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CO2 EMİSYONU VE TİCARİ AÇIKLIK ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ: ASYA PASİFİK ÜLKELERİ ÖRNEĞİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83, 1109 - 1130, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1014984

Öz

Dünya genelinde ülkelerin ticaret hacmindeki artışlar çevre sorunlarını ön plana çıkarmaktadır. Son yıllarda başta Çin olmak üzere Asya Pasifik ülkelerinin hem ticaret hacmindeki hem de CO2 emisyonlarındaki artışlar dikkatleri çekmektedir. Bu çalışmada Çin, Endonezya, Malezya ve Tayland'ın ticari açıklık ile CO2 emisyonu değişkenleri arasındaki uzun dönemli ilişki 1960-2016 dönemi dikkate alınarak incelenmiştir. İlk olarak Harvey, Leybourne & Xiao (2008) testi serilerin doğrusal olup olmadığını analiz etmek için kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre doğrusal olmayan Leybourne, Newbold & Vougas (1998) , Sollis (2009) birim kök testleri, Becker, Enders & Lee (2006) Fouirer durağanlık testi ve ADF birim kök testi kullanılmıştır. Serilerin I(1) düzeyinde durağan olması nedeniyle ticari açıklık ve CO2 arasında uzun dönemli ilişki Fouirer eşbütünleşme (FSHIN) testi kullanılarak sınanmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda Çin, Malezya ve Tayland için değişkenler arasında uzun dönemli ilişki olmadığı, Endonezya için ticari açıklık ve CO2 emisyonu arasında pozitif ilişki olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Ang, J.B. (2009). CO2 Emissions, Research and Technology Transfer in China, Ecological Economics, 68, 2658-2665. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092180090900192X E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Ansari, M.A., Haider, S. & Khan, N.A. (2020). Does Trade Openness Affects Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Evidence from The Top 10 CO2 Emitters. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 31(1), 32-53. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/MEQ-12-2018-0205/full/html E.T: 21.09.2021
  • Atici, C. (2012). Carbon Emissions, Trade Liberalization, and The Japan- ASEAN Interaction: A Group- Wise Examination. Journal of TheJapanese and International Economies, 26 (1), 167-178. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889158311000402 E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Becker, R., Enders, W. & Lee, J. (2006). A Stationarity Test in The Presence of An Unknown Number of Smooth Breaks, Journal of Time Series Analysis, 27(3), 381-409.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9892.2006.00478.x E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Bostancı, F.C. (2019). Yeni Bir Asimetrik Yumuşak Kırılmalı Birim Kök Testi ve Uygulaması, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul. http://nek.istanbul.edu.tr:4444/ekos/TEZ/ET000321.pdf E.T:25.10.2021
  • BP (2020).Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 69th Edition, 1-66, https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2020-full-report.pdf E.T: 10.05.2020
  • BP (2021). Statistical Review of World Energy 2021, 70th Edition, 1-72.https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/businesssites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2021-full-report.pdf E.T:15.10.2021
  • Chen, F., Jiang, G. & Kitila, G.M. (2021). Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions: The Heterogeneous and Mediating Effects for the Belt and Road Countries. Sustainability, 13, 1958 (1-16). https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/4/1958 E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Christoph, N. (2021). Countries of theBeltand Road Initiative, Beijing, IIGF Green BRI Center, https://green-bri.org/countries-of-the-belt-and-road-initiative-bri/ Erişim Tarihi: 10.04.2021
  • Dickey, D. & Fuller, W.A. (1979). Distribution of the Estimators for Autoregressive Time Series with a UnitRoot. Journal of theAmerican Statistical Association, 74, 427-431. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2286348?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contentsE.T:15.10.2021
  • Dickey, D. & Fuller, W.A (1981). Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root, Econometrica, 49(4), 1057-1072.https://www.jstor.org/stable/1912517?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Dou, Y., Zhao, J., Malik, M.N. & Dong, K. (2021). Assesing the Impact of Trade Openness on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from China-Japan-ROK FTA Countires, Journal of Environmental Management, 296, 113241. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479721013037 E.T:11.10.2021
  • Ertuğrul, H., Cetin, M., Seker, F. & Dogan, E. (2016). The Impact of Trade Opennes on Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence From The Top Ten Emitters Among Developing Countries. Ecological Indicators, 67, 543-555. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X16301315 E:T:25.10.2021
  • Farhani, S. & Ozturk, İ. (2015). Causal Relationship Between CO2 Emissions, Real GDP, Energy Consumption, Financial Development, Trade Openness, and Urbanizition in Tunisia. Environ Sci Pollut Res., 22, 15663-15676. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11356-015-4767-1.pdf E.T:15.10.2021
  • Harvey, D.I., Leybourne, S. J. & Xiao, B. (2008). A Powerful Test for Linearity When the Other of Integration is Unknown, Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, 12(3), 1-22.https://doi.org/10.2202/1558-3708.1582 E.T: 25.10.2021
