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GELİŞME EKONOMİSİ POLİTİKALARINDA SON YÜZYILDA YAŞANAN DEĞİŞİM VE GÜNÜMÜZDE ÖNE ÇIKAN HUSUSLAR

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 84, 2079 - 2102, 08.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1077383

Öz

Gelişme ekonomisi politikaları, başka bir ifadeyle büyüme başta olmak üzere ülkelerin iktisadi ve sosyal kalkınma amaçlı politika tercihleri, esasen İkinci Dünya savaşı sonrasında olmak üzere, geçmişten günümüze her dönemin şartları ve bu dönemlerde öne çıkan iktisat düşünce iklimi çerçevesinde şekillenmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, son yüzyılda iktisat politikalarında, daha tanımlı ifadeyle gelişme ekonomisi politikalarında yaşanan değişimin incelenmesi ve bu süreçte yaşanan temel politika değişikliklerinin altında yatan hususların irdelenmesidir. Ayrıca ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde karşılaşılan sorunlar ve yaşanılan eşitsizliklerin de etkisiyle şekillenen günümüz gelişme ekonomisi politikalarında öne çıkan hususlar ele alınmaktadır. Çalışmada yöntem olarak kronolojik bir süreç izlenmekte, temel politika değişimi ya da tercihlerinin neden ve sonuç bağlantılarının kurulmasına çalışılmaktadır. Günümüz gelişme ekonomisi politikalarında sürdürülebilir kalkınma ve büyümenin kapsayıcılık niteliğinin güçlendirilmesi önem kazanmaktadır. Ekonomide rekabet gücünün artırılması, değişen işgücü talebine uygun mesleki beceri kazanımı ve etkin sosyal koruma sistemlerine olan ihtiyaç artmaktadır. 1960’lı yılların planlı kalkınma modellerinden farklı olmakla birlikte, ekonomilerin işleyişinde plan, program ve stratejilere dayalı süreç işletiminde artış yaşanmaktadır. Gelinen noktada, 1980 sonrası uygulanan etkinlik, büyüme ve istikrar esaslı politikalar yerine iktisadi, sosyal ve çevresel konularda daha dengeli bir gelişme sürecinin amaçlandığı görülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ali, I. (2007). Pro-poor to inclusive growth: Asian prescriptions. The ERD Policy Brief Series. No. 48. Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  • Ali, I. ve Zhuang, J. (2007). Inclusive growth toward a prosperous Asia: Policy implications. The ERD Policy Brief Series. No: 97. Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  • Alvaredo, F., Chancel, L, Piketty, T., Saez, E. ve Zucman, G. (2017). World Inequality Report 2018. World Inequality Lab.
  • Berber, M. (2019). İktisadi büyüme ve kalkınma. Yedinci baskı. Bursa: Ekin Basım Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Bergh, G. ve Melamed, C. (2012). Inclusive growth and a post-2015 framework. London: Overseas Development Institute.
  • Birdsall, N., de la Torre, A. ve Felipe, V.C. (2010). The Washington consensus: Assessing a damaged brand. Policy Research Working Paper, 5316. World Bank.
  • Chancel, L, Piketty, T., Saez, E. ve Zucman, G. (2021). World Inequality Report 2022. World Inequality Lab.
  • Chimhowu, O.A, Hulme, D. ve Munro, L.T. (2019). “The ‘New’ national development planning and global development goals: Processes and partnerships”. World Development, 120, 76–89.
  • Commission on Growth and Development (2008). The growth report: Strategies for sustained growth and inclusive development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  • CRED and UNISDR (2018). Economic losses, poverty & disasters (1998 - 2017). Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters and The UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.
  • Delice, G. (2003). Finansal krizler: Teorik ve tarihsel bir perspektif. Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 57-81.
  • Edwards, S. (1995). Crisis and reform in Latin America: From despair to hope. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Eraslan, C. ve Timurtaş, M.E. (2015). Avrupa borç kri̇zi̇ni̇n seçi̇lmi̇ş ülke örnekleri̇ üzeri̇ndeki̇ etki̇leri̇. Gazi İktisat ve İşletme Dergisi, 1(2), 17-54.
  • Ertürk, E. ve Yılmaz, D. (2014). Latin Amerika borç krizi ve Avrupa için çıkarılacak dersler. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14(1), 159-174.
  • European Commission (2006). European competitiveness report 2006. Enterprise and Industry. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
  • European Commission (2018). A clean planet for all - A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy. COM(2018)773 final. Brussels. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52018DC0773 Erişim Tarihi: 05.10.2021
