Yıl 2020, Cilt 5 , Sayı 2, Sayfalar 188 - 195 2020-05-18

CALCULATION OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY INDEX (IAQI) FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND CARBONDIOXIDE: A SCHOOL SAMPLE
PARTİKÜLER MADDE VE KARBONDİOKSİT İÇİN İÇ ORTAM HAVA KALİTESİ İNDEKSİ (İHKİ) HESAPLAMASI: OKUL ÖRNEĞİ / CALCULATION OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY INDEX (IAQI) FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND CARBONDIOXIDE: A SCHOOL SAMPLE

İnci ARIKAN [1] , Ömer Faruk TEKİN [2]


It is important for us to be sensitive about the effects and consequences of the school indoor air where children spend most of their time. In this study, it was aimed to develop Indoor Air Quality Index (IAQI) to evaluate indoor air quality in some schools and to use in related projects. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in schools in Kütahya province between 1-31 October 2018. In schools selected from rural and urban areas, temperature, humidity, PM2.5, PM10 and CO2 measurements were calculated in 5 buildings and 42 classrooms indoors. The IAQI was calculated by dividing PM2.5, PM10 and CO2 values by WHO criteria and taking the arithmetic average. Since temperature and humidity measurements are between normal values, they were not included in the calculation. As IAQI increases, indoor air quality is interpreted as bad. Average, median and standard deviation values were used in the evaluation of the measurement data and Spearman correlation analysis was used for the relationship. The average of the IAQI was 4.85±1.63. IAQI was found to be worse in the school located in the urban area, than the rural area (p=0.024). While there was no correlation between IAQI and volumes (cubic meters) of classrooms (r=0.156-p=0.331), it was found that the IAQI worsened as the class size increased (r=0.384-p=0.013). In our study, the IAQI value was higher in the urban area and in crowded classes. In our study, since the calculation of IAQI is made by using PM and CO2 values in indoor air, it can be said that it will be more beneficial to calculate by including biological and chemical pollutant parameters in different indoor environments.  

