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MEDYA KULLANIMI VE SOKAĞA ÇIKMA KISITLAMALARI: COVID 19 PANDEMİ SÜRESİNCE DUYGUSAL VE RUHSAL DURUMLARI YÖNETMEK

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83, 1184 - 1200, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1035934

Öz

Covid-19 salgını halkın sağlığı ve refahı için ciddi bir tehdittir. Bu çalışma zihinsel durum ve davranışlar üzerinde medya kullanımının ve medyaya olan güvenin psikolojik ve davranışsal etkisini inceler. Çalışmada hem geleneksel hem de yeni medyanın etkileri incelenmiş ayrıca kısıtlamanın sosyal ve psikolojik durumlar üzerindeki etkisi de çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. 339 katılımcıya anket uygulanarak kesitsel bir araştırma yürütüldü. Medya kullanımı, hükümete ve bilime güven, çatışma ve uyumun yanı sıra bir dizi duygusal ve zihinsel durum incelendi. Çalışma sonuçları geleneksel medya kullanımının yeni medya kullanımına göre Covid-19 korkusuyla önemli ölçüde ilişkili olduğunu göstermiştir. Sosyal medya türlerinden sadece Facebook kullanımının psikososyal olumsuzluk ile anlamlı negatif korelasyonu vardır. Önleyici tedbirlere uymanın sadece bilime olan güvenle ilintili olduğu öngörüldü. Hükümete olan daha yüksek güven, daha düşük seviyede korku ve psikososyal olumsuzlukla ilişkili olup bunun depresyonla ilişkisi ise olumluydu. Aile içi çatışmaların hem psikososyal hem de depresyonla ilişkili olduğu öngörüldü. Çalışma sonuçları farklı medya türlerinin olumsuz duyguları azaltabileceği veya şiddetlendirebileceği ayrıca bunların etkilerinin fark edilmesinin önem teşkil ettiğini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu sonuçlar ayrıca kısıtlama dönemindeki psikolojik ve sosyal durumların ruh sağlığı ve kişiler arası ilişkiler üzerindeki etkilerini göstermektedir. Bulgular, yeni enfeksiyon dalgaları karşısında kısıtlamaların dikkatlice düşünülmesi gereken bir seçenek olması ve uygulamalar öncesinde psikolojik bakım çözümlerinin yer alması gerektiğini gösteriyor.

