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HİNDİSTAN-PAKİSTAN HATTINDA RUSYA: GÜNEY DOĞU ASYA'DAKİ SİYASİ DENGELERE KUZEYDEN BİR BAKIŞ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 84, 1709 - 1725, 08.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.941610

Öz

Güney Doğu Asya’da uzun soluklu bir ihtilafın içinde olan Hindistan ve Pakistan arasında rol alan başlıca alan dışı aktörlerden biri Rusya’dır. Moskova’nın Soğuk Savaş sırasında izlediği politika Hindistan’a yakın durmak olarak şekillenirken, Soğuk Savaş sonrasında benimsenen pozisyon, iki tarafla da etkileşim kurmak ve ortada duran bir politika izlemek olmuştur. Bu farklılaşmanın nedenlerini incelemeyi amaçlayan bu çalışma, süreç takibi yönteminden yararlanarak, Moskova’nın Soğuk Savaş sırasında ve sonrasında Hindistan-Pakistan hattındaki politikasını incelemektedir. Bu inceleme yapılırken, Rus dış politikasının Soğuk Savaş’ın bitişinin neden olduğu sistemsel dönüşümden nasıl etkilendiğine odaklanmak önem arz etmektedir. Zira Soğuk Savaş’ın ardından Moskova’nın dış politikasını icra ederken daha esnek ve pragmatik bir politika izlemeye başlaması, Güney Doğu Asya’da izlediği siyaseti de açıklamaktadır. Sovyetler Birliği’nden farklı olarak Rusya, çıkar arayışını icra ederken bloklaşma siyasetinden uzak duran ve dış politikasını çeşitlendiren bir yol izlemektedir. Bu çalışmada vurgulandığı gibi, Moskova’nın Hindistan-Pakistan ekseninde izlediği pragmatik ve çok yönlü dış politika, bu yaklaşımın bir tezahürüdür.