  • Jalil, A. & Mahmud, S.F. (2009). Environment Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions: A Cointegration Analysis for China. Energy Policy, 37(12), 5167-5172. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421509005527E.T:15.10.2021
  • Jayanthakumaran, K.,Verma, R. & Liu,Y. (2012). CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Trade and Income: A Comparative Analysis of China and India, Energy Policy, 42, 450-460. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511010020E.T:15.10.2021
  • Jun, W., Mahmood, H. & Zakaria, M. (2020). Impact of Trade Openness on Environment in China, Journal of Business Economics and Management, 21(4), 1185-1202.https://journals.vgtu.lt/index.php/JBEM/article/view/12050/9801 E.T:15.10.2021
  • Koc, S. & Bulus, G.C. (2020). TestingValidity of the EKC Hypothesis in South Korea: Role of Renewable Energy and Trade Openness, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 29043-29054. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11356-020-09172-7.pdf E.T:15.10.2021
  • Leybourne, S., Newbold, P. & Vougas, D. (1998). Unit Roots and Smooth Transition. Journal of Time Series Analysis, 19(1), 83-97. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9892.00078 E.T: 25.10.2021
  • Lv, Z.& Xu, T. (2019). Trade Openness, Urbanization and CO2 Emissions: Dynamic Panel Data Analysis of Middle-Income Countries. The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 28(3), 317-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638199.2018.1534878 E.T:15.10.2021 Mutascu, M. (2018). A Time-frequency Analysis of Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions in France. Energy Policy, 115, 443-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.01.034 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • Pata, U.K. & Caglar, A.E. (2021). Investigating the EKC Hypothesis with Renewable Energy Consumption, Human Capital, Globalization and Trade Openness for China: Evidence from Augmented ARDL Approachwith A Structural Break, Energy, 216 (1), 119220.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544220323276 E.T 18.10.2021
  • Sacks, D. (2021). Countires in China's Belt and Roads Initiative Who's In and Who's Out. https://www.cfr.org/blog/countries-chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-whos-and-whos-out E.T: 14.04.2021
  • Shahzad, S. J.H., Kumar, R.R., Zakaria, M. & Hurr, M. (2017). Carbon Emission, Energy Consumption, Trade Openness and Financial Development in Pakistan: A Revist. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 185-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.042 E.T:18.10.2021
  • Sollis, R. (2009). A Simple Unit Root Test Against Asymmetric STAR Nonlinearity with an Application to Real Exchange Rates in Nordic Countries. Economic Modelling, 26(1), 118125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2008.06.002 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • Sun, H., Clottey, S. A., Geng, Y., Fang, K. & Amissah, J.C.K. (2019). Trade Openness and Carbon Emissions :Evidence from Belt and Road Countires. Sustainability, 11, 2682 (1-20).https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/9/2682 E.T:18.10.2021
  • Tsong, C-C., Lee, C-F., Tsai, L-J. ve Hu, T-C. (2016). The Fourier Approximation and Testing For The Null Of Cointegration, Empir Econ, 51, 1085-1113.https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00181-015-1028-6.pdf; DOI 10.1007/s00181-015-1028-6 18.10.2021
  • Ubaidillah, N.Z., Decker, L., Rahim, R.A. & Ismail, F. (2013). The Nexus Between Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions in Selected BIMP-EAGA Countries, BIMP-EAGA Journal for Sustainable Tourism Development, 2(2), 29-39.
  • Wang, C., Lim, M. K., Zhang, X., Zhao, L. & Lee, P. T-W. (2020). Railway and Road Infrastructure in the Belt and Road Initiative Countries: Estimating the Impact of Transport Infrastructure on Economic Growth. Transportation Research Part A, Policy and Practice, 134, 288-307. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856419307001E.T:18.10.2021
  • World Bank (2021a). World Development Indicators, https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators E.T: 13.04.2021
  • World Bank (2021b). World Bank Country and Lending Groups. https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups. E. T: 02.05.2021 World Trade Organization (WTO) (2021). World Trade Statistical Review, 1-136. https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/wts2021_e/wts2021_e.pdf E.T: 13.10.2021
  • Wu, Y., Shi, X. & Hu, C. (2021). Per Capita CO2 Emissions Divergence Influenced by Bilateral Trade with China Under the Belt and Road Initiative. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 1589-1601. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352550921001172 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • Zhang, S.,Liu, X. & Bae, J. (2017). Does Trade Openness Affect CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Ten Newly Industrialized Countries?, Environ Sci Pollut Res, 24, 17616-17625.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-017-9392-8 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • İnternet Kaynağı: "Countries of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)" https://green-bri.org/countries-of-the-belt-and-road-initiative-bri/ E.T: 13.04.2021