  • European Commission (2019a). The European green deal. COM(2019)640 final. Brussels. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/european-green-deal-communication_en.pdf
  • European Commission (2019b). Annual sustainable growth strategy 2020. COM(2019)650 final. Brussels. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/2020-european-semester-annual-sustainable-growth-strategy_en.pdf
  • European Commission (2020). A new industrial strategy for Europe. COM(2020)102 final. Brussels.https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1593086905382&uri=CELEX:52020DC0102. Erişim Tarihi: 05.10.2021
  • Eurostat (2019). The European system of integrated social protection statistics - ESSPROS Manual and user guidelines. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Eurostat (2021). Euroindicators - Provision of deficit and debt data for 2020 - first notification. 48/2021. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/11563047/2-22042021-AP-EN.pdf/19f07f1a-49dd-29be-fbf0-857dc423519f?t=1619026271193 Erişim Tarihi: 10.10.2021.
  • Ezenwe, U. (1993). The African debt crisis and the challenge of development. Intereconomics, 28(1), 35-43.
  • Glyn, A., Hughes, A., Lipietz, A. ve Singh, A. (1998). The rise and fall of the Golden Age. Wider Working Paper, WP 43. World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University.
  • Güloğlu, B. ve Altunaoğlu, E. (2002). Finansal serbestleşme politikaları ve finansal krizler Latin Amerika Meksika Asya ve Türkiye krizleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, 27, 107-134.
  • ILO (2017). World Social Protection Report 2017–19. Geneva: PRODOC.
  • IMF (2021a). World Economic Outlook Update July 2021: Fault lines widen in the global recovery. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2021/07/27/world-economic-outlook-update-july-2021 Erişim Tarihi: 10.10.2021.
  • IMF (2021b). World Economic Outlook October 2021: Recovery during a pandemic. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, Publication Services.
  • Kazgan, G. (2000). İktisadi düşünce veya politik iktisadın evrimi. Geliştirilmiş 9. Basım, İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
  • Kibritçioğlu, A. (1996). Uluslararası rekabet gücüne kavramsal bir yaklaşım. A. Kibritçioğlu (Ed.). Uluslararası (makro) iktisat-Okumalar. (ss.1-16). Ankara: 72 TDFOB Yayıncılık.
  • Klasen, S. (2010). Measuring and monitoring inclusive growth: Multiple definitions, open questions, and some constructive proposals. ADB Sustainable Development Working Paper Series, No: 12, Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  • Lane, P.R. (2012). The European sovereign debt crisis. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(3), 49-67
  • Lopes, C. (2012). Economic growth and inequality: The New Post-Washington consensus. RCSS Annual Review, 4, 69-85. https://journals.openedition.org/rccsar/426 Erişim Tarihi: 25.12.2021.
  • Maddison, A. (1989). Economic growth in the twentieth century. E.J. Perkins (Ed.), The world economy in the 20 th century in (pp. 13-42). Development Centre Studies. OECD.
  • Mathers, N. ve Slater, R. (2014). Social protection and growth: Research synthesis. Barton ACT: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
  • Memiş, H., Kara, M. ve Tayfur, L.(2010). Yoksulluk, yapısal uyum programları ve Sahra Altı Afrika ülkeleri. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(14): 325-346.
  • Naim, M. (2000). Fads and fashion in economic reforms: Washington consensus or Washington confusion?. Third World Quarterly, 21(3), 505-528.
  • OECD (2007). Promoting pro-poor growth - Policy guidance for donors. DAC Guidelines and Reference Series. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2014). All on board-Making inclusive growth happen, OECD Secretariat and Ford Foundation.
  • OECD (2018). Opportunities for all: A framework for policy action on inclusive growth. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2019). Society at a glance 2019 - OECD social indicators. Development Centre Studies, Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2020). Beyond growth - Towards a new economic approach. New approaches to economic challenges. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2021). OECD Data – Social spending. https://data.oecd.org/socialexp/social-spending.htm Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2021