Kaynakça

  • Abraham, I. (2008). From Bandung to NAM: Non-alignment and Indian Foreign Policy, 1947–65. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 46(2), 195-219.
  • Acharya, A. (2017). After Liberal Hegemony: The Advent of a Multiplex World Order. Ethics & International Affairs, 31(3), 271-285.
  • Ahmad, N. (1979). The Non-Aligned Movement and Pakistan, Pakistan Horizon. Fourth Quarter, 32(4), 79-91.
  • Alım, E. (2019). Rusya’nın Büyük Güç Aktivizminde Çok Kutuplu Dünyanın Önemi. Asya Studies, 2(8), 53-65.
  • Allauddin, Liu, H. & Ahmed, R. Q. (2020). The Changing Dynamics and New Developments of China–Pakistan Relations. India Quarterly, 76(1), 73–88.
  • Athwal, A. (2008). China-India Relations: Contemporary Dynamics. London: Routledge.
  • Azizian, R. & Vasilieff, P. (2010). Russia and Pakistan: The Difficult Path to Rapprochement. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 30(1), 36-55.
  • Bajoria, J. & Pan, E. (2010). The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal, November 5, https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/us-india-nuclear-deal (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Blank, S. (2019). China's Military Base in Tajikistan: What Does it Mean?, https://www.cacianalyst.org/publications/analytical-articles/item/13569-chinas-military-base-in-tajikistan-what-does- it-mean?.html (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Bradley, M. (2010). Decolonization, the global South, and the Cold War, 1919–1962. Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1: Origins (s. 464-485) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Department of Defense. (2021). U.S. Security Cooperation With India, https://www.state.gov/u-s-security-cooperation-with-india/ (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Frantzman, S. J. (2020). Russia’s Lavrov sketches out post-Western world order, https://www.jpost.com/international/russias-lavrov-sketches-out-post-western-world-order-642829 (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Gaddis, J. L. (1986). The Long Peace: Elements of Stability in the Postwar International System. International Security, 10(4), 99-142.
  • Gvosdev, N. & Marsh. C. (2014). Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors, and Sectors. California: CQ Press (Kindle Edition).
  • Halliday, F. (1989). Cold War, Third World: An Essay on Soviet-American Relations. London: Hutchinson Radius.
  • Joshi, N. (2007). India-Russia Relations and the Strategic Environment in Eurasia. Akihiro, I. (Ed.), Eager Eyes Fixed on Eurasia: Russia and Its Neighbors in Crisis (s. 195-210) içinde. Hokkaido: Slavic Research Center.
  • Joshi, N. & Sharma, R. K. (2017). India–Russia Relations in a Changing Eurasian Perspective. India Quarterly, 73(1), 36–52.
  • Kaczmarski, M. (2015). Russia–China Relations in the Post-Crisis International Order. London: Routledge.
  • Kardon, I. (2020). China’s Geopolitical Gambit in Gwadar, https://www.wilsoncenter.org/blog-post/chinas-geopolitical-gambit-gwadar (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Kaura, V. (2018). India’s Changing Relationship with Russia. The RUSI Journal, 163(1), 48-60.
  • Kavalski, E. (2010). India and Central Asia. Kavalski, E. (Ed.), The New Central Asia: Regional Impact of International Actors (s. 239-260) içinde. New Jersey: World Scientific.
  • Khan, W. S. & Whittaker, F. (2018). Pakistan pivots toward Putin's Russia after Trump gets tough, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/pakistan-pivots-toward-putin-s-russia-after-trump-gets-tough-n901536 (Erişim Tarihi: 20.05.2021).
  • Lagutina, M. L. (2019). BRICS in a World of Regions. Third World Thematics. 4(6), 442-458.
  • Laruelle, M. (2010). Russia Facing China and India in Central Asia. Laruelle, M., Huchet, J., Peyrouse, S. ve Balci, B. (Ed.), China and India in Central Asia A New “Great Game”? (s. 9-24) içinde. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Laskar, R. H. (2021a). Russia ready to supply military equipment to Pakistan, hold more drills: Lavrov, https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/russia-ready-to-supply-military-equipment-to-pakistan-hold-more- drills-lavrov-101617812548628.html (Erişim Tarihi: 15.05.2021).
  • Laskar, R. H. (2021b). Russia shares independent ties with India, Pakistan: Diplomats, https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/russia-has-independent-ties-with-india-and-pakistan-say-top-russian- diplomats-101618390305310.html (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Latham, M. E. (2010). The Cold War in the Third World, 1963–1975. Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2: Crises and Détente (s. 258-280) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lavrov, S. (2019). Rivalry and Confrontation or Cooperation and Security, https://eng.globalaffairs.ru/articles/the-world- at-a-crossroads-and-a-system-of-international-relations-for-the-future/ (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Lo, B. (2015). Russia and the New World Disorder. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Lüthi, L. M. (2016). Non-Alignment, 1961–74, 2016. Bott, S., Hanhimäki, J. M., Schaufelbuehl, J. M. ve Wyss, M. (Ed.), Neutrality and Neutralism in the Global Cold War Between or Within the Blocs? (s. 90-107) içinde. London: Routledge.