Kaynakça

  • Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C.-Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-9.
  • Anderson, A. A., Scheufele, D. A., Brossard, D., & Corley, E. A. (2012). The role of media and deference to scientific authority in cultivating trust in sources of information about emerging technologies. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 24(2), 225-237.
  • Ayoub, C. C., Deutsch, R. M., & Maraganore, A. (1999). Emotional distress in children of high‐conflict divorce: The impact of marital conflict and violence. Family Court Review, 37(3), 297-315.
  • Bak, H. J. (2001). Education and public attitudes toward science: Implications for the “deficit model” of education and support for science and technology. Social Science Quarterly, 82(4), 779-795.
  • Bakioğlu, F., Korkmaz, O., & Ercan, H. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and Positivity: Mediating Role of Intolerance of Uncertainty, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1.
  • Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is Stronger than Good. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 323-370. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.5.4.323
  • Bendau, A., Petzold, M. B., Pyrkosch, L., Mascarell Maricic, L., Betzler, F., Rogoll, J., Große, J., Ströhle, A., & Plag, J. (2020, Jul 20). Associations between COVID-19 related media consumption and symptoms of anxiety, depression and COVID-19 related fear in the general population in Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-020-01171-6
  • Bogen, K. W., Bleiweiss, K., & Orchowski, L. M. (2019). Sexual violence is# NotOkay: Social reactions to disclosures of sexual victimization on twitter. Psychology of violence, 9(1), 127-137.
  • Brouard, S., Vasilopoulos, P., & Becher, M. (2020). Sociodemographic and psychological correlates of compliance with the Covid-19 public health measures in France. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique, 53, 253-258.
  • Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry research, 287, 112934-112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934
  • Chao, M., Xue, D., Liu, T., Yang, H., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Media use and acute psychological outcomes during COVID-19 outbreak in China. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 102248.
  • Choi, H., & Marks, N. F. (2008). Marital conflict, depressive symptoms, and functional impairment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(2), 377-390.
  • Clark, C., Davila, A., Regis, M., & Kraus, S. (2020, 2020/01/01/). Predictors of COVID-19 voluntary compliance behaviors: An international investigation. Global Transitions, 2, 76-82. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.glt.2020.06.003
  • Doran, C. M., & Kinchin, I. (2019, Feb). A review of the economic impact of mental illness. Aust Health Rev, 43(1), 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1071/ah16115
  • Garz, M. (2013, 2013/02/01/). Unemployment expectations, excessive pessimism, and news coverage. Journal of Economic Psychology, 34, 156-168. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2012.09.007
  • Harper, C. A., Satchell, L. P., Fido, D., & Latzman, R. D. (2020). Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00281- Hayes, R. A., Carr, C. T., & Wohn, D. Y. (2016). It’s the audience: Differences in social support across social media. Social Media+ Society, 2(4), 2056305116678894.
  • Holbert, R. L., Shah, D. V., & Kwak, N. (2004). Fear, authority, and justice: Crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 343-363.
  • Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 99-127. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814417358_0006
  • Kalimo, R., & Mejman, T. (1987). Psychological and behavioural responses to stress at work. In R. Kalimo, M. A. El-Batawi, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Psychosocial factors at work and their relation to health (pp. 23-36). World Health Organization.
  • Lee, E.-H., Moon, S. H., Cho, M. S., Park, E. S., Kim, S. Y., Han, J. S., & Cheio, J. H. (2019, 2019/02/01/). The 21-Item and 12-Item Versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales: Psychometric Evaluation in a Korean Population. Asian Nursing Research, 13(1), 30-37. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2018.11.006
  • Lucas, M., Mekary, R., Pan, A., Mirzaei, F., O’Reilly, É. J., Willett, W. C., Koenen, K., Okereke, O. I., & Ascherio, A. (2011). Relation between clinical depression risk and physical activity and time spent watching television in older women: a 10-year prospective follow-up study. American journal of epidemiology, 174(9), 1017-1027.
  • Nabi, R. L., Prestin, A., & So, J. (2013). Facebook Friends with (Health) Benefits? Exploring Social Network Site Use and Perceptions of Social Support, Stress, and Well-Being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(10), 721-727. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0521