  • Öney, E. (1977). İktisadi planlama. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Özdemir, S. (2005). Başlangıcından günümüze refah devletlerinde sosyal harcamaların analizi. Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları Dergisi, 50, 153-204.
  • Pamuk, Ş. (2020). Türkiye’nin 200 yıllık iktisadi tarihi. XII. basım. Ankara: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Porter, M.E. (2004). Building the microeconomic foundations of prosperity: Findings from the business competitiveness index. M.E. Porter, K. Schwab, X. Sala-i-Martin, A. Lopez-Carlos (Ed.). Global Competitiveness Report 2003-2004 in (pp. 29-56). World Economic Forum.
  • Ranieri, R. ve Ramos, R.A. (2013). Inclusive growth: Buildıng up a concept. Working Paper, No: 104. Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
  • Rodrik, D. (2016). Goodbye Washington consensus, Hello Washington confusion? A review of the World Bank's economic growth in the 1990s: Learning from a decade of reform. Journal of Economic Literature 44(4): 973-987.
  • Saad-Filho, A. (2011), Growth, poverty and ınequality: Policies and debates from the (post-) Washington consensus to inclusive growth. Indian Journal of Human Development, 5(2): 321-344.
  • Sachs, J.D. (1999). Creditor panics: Causes and remedies. Cato Journal, 18(3), 377-390.
  • Singh, A. (2008). Historical examination of the Golden Age of full employment in Western Europe. MPRA- Münih Personel RePEc Archive. MPRA Paper No. 24304. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24304/ Erişim Tarihi: 25.09.2021.
  • The World Bank (2005). Economic growth in the 1990s: Learning from a decade of reform. Washington, DC: The World Bank Group.
  • UNDP (1990). Human Development Report 1990. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Oxford University Press.
  • UNDP (2016). From MDGs to sustainable development for all-Lessons from 15 years of practice. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  • UNDP (2017). UNDP’s strategy for inclusive and sustainable growth. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  • United Nations (2015a). Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. The General Assembly, A/RES/70/1. https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E Erişim Tarihi: 20.09.2021.
  • United Nations (2015b). The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. New York.
  • United Nations (2017). World economic and social survey 2017: Reflecting on 70 years of development policy analysis. E/2017/50/Rev.1-ST/ESA/365. New York: United Nations publication.
  • United Nations (2019a). Report of the Secretary-General on SDG progress 2019, Special Edition, New York: United Nations publication.
  • United Nations (2019b). Global Sustainable Development Report 2019: The Future is now: Science for achieving sustainable development. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  • United Nations (2020). World Social Report 2020 - Inequality in a rapidly changing world. New York: United Nations publication.
  • United Nations (2021a). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2021. New York: United Nations publication. United Nations (2021b). Climate Change Annual Report 2020. Bonn: UNFCCC.
  • Waterston, A. (1969). Development planning – Lessons of experience. Third printing. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press. WEF (2018a). The Global Competitiveness Report 2018. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
  • WEF (2018b). The inclusive development index 2018-Summary and data highlights. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
  • Westphalen, J. (1984). Origin and consequences of the debt crisis and ways of solving it. Intereconomics, 19(2), 71-77. Wid.World (2022). World Inequality Database. https://wid.world/data/ Erişim tarihi: 15.01.2022
  • World Bank Group (2018). Piecing together the poverty puzzle. Poverty and shared prosperitiy 2018. Washington DC: World Bank Publications.
  • WTO (2021). World Trade Statistical Review 2021. Genewa: World Trade Organization.
  • Yıldırım, C. (2011). Birinci ve ikinci nesil Washington uzlaşması: Neoliberal iktisat politikalarının 1980’den sonraki evrimi. Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 7( 2): 1-23.