  • Lyon, P. (2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
  • Mahmood, S. (1981). Pakistan's Uneasy Relations with Russia. The Round Table. 71(283), 269-275.
  • Mankoff, J. (2009). Russian Foreign Policy: The Return of Great Power Politics. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Mearsheimer, J. J. (1992). Disorder Restored. Allison, G. ve Treverston, G. F. (Ed.), Rethinking America’s Security (s. 213-237) içinde. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Mitra, D. (2016). Pakistan Critical to Defeating ISIS, Says Russian Special Rep to Afghanistan, https://thewire.in/external- affairs/pakistan-isis-afghanistan-russia (Erişim Tarihi: 17.05.2021).
  • Myers, S. L. (2018). With Ships and Missiles, China Is Ready to Challenge U.S. Navy in Pacific, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/29/world/asia/china-navy-aircraft-carrier-pacific.html (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Panda, J. (2020). India and the ‘Quad Plus’ Dialogue, https://rusi.org/commentary/india-strategic-quad (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Pant, H. V. (2013). India-Russia Ties and India's Strategic Culture: Dominance of a Realist Worldview. India Review, 12(1), 1-19.
  • Paul, T. V. (2005). Causes of the India–Pakistan Enduring Rivalry. Paul, T. V. (Ed), The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry (s. 3-24) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pildat. (2004). Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: An Overview 1947-2004, https://hostnezt.com/cssfiles/currentaffairs/Pakistan%20Foreign%20Policy%201947%20to%202004.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 16.05.2021).
  • Primakov, Y. (2004). Russian Crossroads toward the New Millennium. (Çev.), F. Rosenthal. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Radchenko, S. (2010). The Sino-Soviet Split, Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2: Crises and Détente (s. 349-372) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rahman, F. (2007). Pakistan’s Evolving Relations with China, Russia, and Central Asia. Akihiro, I. (Ed.), Eager Eyes Fixed on Eurasia: Russia and Its Neighbors in Crisis (s. 211-229) içinde. Hokkaido: Slavic Research Center.
  • Rajagopalan, R. P. (2020). The Sino-Indian Clash: Russia in the Middle, https://thediplomat.com/2020/06/the-sino-indian-clash-russia-in-the-middle/ (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Sarwar, M. (2016). Russia Plays Both Sides In The Afghan Conflict, https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/russia-afghanistan-taliban/27467233.html (20.05.2021).
  • Savranskaya, S. & Taubman, W. (2010). Soviet Foreign Policy, 1962–1975, Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2: Crises and Détente (s. 134-157) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shahzad, A. (2019). Russia-India-Pakistan Changing Matrix, https://tribune.com.pk/story/2000838/6-russia-india-pakistan-changing-matrix/ (Erişim Tarihi: 15.05.2021).
  • Tempest, R. (1985). Soviets Threaten to Raid Afghan Pakistan Bases, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1985-05- 23-mn-8014-story.html (Erişim Tarihi: 16.05.2021).
  • Trenin, D. (2001). The End of Eurasia: Russia on the Border Between Geopolitics and Globalization. Washington: Carnegie Endowment.
  • Trenin, D. (2011). Of Power and Greatness. Dutkiewicz, P. ve Trenin, D. (Ed.), Russia: Challenges and Transformation (s. 407-431) içinde. New York: New York University Press.
  • Trubnikov, V. (2010). Relations Between Russia and India Represent Real Strategic Cooperation. Security Index16(3), 5-10.
  • Waltz, K. N. (1967). International Structure, National Force, and the Balance of World Power. Journal of International Affairs, 21(2), 215-231.
  • Waltz, K. N. (2000). Structural Realism After the Cold War. International Security, 25(1), 5-41.
  • Warner, G. (2007). Nixon, Kissinger and the Rapprochement with China, 1969-1972. International Affairs, 83(4), 763-781.
  • Westad, O. A. (2007). The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Westad, O. A. (2017). The Cold War: A World History. New York: Basic Books (Kindle Edition).
  • Wohlforth, W. C. (1999). The Stability of a Unipolar World. International Security, 24(1), 5-41.
  • Wuthnow, J. (2021). China’s Shifting Attitude on the Indo-Pacific Quad, https://warontherocks.com/2021/04/chinas-shifting-attitude-on-the-indo-pacific-quad/ (Erişim Tarihi: 20.05.2021).