Çocukların vakitlerinin büyük bir bölümünü geçirdikleri okul iç ortam havasından etkilenimleri ve sonuçları konusunda hassasiyet göstermemiz önemlidir. Bu çalışmada bazı okullarda iç ortam hava kalitesini değerlendirmek ve bununla ilgili projelerde kullanmak için İç Ortam Hava Kalitesi İndeksi (İHKİ) geliştirmek amaçlanmıştır. 1-31 Ekim 2018 tarihleri arasında Kütahya ilinde yer alan okullarda yapılan kesitsel bir çalışmadır. Kırsal ve kentsel bölgelerden seçilen okullarda, 5 bina ve 42 sınıf iç ortamında sıcaklık, nem, PM2.5 ve PM10 ve CO2 ölçümleri yapılmıştır. İHKİ; PM2.5, PM10 ve CO2 değerlerinin DSÖ kriterlerine bölünüp aritmetik ortalaması alınarak hesaplandı. Sıcaklık ve nem ölçümleri normal değerler arasında olduğundan hesaplamaya katılmadı. İHKİ yükseldikçe İHK kötü olarak yorumlanmaktadır. Ölçümsel verilerin değerlendirmesinde ortalama, ortanca ve standart sapma değerleri, ilişki için Spearman korelasyon analizi kullanıldı. İHKİ ortalaması 4,85 ± 1,63 idi. İHKİ kentsel bölgede yer alan okulda kırsal alana göre daha kötü saptandı (p=0,024). İHKİ ile sınıfların hacimleri (metreküpü) arasında korelasyon bulunamazken (r=0,156 - p=0,331), sınıf mevcudu arttıkça İHKİ’nin kötüleştiği (r=0,384 - p=0,013) saptandı. Çalışmamızda İHKİ değeri, kentsel bölgede ve mevcudu fazla olan sınıflarda daha yüksek olarak bulundu. Çalışmamızda iç ortam havasındaki PM ve CO2 değerleri kullanılarak İHKİ hesabı yapıldığından, farklı iç ortamlarda biyolojik ve kimyasal kirletici parametrelerin dahil edilerek hesaplama yapılmasının daha yararlı olacağı söylenebilir.
  • 1. ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2013. Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality: American Society of heating, refrigerating and air conditioning engineers, Atlanta, GA; 2013.
  • 2. Babaroğlu A. Anaokullarında iç ortam hava kalitesi. Tesisat Mühendisliği Derg. 2015;23(150):5–12.
  • 3. Morawska L, Ayoko GA, Bae GN, Buonanno G, Chao CYH, Clifford S, et al. Airborne particles in indoor environment of homes, schools, offices and aged care facilities: The main routes of exposure. Environment International. 2017;108:75-83.
  • 4. Chen F, Lin Z, Chen R, Norback D, Liu C, Kan H, et al. The effects of PM 2.5 on asthmatic and allergic diseases or symptoms in preschool children of six Chinese cities, based on China, Children, Homes and Health (CCHH) project. Environ Pollut. 2018;232:329–37.
  • 5. Hou Y, Liu J, Li J. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Primary School Classrooms. Procedia Eng. 2015;121:830–7.
  • 6. Kiray M, Sisman AR, Camsari UM, Evren M, Dayi A, Baykara B, et al. Effects of carbon dioxide exposure on early brain development in rats. Biotech Histochem. 2014;89(5):371–83.
  • 7. Ramalho O, Wyart G, Mandin C, Blondeau P, Cabanes PA, Leclerc N, et al. Association of carbon dioxide with indoor air pollutants and exceedance of health guideline values. Build Environ. 2015;93(P1):115–24.
  • 8. Myhrvold AN, Olsen E, Lauridsen O. Indoor environment in schools-pupils health and performance in regard to CO2 concentrations. Indoor Air. 1996;96(4):369–71.
  • 9. Hava Kalitesi Değerlendirme ve Yönetimi Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, 2008 http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/06/20080606-6.htm (Erişim tarihi: 03.03.2020).
  • 10. Hava Kalitesi Değerlendirme ve Yönetimi Genelgesi. T.C. Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı, 2013. https://webdosya.csb.gov.tr/db/cygm/editordosya/GNG2013-37HavaKalitesiDegerl.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 03.03.2020).
  • 11. Mainka A, Zajusz-Zubek E. Indoor air quality in urban and rural preschools in upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate matter and carbon dioxide. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(7):7697–711.
  • 12. Wagdi D, Tarabieh K, Zeid MNA. Indoor air quality index for preoccupancy assessment. Air Qual Atmos Health. 2018;11:445-58.
  • 13. Öztürk B, Düzovalı G. Okullarda hava kirliliği ve sağlik etkileri. X Ulus Tesisat Mühendisliği Kongresi Bildir Kitabı. 2011;1715–23.
  • 14. Aydın D, Mıhlayanlar E. Yüksek Konut Yapılarında İç Ortam Kalitesinin İncelenmesi. Megaron. 2017;12(2).
  • 15. Kim J, De Dear R. How does occupant perception on specific IEQ factors affect overall satisfaction. In: 7th Windsor Conference: The changing context of comfort in an unpredictable world Cumberland Lodge. Windsor, UK; 2012. p. 12–5.