CHANGES OCCURED IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS POLICIES OF LAST CENTURY AND TODAY’S PROMINENT ISSUES

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 84, 2079 - 2102, 08.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1077383

Öz

Development economy policies, in other words, the policy preferences of countries for economic and social development, especially growth, are shaped within the framework of the conditions of every period from the past to the present, mainly after the Second World War, and the climate of economic thought that came to the fore in these periods. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in economic policies, more precisely in development economy policies, in the last century and to examine the underlying issues of the main policy changes in this period. Furthermore, the prominent issues in today's development economy policies, which are shaped by the effects of the inequalities experienced and the problems encountered at the national and international level, are discussed. In this study, a chronological process is followed as a method, and it is tried to establish the cause and effect connections of the main policy change or preferences. Strengthening the inclusiveness of sustainable development and growth gains importance in today's development economy policies. The need for increasing competitiveness in the economy, acquiring professional skills in line with the changing labor demand and effective social protection systems is increasing. There is an increase in process operation based on plans, programs and strategies in the functioning of economies, although it is different from the planned development models of the 1960s. At this point, it is seen that a more balanced development process in economic, social and environmental issues is aimed instead of the efficiency, growth and stability-based policies implemented after 1980.

Kaynakça

  • Ali, I. (2007). Pro-poor to inclusive growth: Asian prescriptions. The ERD Policy Brief Series. No. 48. Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  • Ali, I. ve Zhuang, J. (2007). Inclusive growth toward a prosperous Asia: Policy implications. The ERD Policy Brief Series. No: 97. Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  • Alvaredo, F., Chancel, L, Piketty, T., Saez, E. ve Zucman, G. (2017). World Inequality Report 2018. World Inequality Lab.
  • Berber, M. (2019). İktisadi büyüme ve kalkınma. Yedinci baskı. Bursa: Ekin Basım Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Bergh, G. ve Melamed, C. (2012). Inclusive growth and a post-2015 framework. London: Overseas Development Institute.
  • Birdsall, N., de la Torre, A. ve Felipe, V.C. (2010). The Washington consensus: Assessing a damaged brand. Policy Research Working Paper, 5316. World Bank.
  • Chancel, L, Piketty, T., Saez, E. ve Zucman, G. (2021). World Inequality Report 2022. World Inequality Lab.
  • Chimhowu, O.A, Hulme, D. ve Munro, L.T. (2019). “The ‘New’ national development planning and global development goals: Processes and partnerships”. World Development, 120, 76–89.
  • Commission on Growth and Development (2008). The growth report: Strategies for sustained growth and inclusive development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  • CRED and UNISDR (2018). Economic losses, poverty & disasters (1998 - 2017). Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters and The UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.
  • Delice, G. (2003). Finansal krizler: Teorik ve tarihsel bir perspektif. Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 57-81.
  • Edwards, S. (1995). Crisis and reform in Latin America: From despair to hope. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Eraslan, C. ve Timurtaş, M.E. (2015). Avrupa borç kri̇zi̇ni̇n seçi̇lmi̇ş ülke örnekleri̇ üzeri̇ndeki̇ etki̇leri̇. Gazi İktisat ve İşletme Dergisi, 1(2), 17-54.
  • Ertürk, E. ve Yılmaz, D. (2014). Latin Amerika borç krizi ve Avrupa için çıkarılacak dersler. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14(1), 159-174.
  • European Commission (2006). European competitiveness report 2006. Enterprise and Industry. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
  • European Commission (2018). A clean planet for all - A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy. COM(2018)773 final. Brussels. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52018DC0773 Erişim Tarihi: 05.10.2021
  • European Commission (2019a). The European green deal. COM(2019)640 final. Brussels. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/european-green-deal-communication_en.pdf
