Araştırma Makalesi
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TÜRKİYE’DE COVID-19 AŞILAMA HIZI İLE SAĞLIĞIN SOSYAL BELİRLEYİCİLERİ ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 269 - 279, 04.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1028929

Öz

Araştırmanın amacı, il düzeyinde COVID-19 aşılama hızı ile eğitim, nüfus, sağlık, gelir göstergeleri arasındaki korelasyonu değerlendirmekti. Araştırma tanımlayıcı tip epidemiyolojik araştırmaydı. 81 ilin 18 yaş üstü birinci doz COVID-19 aşılama hızı verisi Türkiye Sağlık Bakanlığı COVID-19 Tablosu’ndan alındı. İllerin nüfus, ekonomi, eğitim ve sağlık durumuna ilişkin göstergeler Türkiye Sağlık Bakanlığı’nın 2019 yılı Sağlık İstatistikleri Yıllığı ve Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu’nun (TÜİK) resmi internet sitesinden elde edildi. Veri analizi için SPSS v.18 programı kullanıldı. COVID-19 aşılama hızı ile ilişkili değişkenler Spearman Korelasyon analizi ile değerlendirildi. p<0,05 ise anlamlı kabul edildi. Aşılama hızı ile 65 yaş nüfus oranı arasında pozitif yönde çok güçlü ilişki, (rs=0,710, p<0,001), ortalama hane halkı büyüklüğü ile negatif yönde çok güçlü ilişki vardı (rs=-0,848, p<0,001). Üniversite mezunu oranı ile aşılama hızı arasında pozitif yönde güçlü bir ilişki (rs=0,522, p<0,001) okuma yazma bilmeyen oranı ile aşılama hızı arasında negatif yönde güçlü ilişki (rs=-0,651, p<0,001) bulundu. Ortalama kazanç ve işsizlik oranı hariç, aşılama hızı ile bütün ekonomik göstergeler arasında güçlü veya çok güçlü ilişki bulundu. Sağlık göstergelerinden kişi başı hekime başvuru sayısı ile aşılama hızı arasında pozitif yönde güçlü ilişki vardı (rs=0,639, p<0,001). COVID-19 aşılama hızı bakımından iller arasında eşitsizlikler mevcuttu. Aşılama hızındaki eşitsizlikler sağlığın sosyal belirleyicileri ile ilişkiliydi.