  • 16. Anderson JO, Thundiyil JG, Stolbach A. Clearing the Air: A Review of the Effects of Particulate Matter Air Pollution on Human Health. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2012;8(2):166-75.
  • 17. Branco PTBS, Alvim-Ferraz MCM, Martins FG, Sousa SIV. Quantifying indoor air quality determinants in urban and rural nursery and primary schools. Environ Res. 2019;176:108534.
  • 18. Hulin M, Annesi-Maesano I, Caillaud D. Indoor air quality at school and allergy and asthma among schoolchildren. Differences between rural and urban areas. Rev Fr Allergol. 2011;51(4):419–24.
  • 19. Yoon C, Lee K, Park D. Indoor air quality differences between urban and rural preschools in Korea. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2011;18(3):333–45.
  • 20. Błaszczyk E, Rogula-Kozłowska W, Klejnowski K, Kubiesa P, Fulara I, Mielżyńska-Švach D. Indoor air quality in urban and rural kindergartens: short-term studies in Silesia, Poland. Air Qual Atmos Heal. 2017;10(10):1207–20.
  • 21. Ferreira AM da C, Cardoso M. Indoor air quality and health in schools. J Bras Pneumol. 2014;40(3):259–68.
  • 22. Muscatiello N, Mccarthy A, Kielb C, Hsu WH, Hwang SA, Lin S. Classroom conditions and CO2 concentrations and teacher health symptom reporting in 10 New York State Schools. Indoor Air. 2015;25(2):157–67.
  • 23. Dorizas PV, Assimakopoulos MN, Santamouris M. A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187(5):1–18.
  • 24. Mendell MJ, Eliseeva EA, Davies MM, Lobscheid A. Do classroom ventilation rates in California elementary schools influence standardized test scores? Results from a prospective study. Indoor Air. 2016;26(4):546–57.
  • 25. Al-Hemoud A, Al-Awadi L, Al-Rashidi M, Rahman KA, Al-Khayat A, Behbehani W. Comparison of indoor air quality in schools: Urban vs. Industrial ‘oil & gas’ zones in Kuwait. Build Environ. 2017;122:50–60.
  • 26. Vornanen-Winqvist C, Toomla S, Ahmed K, Kurnitski J, Mikkola R, Salonen H. The effect of positive pressure on indoor air quality in a deeply renovated school building - A case study. Energy Procedia. 2017;132:165–70.
  • 27. Kalimeri KK, Saraga DE, Lazaridis VD, Legkas NA, Missia DA, Tolis EI, et al. Indoor air quality investigation of the school environment and estimated health risks: Two-season measurements in primary schools in Kozani, Greece. Atmos Pollut Res. 2016;7(6):1128–42.
  • 28. Yang J, Nam I, Yun H, Kim J, Oh HJ, Lee D, et al. Characteristics of indoor air quality at urban elementary schools in Seoul, Korea: Assessment of effect of surrounding environments. Atmos Pollut Res. 2015;6(6):1113–22.
  • 29. Chatzidiakou L, Mumovic D, Summerfield AJ, Hong SM, Altamirano-Medina H. A Victorian school and a low carbon designed school: Comparison of indoor air quality, energy performance, and student health. Indoor Built Environ. 2014;23(3):417–32.
  • 30. Babayiǧit MA, Bakir B, Tekbaş ÖF, Oǧur R, Kiliç A, Ulus S. Indoor air quality in primary schools in Keçiören, Ankara. Turkish J Med Sci. 2014;44(1):137–44.
  • 31. Madureira J, Paciência I, Ramos E, Barros H, Pereira C, Teixeira JP, et al. Children’s Health and Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools and Homes in Portugal—Study Design. J Toxicol Environ Heal Part A. 2015;78(13–14):915–30.
  • 32. Pegas PN, Alves CA, Evtyugina MG, Nunes T, Cerqueira M, Franchi M, et al. Indoor air quality in elementary schools of Lisbon in spring. Environ Geochem Health. 2011;33(5):455–68.
Birincil Dil tr
Konular Halk ve Çevre Sağlığı
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0001-5060-7722
Yazar: İnci ARIKAN
Kurum: KÜTAHYA SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, HALK SAĞLIĞI ANABİLİM DALI
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-7150-5933
Yazar: Ömer Faruk TEKİN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: KÜTAHYA SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, HALK SAĞLIĞI ANABİLİM DALI
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Başvuru Tarihi : 6 Mart 2020
Kabul Tarihi : 4 Mayıs 2020
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 18 Mayıs 2020

Vancouver Arıkan İ , Teki̇n Ö . PARTİKÜLER MADDE VE KARBONDİOKSİT İÇİN İÇ ORTAM HAVA KALİTESİ İNDEKSİ (İHKİ) HESAPLAMASI: OKUL ÖRNEĞİ / CALCULATION OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY INDEX (IAQI) FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND CARBONDIOXIDE: A SCHOOL SAMPLE. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2020; 188-195.