  • European Commission (2019b). Annual sustainable growth strategy 2020. COM(2019)650 final. Brussels. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/2020-european-semester-annual-sustainable-growth-strategy_en.pdf
  • European Commission (2020). A new industrial strategy for Europe. COM(2020)102 final. Brussels.https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1593086905382&uri=CELEX:52020DC0102. Erişim Tarihi: 05.10.2021
  • Eurostat (2019). The European system of integrated social protection statistics - ESSPROS Manual and user guidelines. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Eurostat (2021). Euroindicators - Provision of deficit and debt data for 2020 - first notification. 48/2021. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/11563047/2-22042021-AP-EN.pdf/19f07f1a-49dd-29be-fbf0-857dc423519f?t=1619026271193 Erişim Tarihi: 10.10.2021.
  • Ezenwe, U. (1993). The African debt crisis and the challenge of development. Intereconomics, 28(1), 35-43.
  • Glyn, A., Hughes, A., Lipietz, A. ve Singh, A. (1998). The rise and fall of the Golden Age. Wider Working Paper, WP 43. World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University.
  • Güloğlu, B. ve Altunaoğlu, E. (2002). Finansal serbestleşme politikaları ve finansal krizler Latin Amerika Meksika Asya ve Türkiye krizleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, 27, 107-134.
  • ILO (2017). World Social Protection Report 2017–19. Geneva: PRODOC.
  • IMF (2021a). World Economic Outlook Update July 2021: Fault lines widen in the global recovery. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2021/07/27/world-economic-outlook-update-july-2021 Erişim Tarihi: 10.10.2021.
  • IMF (2021b). World Economic Outlook October 2021: Recovery during a pandemic. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, Publication Services.
  • Kazgan, G. (2000). İktisadi düşünce veya politik iktisadın evrimi. Geliştirilmiş 9. Basım, İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
  • Kibritçioğlu, A. (1996). Uluslararası rekabet gücüne kavramsal bir yaklaşım. A. Kibritçioğlu (Ed.). Uluslararası (makro) iktisat-Okumalar. (ss.1-16). Ankara: 72 TDFOB Yayıncılık.
  • Klasen, S. (2010). Measuring and monitoring inclusive growth: Multiple definitions, open questions, and some constructive proposals. ADB Sustainable Development Working Paper Series, No: 12, Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  • Lane, P.R. (2012). The European sovereign debt crisis. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(3), 49-67
  • Lopes, C. (2012). Economic growth and inequality: The New Post-Washington consensus. RCSS Annual Review, 4, 69-85. https://journals.openedition.org/rccsar/426 Erişim Tarihi: 25.12.2021.
  • Maddison, A. (1989). Economic growth in the twentieth century. E.J. Perkins (Ed.), The world economy in the 20 th century in (pp. 13-42). Development Centre Studies. OECD.
  • Mathers, N. ve Slater, R. (2014). Social protection and growth: Research synthesis. Barton ACT: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
  • Memiş, H., Kara, M. ve Tayfur, L.(2010). Yoksulluk, yapısal uyum programları ve Sahra Altı Afrika ülkeleri. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(14): 325-346.
  • Naim, M. (2000). Fads and fashion in economic reforms: Washington consensus or Washington confusion?. Third World Quarterly, 21(3), 505-528.
  • OECD (2007). Promoting pro-poor growth - Policy guidance for donors. DAC Guidelines and Reference Series. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2014). All on board-Making inclusive growth happen, OECD Secretariat and Ford Foundation.
  • OECD (2018). Opportunities for all: A framework for policy action on inclusive growth. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2019). Society at a glance 2019 - OECD social indicators. Development Centre Studies, Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2020). Beyond growth - Towards a new economic approach. New approaches to economic challenges. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD (2021). OECD Data – Social spending. https://data.oecd.org/socialexp/social-spending.htm Erişim Tarihi: 20.12.2021
  • Öney, E. (1977). İktisadi planlama. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Özdemir, S. (2005). Başlangıcından günümüze refah devletlerinde sosyal harcamaların analizi. Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları Dergisi, 50, 153-204.
  • Pamuk, Ş. (2020). Türkiye’nin 200 yıllık iktisadi tarihi. XII. basım. Ankara: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Porter, M.E. (2004). Building the microeconomic foundations of prosperity: Findings from the business competitiveness index. M.E. Porter, K. Schwab, X. Sala-i-Martin, A. Lopez-Carlos (Ed.). Global Competitiveness Report 2003-2004 in (pp. 29-56). World Economic Forum.