  • Nilima, N., Kaushik, S., Tiwary, B., & Pandey, P. K. (2020, 2020/06/30/). Psycho-social factors associated with the nationwide lockdown in India during COVID- 19 pandemic. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2020.06.010
  • Norris, F. H., Friedman, M. J., & Watson, P. J. (2002). 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and biological processes, 65(3), 240-260.
  • Odlum, M., & Yoon, S. (2015). What can we learn about the Ebola outbreak from tweets? American journal of infection control, 43(6), 563-571.
  • Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., & de Luis-García, R. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university. Psychiatry research, 113108.
  • Patterson, G. R., & Dishion, T. J. (1988). Multilevel family process models: Traits, interactions, and relationships. In R. A. Hinde & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), Relationships within families: Mutual influences (pp. 283–310). Clarendon Press.
  • Paykel, E. S. (1994). Life events, Social support and depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89(s377), 50-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1994.tb05803.x
  • Peeters, G., & Czapinski, J. (1990, 1990/01/01). Positive-Negative Asymmetry in Evaluations: The Distinction Between Affective and Informational Negativity Effects. European Review of Social Psychology, 1(1), 33-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779108401856
  • Plohl, N., & Musil, B. (2020). Modeling compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines: The critical role of trust in science. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2020.1772988
  • Potts, R., & Sanchez, D. (1994, 1994/01/01). Television viewing and depression: No news is good news. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38(1), 79-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838159409364247
  • Prati, G., Pietrantoni, L., & Zani, B. (2011). Compliance with recommendations for pandemic influenza H1N1 2009: The role of trust and personal beliefs. Health education research, 26(5), 761-769.
  • Reardon, S. (2015). Ebola's mental-health wounds linger in Africa: Health-care workers struggle to help people who have been traumatized by the epidemic. Nature, 519(7541), 13-15.
  • Reger, M. A., Stanley, I. H., & Joiner, T. E. (2020). Suicide Mortality and Coronavirus Disease 2019 — A Perfect Storm? JAMA Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1060
  • Resnik, D. B. (2009). Playing politics with science: Balancing scientific independence and government oversight. Oxford University Press.
  • Rozzell, B., Piercy, C. W., Carr, C. T., King, S., Lane, B. L., Tornes, M., Johnson, A. J., & Wright, K. B. (2014, 2014/09/01/). Notification pending: Online social support from close and nonclose relational ties via Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 272-280. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.06.006
  • Schlenger, W. E., Caddell, J. M., Ebert, L., Jordan, B. K., Rourke, K. M., Wilson, D., Thalji, L., Dennis, J. M., Fairbank, J. A., & Kulka, R. A. (2002). Psychological reactions to terrorist attacks: Findings from the National Study of Americans' Reactions to September 11. JAMA, 288(5), 581-588.
  • Sibley, C. G., Greaves, L. M., Satherley, N., Wilson, M. S., Overall, N. C., Lee, C. H., Milojev, P., Bulbulia, J., Osborne, D., & Milfont, T. L. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown on trust, attitudes toward government, and well-being. American Psychologist.
  • Siegrist, M., & Cvetkovich, G. (2000). Perception of Hazards: The Role of Social Trust and Knowledge. Risk Analysis, 20(5), 713-720. https://doi.org/10.1111/0272-4332.205064
  • Smith, T. B., McCullough, M. E., & Poll, J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: Evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 614-636. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.614
  • Tang, C. S. K., & Wong, C.-y. (2003). An Outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Predictors of Health Behaviors and Effect of Community Prevention Measures in Hong Kong, China. American journal of public health, 93(11), 1887-1888. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.93.11.1887
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(5), 1729.
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., McIntyre, R. S., Choo, F. N., Tran, B., Ho, R., Sharma, V. K., & Ho, C. (2020). A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 87, 40-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.028
  • Wilson, M. E., & Chen, L. H. (2020). Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(2), taaa015. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa015

