagan, R. (2018). Things will not be okay. The Washington Post, 12 July.
  • Keohane, R. O. (1984). After hegemony. Princeton university press.
  • Keohane, R. O., & Nye Jr, J. S. (1977). Power and interdependence. Boston: Little Brown.
  • Kindleberger, C. P. (1973). The world in depression, 1929-1939. University of California Press
  • Kirchick, J. (2018). Trump wants to destroy the world order. So what?. Foreign Policy, 26 July.
  • Knight, J., & Jack, K. (1992). Institutions and social conflict. Cambridge University Press.
  • Krasner, S. D. (1976). State power and the structure of international trade. World politics, 28(3), 317-347.
  • Kugler, J., & Lemke, D. (2000). The power transition. Handbook of War Studies II, 129.
  • Lake, D. A. (1993). Leadership, hegemony, and the international economy: Naked emperor or tattered monarch with potential?. International Studies Quarterly, 37(4), 459-489.
  • Levin, S. (2016). Donald Trump backs Brexit, saying UK would be 'better off' without EU. The Guardian, 6 May.
  • Magnusson, L. (1994). Mercantilism: the shaping of an economic language. Routledge.
  • Mathews, J. T. (2021). Present at the Re-Creation?: US foreign policy must be remade, not restored. Foreign Affairs, 100, 10.
  • Mcdonald J. & Wiseman P. (2021). Under Biden, China faces renewed trade pressure. The Associated Press, 26 Januvary.
  • Mearsheimer, J. (2018). The rise & fall of the liberal inter-national order. Notre Dame International Security Center.
  • Mearsheimer, J. J. (2001). The tragedy of great power politics. WW Norton & Compan
  • Miller D. P. (2018, 12 July). This is how the liberal international order dies. Atlantic Council.
  • National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2018). China statistical yearbook 2018. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ ndsj/2018/indexeh.htm.
  • Noack, R. (2018). The Russian pipeline to Germany that Trump is so mad about, explained. The Washinton Post, 11 July.
  • Nye Jr, J. S. (1990). Bound to lead: The changing nature of American power. New York: Basic books
  • Nye Jr, J. S. (2004). Soft power: The means to success in world politics. Public affairs.
  • Nye, J. S. (2018). Human rights and the fate of the liberal order. Project syndicate. 9 May.
  • Pape, R. A. (2005). Soft balancing against the United States. International security, 30(1), 7-45.
  • Paul, T. V. (2005). Soft balancing in the age of US primacy. International security, 30(1), 46-71.
  • Payne, A. (1994). US Hegemony and the reconfiguration of the Caribbean. Review of International Studies, 20(2), 149-168.
  • Porter, P. (2018). A world imagined: Nostalgia and liberal order. Cato Institute Policy Analysis, 843.
  • Posen, A. S. (2018). The post-American world economy: Globalization in the Trump era. Foreign Affairs, 97, 28.
  • Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. (Eds.). (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. University of Chicago press.
  • Preble, C. A. (2018). Is this the end of the liberal world order. The National Interest, 3 August.
  • Przeworski, A., Bardhan, P. K., Kolarska-Bobińska, L., Pereira, L. C. B., Wiatr, J. J., & Bruszt, L. (1995). Sustainable democracy. Cambridge University Press.
  • Ruggie, J. G. (1982). International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order. International organization, 36(2), 379-415.
  • Salvatore, D. (1987). The new protectionist threat to world welfare. New York: North-Holland.
  • Salvatore, D. (Ed.). (1993). Protectionism and world welfare. Cambridge University Press.
  • Schake, K. (2018). The Trump doctrine is winning and the world is losing. New York Times, 15 June.
  • Schmidt, V. A. (2017). Britain-out and Trump-in: a discursive institutionalist analysis of the British referendum on the EU and the US presidential election. Review of International Political Economy, 24(2), 248-269
  • Schweller, R. L., & Pu, X. (2011). After unipolarity: China's visions of international order in an era of US decline. International security, 36(1), 41-72.
  • Simon, R. (1999). Gramsci's political thought: An introduction. London: Electric Book Company
  • Snidal, D. (1985). The limits of hegemonic stability theory. International organization, 39(4), 579-614.
  • Stokes, D. (2018). Trump, American hegemony and the future of the liberal international order. International Affairs, 94(1), 133-150.
  • Strange, S. (1987). The persistent myth of lost hegemony. International organization, 41(4), 551-574.
  • Swanson, A. (2018). Trump’s trade war with China is officially underway. The New York Times, 5 July.
  • The White House. (2021). “President Biden to sign executive order strengthening buy American provisions, ensuring future of America is made in America by all of America’s workers. 25 Januvary.
  • Trump, D. (2018a). https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/969525362580484098. 2 April.
  • Trump, D. (2018b). https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1070110615627333632. 5 December.
  • Trump, D. (2018c). https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1069970500535902208. 4 December.
  • UNIDO. (2013). The industrial competitiveness of nations, looking back, forging ahead, competitive industrial performance report 2012/2013. https://www.unido.org/sites/default/files/2013-07/Competitive_Industrial_Performance_Report_UNIDO_2012_2013_0.PDF.
  • UNIDO. (2017). United Nations industrial development report 2018. https://www.unido.org/resources-publications-flagship-publications-industrial-development-report-series/industrial-development-report-2018.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Şerif DİLEK (Sorumlu Yazar)
KIRKLARELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1413-286X
Türkiye


İrem AYAR-DİLEK Bu kişi benim
KOÇ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1437-0654
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 14 Ocak 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 14 Ocak 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 26 Temmuz 2021
Kabul Tarihi 23 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 81

Kaynak Göster

APA Dilek, Ş. & Ayar-dilek, İ. (2022). THE AMERICAN HEGEMONY BETWEEN THE RISE OF NEO-PROTECTIONISM AND LIBERAL ECONOMIC ORDER . Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 21 (81) , 258-274 . DOI: 10.17755/esosder.974697

                                                                                                                                                                          21765

                                                                                                 Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.