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CO2 EMISSION AND TRADE OPENNESS: CASE OF ASIAN PACIFIC COUNTRIES

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83, 1109 - 1130, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1014984

Öz

Increases in trade volume around the world bring environmental problems to the fore. In this study, the long-term relationship between trade openness and CO2 emission variables of China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand was examined by considering the period of 1960-2016. Firstly, Harvey, Leybourne & Xiao (2008) test was used to analyze whether the series were linear or not. According to the findings, nonlinear Leybourne, Newbold & Vougas (1998), Sollis (2009) unit root tests, Becker, Enders & Lee (2006) Fouirer stationarity test and Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root test were used. Since the series are stationary at the I(1) level, the long-term relationship between trade openness and CO2 was tested using the Fouirer Cointegration (FSHIN) test. As a result of the study, it was concluded that there is no long-term relationship between the variables for China, Malaysia and Thailand, but there is a positive relationship between trade openness and CO2 emissions for Indonesia.

Kaynakça

  • Ang, J.B. (2009). CO2 Emissions, Research and Technology Transfer in China, Ecological Economics, 68, 2658-2665. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092180090900192X E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Ansari, M.A., Haider, S. & Khan, N.A. (2020). Does Trade Openness Affects Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Evidence from The Top 10 CO2 Emitters. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 31(1), 32-53. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/MEQ-12-2018-0205/full/html E.T: 21.09.2021
  • Atici, C. (2012). Carbon Emissions, Trade Liberalization, and The Japan- ASEAN Interaction: A Group- Wise Examination. Journal of TheJapanese and International Economies, 26 (1), 167-178. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889158311000402 E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Becker, R., Enders, W. & Lee, J. (2006). A Stationarity Test in The Presence of An Unknown Number of Smooth Breaks, Journal of Time Series Analysis, 27(3), 381-409.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9892.2006.00478.x E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Bostancı, F.C. (2019). Yeni Bir Asimetrik Yumuşak Kırılmalı Birim Kök Testi ve Uygulaması, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul. http://nek.istanbul.edu.tr:4444/ekos/TEZ/ET000321.pdf E.T:25.10.2021
  • BP (2020).Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 69th Edition, 1-66, https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2020-full-report.pdf E.T: 10.05.2020
  • BP (2021). Statistical Review of World Energy 2021, 70th Edition, 1-72.https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/businesssites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2021-full-report.pdf E.T:15.10.2021
  • Chen, F., Jiang, G. & Kitila, G.M. (2021). Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions: The Heterogeneous and Mediating Effects for the Belt and Road Countries. Sustainability, 13, 1958 (1-16). https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/4/1958 E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Christoph, N. (2021). Countries of theBeltand Road Initiative, Beijing, IIGF Green BRI Center, https://green-bri.org/countries-of-the-belt-and-road-initiative-bri/ Erişim Tarihi: 10.04.2021
  • Dickey, D. & Fuller, W.A. (1979). Distribution of the Estimators for Autoregressive Time Series with a UnitRoot. Journal of theAmerican Statistical Association, 74, 427-431. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2286348?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contentsE.T:15.10.2021