MEDIA USE AND LOCKDOWNS: NAVIGATING EMOTIONAL AND MENTAL STATES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83, 1184 - 1200, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1035934

Öz

The Covid-19 pandemic is a severe threat to public health and well-being. This study examined the psychological and behavioral impact of media use and trust on mental states and behavior. We examined the effects of both traditional and new media, and included the effects on social and psychological states associated with a lockdown. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 339 survey participants. Media use, government and scientific trust, conflict and compliance, as well as a range of emotional and mental states were examined. Results reveal that use of traditional media, rather than new media, was significantly associated with fear of Covid-19. Among social media, only Facebook use had a significant negative relationship with psychosocial negativity. Compliance with preventive measures was predicted only by trust in science. Higher trust in government was related to lower levels of fear and psychosocial negativity, which, in turn, were positively associated with depression. Family conflict was predicted by both psychosocial negativity and depression. The results demonstrate that different media can alleviate or exacerbate negative emotions and it is important to discern their effects. They also show how social and psychological states during a lockdown may further impact mental health and affect interpersonal relationships. The findings highlight that as new waves of infection occur, lockdowns should be a carefully considered option, and psychological care solutions have to be in place before they are implemented.

Kaynakça

  • Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C.-Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-9.
  • Anderson, A. A., Scheufele, D. A., Brossard, D., & Corley, E. A. (2012). The role of media and deference to scientific authority in cultivating trust in sources of information about emerging technologies. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 24(2), 225-237.
  • Ayoub, C. C., Deutsch, R. M., & Maraganore, A. (1999). Emotional distress in children of high‐conflict divorce: The impact of marital conflict and violence. Family Court Review, 37(3), 297-315.
  • Bak, H. J. (2001). Education and public attitudes toward science: Implications for the “deficit model” of education and support for science and technology. Social Science Quarterly, 82(4), 779-795.
  • Bakioğlu, F., Korkmaz, O., & Ercan, H. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and Positivity: Mediating Role of Intolerance of Uncertainty, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1.
  • Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is Stronger than Good. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 323-370. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.5.4.323
  • Bendau, A., Petzold, M. B., Pyrkosch, L., Mascarell Maricic, L., Betzler, F., Rogoll, J., Große, J., Ströhle, A., & Plag, J. (2020, Jul 20). Associations between COVID-19 related media consumption and symptoms of anxiety, depression and COVID-19 related fear in the general population in Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-020-01171-6
  • Bogen, K. W., Bleiweiss, K., & Orchowski, L. M. (2019). Sexual violence is# NotOkay: Social reactions to disclosures of sexual victimization on twitter. Psychology of violence, 9(1), 127-137.
  • Brouard, S., Vasilopoulos, P., & Becher, M. (2020). Sociodemographic and psychological correlates of compliance with the Covid-19 public health measures in France. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique, 53, 253-258.
  • Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry research, 287, 112934-112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934
  • Chao, M., Xue, D., Liu, T., Yang, H., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Media use and acute psychological outcomes during COVID-19 outbreak in China. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 102248.
  • Choi, H., & Marks, N. F. (2008). Marital conflict, depressive symptoms, and functional impairment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(2), 377-390.
  • Clark, C., Davila, A., Regis, M., & Kraus, S. (2020, 2020/01/01/). Predictors of COVID-19 voluntary compliance behaviors: An international investigation. Global Transitions, 2, 76-82. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.glt.2020.06.003
  • Doran, C. M., & Kinchin, I. (2019, Feb). A review of the economic impact of mental illness. Aust Health Rev, 43(1), 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1071/ah16115
  • Garz, M. (2013, 2013/02/01/). Unemployment expectations, excessive pessimism, and news coverage. Journal of Economic Psychology, 34, 156-168. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2012.09.007
  • Harper, C. A., Satchell, L. P., Fido, D., & Latzman, R. D. (2020). Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00281- Hayes, R. A., Carr, C. T., & Wohn, D. Y. (2016). It’s the audience: Differences in social support across social media. Social Media+ Society, 2(4), 2056305116678894.
  • Holbert, R. L., Shah, D. V., & Kwak, N. (2004). Fear, authority, and justice: Crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 343-363.
  • Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 99-127. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814417358_0006
  • Kalimo, R., & Mejman, T. (1987). Psychological and behavioural responses to stress at work. In R. Kalimo, M. A. El-Batawi, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Psychosocial factors at work and their relation to health (pp. 23-36). World Health Organization.
  • Lee, E.-H., Moon, S. H., Cho, M. S., Park, E. S., Kim, S. Y., Han, J. S., & Cheio, J. H. (2019, 2019/02/01/). The 21-Item and 12-Item Versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales: Psychometric Evaluation in a Korean Population. Asian Nursing Research, 13(1), 30-37. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2018.11.006
  • Lucas, M., Mekary, R., Pan, A., Mirzaei, F., O’Reilly, É. J., Willett, W. C., Koenen, K., Okereke, O. I., & Ascherio, A. (2011). Relation between clinical depression risk and physical activity and time spent watching television in older women: a 10-year prospective follow-up study. American journal of epidemiology, 174(9), 1017-1027.