RUSSIA ALONG THE INDIA-PAKISTAN AXIS: AN INSIGHT INTO POLITICAL DYNAMICS IN SOUTH EAST ASIA FROM THE NORTH

Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 84, 1709 - 1725, 08.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.941610

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Abraham, I. (2008). From Bandung to NAM: Non-alignment and Indian Foreign Policy, 1947–65. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 46(2), 195-219.
  • Acharya, A. (2017). After Liberal Hegemony: The Advent of a Multiplex World Order. Ethics & International Affairs, 31(3), 271-285.
  • Ahmad, N. (1979). The Non-Aligned Movement and Pakistan, Pakistan Horizon. Fourth Quarter, 32(4), 79-91.
  • Alım, E. (2019). Rusya’nın Büyük Güç Aktivizminde Çok Kutuplu Dünyanın Önemi. Asya Studies, 2(8), 53-65.
  • Allauddin, Liu, H. & Ahmed, R. Q. (2020). The Changing Dynamics and New Developments of China–Pakistan Relations. India Quarterly, 76(1), 73–88.
  • Athwal, A. (2008). China-India Relations: Contemporary Dynamics. London: Routledge.
  • Azizian, R. & Vasilieff, P. (2010). Russia and Pakistan: The Difficult Path to Rapprochement. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 30(1), 36-55.
  • Bajoria, J. & Pan, E. (2010). The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal, November 5, https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/us-india-nuclear-deal (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Blank, S. (2019). China's Military Base in Tajikistan: What Does it Mean?, https://www.cacianalyst.org/publications/analytical-articles/item/13569-chinas-military-base-in-tajikistan-what-does- it-mean?.html (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Bradley, M. (2010). Decolonization, the global South, and the Cold War, 1919–1962. Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1: Origins (s. 464-485) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Department of Defense. (2021). U.S. Security Cooperation With India, https://www.state.gov/u-s-security-cooperation-with-india/ (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Frantzman, S. J. (2020). Russia’s Lavrov sketches out post-Western world order, https://www.jpost.com/international/russias-lavrov-sketches-out-post-western-world-order-642829 (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Gaddis, J. L. (1986). The Long Peace: Elements of Stability in the Postwar International System. International Security, 10(4), 99-142.
  • Gvosdev, N. & Marsh. C. (2014). Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors, and Sectors. California: CQ Press (Kindle Edition).
  • Halliday, F. (1989). Cold War, Third World: An Essay on Soviet-American Relations. London: Hutchinson Radius.
  • Joshi, N. (2007). India-Russia Relations and the Strategic Environment in Eurasia. Akihiro, I. (Ed.), Eager Eyes Fixed on Eurasia: Russia and Its Neighbors in Crisis (s. 195-210) içinde. Hokkaido: Slavic Research Center.
  • Joshi, N. & Sharma, R. K. (2017). India–Russia Relations in a Changing Eurasian Perspective. India Quarterly, 73(1), 36–52.
  • Kaczmarski, M. (2015). Russia–China Relations in the Post-Crisis International Order. London: Routledge.
  • Kardon, I. (2020). China’s Geopolitical Gambit in Gwadar, https://www.wilsoncenter.org/blog-post/chinas-geopolitical-gambit-gwadar (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Kaura, V. (2018). India’s Changing Relationship with Russia. The RUSI Journal, 163(1), 48-60.
  • Kavalski, E. (2010). India and Central Asia. Kavalski, E. (Ed.), The New Central Asia: Regional Impact of International Actors (s. 239-260) içinde. New Jersey: World Scientific.
  • Khan, W. S. & Whittaker, F. (2018). Pakistan pivots toward Putin's Russia after Trump gets tough, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/pakistan-pivots-toward-putin-s-russia-after-trump-gets-tough-n901536 (Erişim Tarihi: 20.05.2021).
  • Lagutina, M. L. (2019). BRICS in a World of Regions. Third World Thematics. 4(6), 442-458.
  • Laruelle, M. (2010). Russia Facing China and India in Central Asia. Laruelle, M., Huchet, J., Peyrouse, S. ve Balci, B. (Ed.), China and India in Central Asia A New “Great Game”? (s. 9-24) içinde. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Laskar, R. H. (2021a). Russia ready to supply military equipment to Pakistan, hold more drills: Lavrov, https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/russia-ready-to-supply-military-equipment-to-pakistan-hold-more- drills-lavrov-101617812548628.html (Erişim Tarihi: 15.05.2021).
  • Laskar, R. H. (2021b). Russia shares independent ties with India, Pakistan: Diplomats, https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/russia-has-independent-ties-with-india-and-pakistan-say-top-russian- diplomats-101618390305310.html (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Latham, M. E. (2010). The Cold War in the Third World, 1963–1975. Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2: Crises and Détente (s. 258-280) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lavrov, S. (2019). Rivalry and Confrontation or Cooperation and Security, https://eng.globalaffairs.ru/articles/the-world- at-a-crossroads-and-a-system-of-international-relations-for-the-future/ (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Lo, B. (2015). Russia and the New World Disorder. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Lüthi, L. M. (2016). Non-Alignment, 1961–74, 2016. Bott, S., Hanhimäki, J. M., Schaufelbuehl, J. M. ve Wyss, M. (Ed.), Neutrality and Neutralism in the Global Cold War Between or Within the Blocs? (s. 90-107) içinde. London: Routledge.