  • Dickey, D. & Fuller, W.A (1981). Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root, Econometrica, 49(4), 1057-1072.https://www.jstor.org/stable/1912517?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents E.T: 15.10.2021
  • Dou, Y., Zhao, J., Malik, M.N. & Dong, K. (2021). Assesing the Impact of Trade Openness on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from China-Japan-ROK FTA Countires, Journal of Environmental Management, 296, 113241. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479721013037 E.T:11.10.2021
  • Ertuğrul, H., Cetin, M., Seker, F. & Dogan, E. (2016). The Impact of Trade Opennes on Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence From The Top Ten Emitters Among Developing Countries. Ecological Indicators, 67, 543-555. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X16301315 E:T:25.10.2021
  • Farhani, S. & Ozturk, İ. (2015). Causal Relationship Between CO2 Emissions, Real GDP, Energy Consumption, Financial Development, Trade Openness, and Urbanizition in Tunisia. Environ Sci Pollut Res., 22, 15663-15676. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11356-015-4767-1.pdf E.T:15.10.2021
  • Harvey, D.I., Leybourne, S. J. & Xiao, B. (2008). A Powerful Test for Linearity When the Other of Integration is Unknown, Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, 12(3), 1-22.https://doi.org/10.2202/1558-3708.1582 E.T: 25.10.2021
  • Jalil, A. & Mahmud, S.F. (2009). Environment Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions: A Cointegration Analysis for China. Energy Policy, 37(12), 5167-5172. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421509005527E.T:15.10.2021
  • Jayanthakumaran, K.,Verma, R. & Liu,Y. (2012). CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Trade and Income: A Comparative Analysis of China and India, Energy Policy, 42, 450-460. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511010020E.T:15.10.2021
  • Jun, W., Mahmood, H. & Zakaria, M. (2020). Impact of Trade Openness on Environment in China, Journal of Business Economics and Management, 21(4), 1185-1202.https://journals.vgtu.lt/index.php/JBEM/article/view/12050/9801 E.T:15.10.2021
  • Koc, S. & Bulus, G.C. (2020). TestingValidity of the EKC Hypothesis in South Korea: Role of Renewable Energy and Trade Openness, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 29043-29054. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11356-020-09172-7.pdf E.T:15.10.2021
  • Leybourne, S., Newbold, P. & Vougas, D. (1998). Unit Roots and Smooth Transition. Journal of Time Series Analysis, 19(1), 83-97. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9892.00078 E.T: 25.10.2021
  • Lv, Z.& Xu, T. (2019). Trade Openness, Urbanization and CO2 Emissions: Dynamic Panel Data Analysis of Middle-Income Countries. The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 28(3), 317-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638199.2018.1534878 E.T:15.10.2021 Mutascu, M. (2018). A Time-frequency Analysis of Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions in France. Energy Policy, 115, 443-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.01.034 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • Pata, U.K. & Caglar, A.E. (2021). Investigating the EKC Hypothesis with Renewable Energy Consumption, Human Capital, Globalization and Trade Openness for China: Evidence from Augmented ARDL Approachwith A Structural Break, Energy, 216 (1), 119220.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544220323276 E.T 18.10.2021
  • Sacks, D. (2021). Countires in China's Belt and Roads Initiative Who's In and Who's Out. https://www.cfr.org/blog/countries-chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-whos-and-whos-out E.T: 14.04.2021