  • Ranieri, R. ve Ramos, R.A. (2013). Inclusive growth: Buildıng up a concept. Working Paper, No: 104. Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
  • Rodrik, D. (2016). Goodbye Washington consensus, Hello Washington confusion? A review of the World Bank's economic growth in the 1990s: Learning from a decade of reform. Journal of Economic Literature 44(4): 973-987.
  • Saad-Filho, A. (2011), Growth, poverty and ınequality: Policies and debates from the (post-) Washington consensus to inclusive growth. Indian Journal of Human Development, 5(2): 321-344.
  • Sachs, J.D. (1999). Creditor panics: Causes and remedies. Cato Journal, 18(3), 377-390.
  • Singh, A. (2008). Historical examination of the Golden Age of full employment in Western Europe. MPRA- Münih Personel RePEc Archive. MPRA Paper No. 24304. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24304/ Erişim Tarihi: 25.09.2021.
  • The World Bank (2005). Economic growth in the 1990s: Learning from a decade of reform. Washington, DC: The World Bank Group.
  • UNDP (1990). Human Development Report 1990. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Oxford University Press.
  • UNDP (2016). From MDGs to sustainable development for all-Lessons from 15 years of practice. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  • UNDP (2017). UNDP’s strategy for inclusive and sustainable growth. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  • United Nations (2015a). Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. The General Assembly, A/RES/70/1. https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E Erişim Tarihi: 20.09.2021.
  • United Nations (2015b). The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. New York.
  • United Nations (2017). World economic and social survey 2017: Reflecting on 70 years of development policy analysis. E/2017/50/Rev.1-ST/ESA/365. New York: United Nations publication.
  • United Nations (2019a). Report of the Secretary-General on SDG progress 2019, Special Edition, New York: United Nations publication.
  • United Nations (2019b). Global Sustainable Development Report 2019: The Future is now: Science for achieving sustainable development. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  • United Nations (2020). World Social Report 2020 - Inequality in a rapidly changing world. New York: United Nations publication.
  • United Nations (2021a). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2021. New York: United Nations publication. United Nations (2021b). Climate Change Annual Report 2020. Bonn: UNFCCC.
  • Waterston, A. (1969). Development planning – Lessons of experience. Third printing. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press. WEF (2018a). The Global Competitiveness Report 2018. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
  • WEF (2018b). The inclusive development index 2018-Summary and data highlights. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
  • Westphalen, J. (1984). Origin and consequences of the debt crisis and ways of solving it. Intereconomics, 19(2), 71-77. Wid.World (2022). World Inequality Database. https://wid.world/data/ Erişim tarihi: 15.01.2022
  • World Bank Group (2018). Piecing together the poverty puzzle. Poverty and shared prosperitiy 2018. Washington DC: World Bank Publications.
  • WTO (2021). World Trade Statistical Review 2021. Genewa: World Trade Organization.
  • Yıldırım, C. (2011). Birinci ve ikinci nesil Washington uzlaşması: Neoliberal iktisat politikalarının 1980’den sonraki evrimi. Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 7( 2): 1-23.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İktisat
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Atila BEDİR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
TOBB EKONOMİ VE TEKNOLOJİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-8715-3736
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 8 Ekim 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 22 Şubat 2022
Kabul Tarihi 3 Ekim 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 84

Kaynak Göster

APA Bedir, A. (2022). GELİŞME EKONOMİSİ POLİTİKALARINDA SON YÜZYILDA YAŞANAN DEĞİŞİM VE GÜNÜMÜZDE ÖNE ÇIKAN HUSUSLAR . Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 21 (84) , 2079-2102 . DOI: 10.17755/esosder.1077383

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                                                   Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences),  Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.

                                              ESBD Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences), Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu tarafından tescil edilmiştir. Marka No:2011 119849.