  • Lyon, P. (2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
  • Mahmood, S. (1981). Pakistan's Uneasy Relations with Russia. The Round Table. 71(283), 269-275.
  • Mankoff, J. (2009). Russian Foreign Policy: The Return of Great Power Politics. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Mearsheimer, J. J. (1992). Disorder Restored. Allison, G. ve Treverston, G. F. (Ed.), Rethinking America’s Security (s. 213-237) içinde. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Mitra, D. (2016). Pakistan Critical to Defeating ISIS, Says Russian Special Rep to Afghanistan, https://thewire.in/external- affairs/pakistan-isis-afghanistan-russia (Erişim Tarihi: 17.05.2021).
  • Myers, S. L. (2018). With Ships and Missiles, China Is Ready to Challenge U.S. Navy in Pacific, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/29/world/asia/china-navy-aircraft-carrier-pacific.html (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Panda, J. (2020). India and the ‘Quad Plus’ Dialogue, https://rusi.org/commentary/india-strategic-quad (Erişim Tarihi: 19.05.2021).
  • Pant, H. V. (2013). India-Russia Ties and India's Strategic Culture: Dominance of a Realist Worldview. India Review, 12(1), 1-19.
  • Paul, T. V. (2005). Causes of the India–Pakistan Enduring Rivalry. Paul, T. V. (Ed), The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry (s. 3-24) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pildat. (2004). Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: An Overview 1947-2004, https://hostnezt.com/cssfiles/currentaffairs/Pakistan%20Foreign%20Policy%201947%20to%202004.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 16.05.2021).
  • Primakov, Y. (2004). Russian Crossroads toward the New Millennium. (Çev.), F. Rosenthal. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Radchenko, S. (2010). The Sino-Soviet Split, Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2: Crises and Détente (s. 349-372) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rahman, F. (2007). Pakistan’s Evolving Relations with China, Russia, and Central Asia. Akihiro, I. (Ed.), Eager Eyes Fixed on Eurasia: Russia and Its Neighbors in Crisis (s. 211-229) içinde. Hokkaido: Slavic Research Center.
  • Rajagopalan, R. P. (2020). The Sino-Indian Clash: Russia in the Middle, https://thediplomat.com/2020/06/the-sino-indian-clash-russia-in-the-middle/ (Erişim Tarihi: 18.05.2021).
  • Sarwar, M. (2016). Russia Plays Both Sides In The Afghan Conflict, https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/russia-afghanistan-taliban/27467233.html (20.05.2021).
  • Savranskaya, S. & Taubman, W. (2010). Soviet Foreign Policy, 1962–1975, Leffler, M. P ve Westad, O. A. (Ed.), Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2: Crises and Détente (s. 134-157) içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shahzad, A. (2019). Russia-India-Pakistan Changing Matrix, https://tribune.com.pk/story/2000838/6-russia-india-pakistan-changing-matrix/ (Erişim Tarihi: 15.05.2021).
  • Tempest, R. (1985). Soviets Threaten to Raid Afghan Pakistan Bases, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1985-05- 23-mn-8014-story.html (Erişim Tarihi: 16.05.2021).
  • Trenin, D. (2001). The End of Eurasia: Russia on the Border Between Geopolitics and Globalization. Washington: Carnegie Endowment.
  • Trenin, D. (2011). Of Power and Greatness. Dutkiewicz, P. ve Trenin, D. (Ed.), Russia: Challenges and Transformation (s. 407-431) içinde. New York: New York University Press.
  • Trubnikov, V. (2010). Relations Between Russia and India Represent Real Strategic Cooperation. Security Index16(3), 5-10.
  • Waltz, K. N. (1967). International Structure, National Force, and the Balance of World Power. Journal of International Affairs, 21(2), 215-231.
  • Waltz, K. N. (2000). Structural Realism After the Cold War. International Security, 25(1), 5-41.
  • Warner, G. (2007). Nixon, Kissinger and the Rapprochement with China, 1969-1972. International Affairs, 83(4), 763-781.
  • Westad, O. A. (2007). The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Westad, O. A. (2017). The Cold War: A World History. New York: Basic Books (Kindle Edition).
  • Wohlforth, W. C. (1999). The Stability of a Unipolar World. International Security, 24(1), 5-41.
  • Wuthnow, J. (2021). China’s Shifting Attitude on the Indo-Pacific Quad, https://warontherocks.com/2021/04/chinas-shifting-attitude-on-the-indo-pacific-quad/ (Erişim Tarihi: 20.05.2021).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Eray ALIM> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BATMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7543-8021
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 8 Ekim 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Mayıs 2021
Kabul Tarihi 27 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 21, Sayı 84

Kaynak Göster

APA Alım, E. (2022). HİNDİSTAN-PAKİSTAN HATTINDA RUSYA: GÜNEY DOĞU ASYA'DAKİ SİYASİ DENGELERE KUZEYDEN BİR BAKIŞ . Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 21 (84) , 1709-1725 . DOI: 10.17755/esosder.941610

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                                                   Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences),  Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.

                                              ESBD Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Electronic Journal of Social Sciences), Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu tarafından tescil edilmiştir. Marka No:2011 119849.