  • Shahzad, S. J.H., Kumar, R.R., Zakaria, M. & Hurr, M. (2017). Carbon Emission, Energy Consumption, Trade Openness and Financial Development in Pakistan: A Revist. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 185-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.042 E.T:18.10.2021
  • Sollis, R. (2009). A Simple Unit Root Test Against Asymmetric STAR Nonlinearity with an Application to Real Exchange Rates in Nordic Countries. Economic Modelling, 26(1), 118125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2008.06.002 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • Sun, H., Clottey, S. A., Geng, Y., Fang, K. & Amissah, J.C.K. (2019). Trade Openness and Carbon Emissions :Evidence from Belt and Road Countires. Sustainability, 11, 2682 (1-20).https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/9/2682 E.T:18.10.2021
  • Tsong, C-C., Lee, C-F., Tsai, L-J. ve Hu, T-C. (2016). The Fourier Approximation and Testing For The Null Of Cointegration, Empir Econ, 51, 1085-1113.https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00181-015-1028-6.pdf; DOI 10.1007/s00181-015-1028-6 18.10.2021
  • Ubaidillah, N.Z., Decker, L., Rahim, R.A. & Ismail, F. (2013). The Nexus Between Trade Openness and CO2 Emissions in Selected BIMP-EAGA Countries, BIMP-EAGA Journal for Sustainable Tourism Development, 2(2), 29-39.
  • Wang, C., Lim, M. K., Zhang, X., Zhao, L. & Lee, P. T-W. (2020). Railway and Road Infrastructure in the Belt and Road Initiative Countries: Estimating the Impact of Transport Infrastructure on Economic Growth. Transportation Research Part A, Policy and Practice, 134, 288-307. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856419307001E.T:18.10.2021
  • World Bank (2021a). World Development Indicators, https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators E.T: 13.04.2021
  • World Bank (2021b). World Bank Country and Lending Groups. https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups. E. T: 02.05.2021 World Trade Organization (WTO) (2021). World Trade Statistical Review, 1-136. https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/wts2021_e/wts2021_e.pdf E.T: 13.10.2021
  • Wu, Y., Shi, X. & Hu, C. (2021). Per Capita CO2 Emissions Divergence Influenced by Bilateral Trade with China Under the Belt and Road Initiative. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 1589-1601. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352550921001172 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • Zhang, S.,Liu, X. & Bae, J. (2017). Does Trade Openness Affect CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Ten Newly Industrialized Countries?, Environ Sci Pollut Res, 24, 17616-17625.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-017-9392-8 E.T: 18.10.2021
  • İnternet Kaynağı: "Countries of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)" https://green-bri.org/countries-of-the-belt-and-road-initiative-bri/ E.T: 13.04.2021

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İktisat
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Nurgün TOPALLI> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi
0000-0003-2299-5363
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Temmuz 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 26 Ekim 2021
Kabul Tarihi 9 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83

Kaynak Göster

APA Topallı, N. (2022). CO2 EMİSYONU VE TİCARİ AÇIKLIK ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ: ASYA PASİFİK ÜLKELERİ ÖRNEĞİ . Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 21 (83) , 1109-1130 . DOI: 10.17755/esosder.1014984

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                                                   Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences),  Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.

                                              ESBD Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences), Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu tarafından tescil edilmiştir. Marka No:2011 119849.