  • Nabi, R. L., Prestin, A., & So, J. (2013). Facebook Friends with (Health) Benefits? Exploring Social Network Site Use and Perceptions of Social Support, Stress, and Well-Being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(10), 721-727. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0521
  • Nilima, N., Kaushik, S., Tiwary, B., & Pandey, P. K. (2020, 2020/06/30/). Psycho-social factors associated with the nationwide lockdown in India during COVID- 19 pandemic. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2020.06.010
  • Norris, F. H., Friedman, M. J., & Watson, P. J. (2002). 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and biological processes, 65(3), 240-260.
  • Odlum, M., & Yoon, S. (2015). What can we learn about the Ebola outbreak from tweets? American journal of infection control, 43(6), 563-571.
  • Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., & de Luis-García, R. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university. Psychiatry research, 113108.
  • Patterson, G. R., & Dishion, T. J. (1988). Multilevel family process models: Traits, interactions, and relationships. In R. A. Hinde & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), Relationships within families: Mutual influences (pp. 283–310). Clarendon Press.
  • Paykel, E. S. (1994). Life events, Social support and depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89(s377), 50-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1994.tb05803.x
  • Peeters, G., & Czapinski, J. (1990, 1990/01/01). Positive-Negative Asymmetry in Evaluations: The Distinction Between Affective and Informational Negativity Effects. European Review of Social Psychology, 1(1), 33-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779108401856
  • Plohl, N., & Musil, B. (2020). Modeling compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines: The critical role of trust in science. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2020.1772988
  • Potts, R., & Sanchez, D. (1994, 1994/01/01). Television viewing and depression: No news is good news. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38(1), 79-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838159409364247
  • Prati, G., Pietrantoni, L., & Zani, B. (2011). Compliance with recommendations for pandemic influenza H1N1 2009: The role of trust and personal beliefs. Health education research, 26(5), 761-769.
  • Reardon, S. (2015). Ebola's mental-health wounds linger in Africa: Health-care workers struggle to help people who have been traumatized by the epidemic. Nature, 519(7541), 13-15.
  • Reger, M. A., Stanley, I. H., & Joiner, T. E. (2020). Suicide Mortality and Coronavirus Disease 2019 — A Perfect Storm? JAMA Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1060
  • Resnik, D. B. (2009). Playing politics with science: Balancing scientific independence and government oversight. Oxford University Press.
  • Rozzell, B., Piercy, C. W., Carr, C. T., King, S., Lane, B. L., Tornes, M., Johnson, A. J., & Wright, K. B. (2014, 2014/09/01/). Notification pending: Online social support from close and nonclose relational ties via Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 272-280. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.06.006
  • Schlenger, W. E., Caddell, J. M., Ebert, L., Jordan, B. K., Rourke, K. M., Wilson, D., Thalji, L., Dennis, J. M., Fairbank, J. A., & Kulka, R. A. (2002). Psychological reactions to terrorist attacks: Findings from the National Study of Americans' Reactions to September 11. JAMA, 288(5), 581-588.
  • Sibley, C. G., Greaves, L. M., Satherley, N., Wilson, M. S., Overall, N. C., Lee, C. H., Milojev, P., Bulbulia, J., Osborne, D., & Milfont, T. L. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown on trust, attitudes toward government, and well-being. American Psychologist.
  • Siegrist, M., & Cvetkovich, G. (2000). Perception of Hazards: The Role of Social Trust and Knowledge. Risk Analysis, 20(5), 713-720. https://doi.org/10.1111/0272-4332.205064
  • Smith, T. B., McCullough, M. E., & Poll, J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: Evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 614-636. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.614
  • Tang, C. S. K., & Wong, C.-y. (2003). An Outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Predictors of Health Behaviors and Effect of Community Prevention Measures in Hong Kong, China. American journal of public health, 93(11), 1887-1888. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.93.11.1887
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(5), 1729.
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., McIntyre, R. S., Choo, F. N., Tran, B., Ho, R., Sharma, V. K., & Ho, C. (2020). A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 87, 40-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.028
  • Wilson, M. E., & Chen, L. H. (2020). Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(2), taaa015. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa015

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular İletişim
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Rosalie HOOİ>
Bir kuruma bağlı değildir
0000-0003-0863-7850
Singapore


Veysel ÇAKMAK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
AKSARAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLETİŞİM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-5785-7636
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Yoktur
Proje Numarası Yoktur
Teşekkür Yoktur
Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Temmuz 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 13 Aralık 2021
Kabul Tarihi 5 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 83

Kaynak Göster

APA Hooi, R. & Çakmak, V. (2022). MEDIA USE AND LOCKDOWNS: NAVIGATING EMOTIONAL AND MENTAL STATES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC . Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 21 (83) , 1184-1200 . DOI: 10.17755/esosder.1035934

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                                                   Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences),  Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.

                                              ESBD Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences), Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu tarafından tescil edilmiştir. Marka No:2011 119849.