Kaynakça

  • 1. World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard [Internet]. Geneva; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 13]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/
  • 2. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Turkey. Ministry of Health COVID-19 Vaccine İnformation Platform [Internet]. Ankara, Turkey; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 13] Available from: https://covid19asi.saglik.gov.tr/TR-77706/COVID-19-asisiulusal-uygulama stratejisi.html
  • 3. Kwok KO, Lai F, Wei WI, Wong SYS, Tang JWT. Herd immunity - estimating the level required to halt the COVID-19 epidemics in affected countries. J Infect. 2020;80(6):32-3 . doi::10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.027.
  • 4. Fontanet A, Cauchemez S. COVID-19 herd immunity: where are we? Nat Rev Immunol. 2020;20(10):583-4. doi:10.1038/s41577-020-00451-5.
  • 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19. Delta variant: What we know about the science [Internet]. Atlanta; 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 25]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/delta-variant.html
  • 6. Liu Y, Rocklöv J. The reproductive number of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is far higher compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus. J Travel Med. 2021;28(7). doi:10.1093/jtm/taab124.
  • 7. McBryde ES, Meehan MT, Caldwell JM, Adekunle AI, Ogunlade ST, Kuddus MA, et al. Modelling direct and herd protection effects of vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Australia. Med J Aust. 2021;215(9):427-32. doi:10.5694/ mja2.51263.
  • 8. Habersaat KB, Jackson C. Understanding vaccine acceptance and demand-and ways to increase them. Bundesgesundheitsblat Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2020;63(1):32-9. doi:10.1007/s00103-019-03063-0.
  • 9. Forchuk C, Dickins K, Corring DJ. Social Determinants of Health: Housing and Income. Healthc Q. 2016:27-31. doi:10.12927/hcq.2016.24479.
  • 10. Nagata JM, Hernández-Ramos I, Kurup AS, Albrecht D, Vivas-Torrealba C, Franco-Paredes C. Social determinants of health and seasonal influenza vaccination in adults ≥65 years: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative data. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:388. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-388.
  • 11. Arcaya MC, Arcaya AL, Subramanian SV. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories. Glob Health Action. 2015;8(1):27106. doi:10.3402/gha.v8.27106.
  • 12. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1054-62. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3.
  • 13. Gallo Marin B, Aghagoli G, Lavine K, Yang L, Siff EJ, Chiang SS, et al. Predictors of COVID-19 severity: a literature review. Rev Med Virol. 2021;31(1):1-10. doi:10.1002/rmv.2146.
  • 14. Jiménez-García R, Hernández-Barrera V, de Andres AL, Jimenez-Trujillo I, Esteban-Hernández J, Carrasco-Garrido P. Gender influence in influenza vaccine uptake in Spain: time trends analysis (1995-2006). Vaccine. 2010;28(38):6169-75. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.029.
  • 15. Machado A, Santos AJ, Kislaya I, Larrauri A, Nunes B. Understanding influenza vaccination among Portuguese elderly: the social ecological framework. Health Promot Int. 2020;35(6):1427-40. doi:10.1093/heapro/daaa011.
  • 16. Öztürk L. Türkiye’de illerin yoksulluk nedeni olarak toplam doğurganlık hızları: yatay kesit bir analiz, 1990-2000. Uludağ Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2022 Feb 10];31(1):193-210. Available from: http://www.uludag.edu.tr/ dosyalar/iibfdergi/genel-dokuman/2012_1/ASL09.pdf
  • 17. Başlevent C. Türkiye’nin değişen hanehalkı yapısı: tek kişilik haneler ne durumda? Yildiz Social Science Review. 2020;6(1):17-31. doi:10.51803/yssr.703188.
  • 18. Bono SA, Faria de Moura Villela E, Siau CS, Chen WS, Pengpid S, Hasan MT, et al. Factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine acceptance: an international survey among low- and middle-income countries. Vaccines. 2021;9(5):515. doi:10.3390/vaccines9050515.
  • 19. Glatman-Freedman A, Nichols K. The effect of social determinants on immunization programs. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8(3):293-301. doi:10.4161/hv.19003.
  • 20. Freimuth VS, Jamison AM, An J, Hancock GR, Quinn SC. Determinants of trust in the flu vaccine for African Americans and Whites. Soc Sci Med. 2017;193:70-9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.001.
  • 21. Leng A, Maitland E, Wang S, Nicholas S, Liu R, Wang J. Individual preferences for COVID-19 vaccination in China. Vaccine. 2021;39(2):247-54. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.009
  • 22. Viswanath K, Bekalu M, Dhawan D, Pinnamaneni R, Lang J, McLoud R. Individual and social determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):818. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10862-1.
  • 23. Al-Mohaithef M, Padhi BK. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Saudi Arabia: a web-based national survey. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2020;13:1657-63. doi:10.2147/JMDH.S276771.
  • 24. Thompson EL, Rosen BL, Maness SB. Social determinants of health and human papillomavirus vaccination among young adults, National Health Interview Survey 2016. J Community Health. 2019;44(1):149-58. doi:10.1007/s10900-018-0565-2.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COVID-19 VACCINATION RATE AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH IN TURKEY: A CORRELATION STUDY

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 269 - 279, 04.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1028929

Öz

The aim of the research was to evaluate the correlation between the COVID-19 vaccination rate and education, population, health, and income indicators at the provincial level. The study was a descriptive type of research. The first dose COVID-19 vaccination rate was taken from the Turkish Ministry of Health COVID-19 Table. Population, economic, education, and health indicators of the provinces were obtained from the 2019 Health Statistics Yearbook of the Turkish Ministry of Health and the official website of the Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). SPSS v.18 program was used for data analysis. Variables associated with the COVID-19 vaccination rate were evaluated by Spearman correlation analysis. p<0.05 was considered significant. There was a very strong positive correlation between the vaccination rate and the 65-year-old population ratio (rs=0.710, p<0.001), and a very strong negative correlation between the mean household size (rs=-0.848, p<0.001). There was a strong positive correlation (rs=0.522, p<0.001) between the rate of university graduates and the vaccination rate, and a strong negative correlation (rs=-0.651, p<0.001) between the rate of illiteracy and the vaccination rate. A strong or very strong relationship was found between vaccination rate and all economic indicators except average earnings and unemployment rate. There was a strong positive correlation between the number of visits to the physician per capita, one of the health indicators, and the vaccination rate (rs=0.639, p<0.001). There are inequalities between provinces in terms of the COVID-19 vaccination rate. Inequalities in vaccination rates are associated with social determinants of health.

Kaynakça

  • 1. World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard [Internet]. Geneva; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 13]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/
  • 2. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Turkey. Ministry of Health COVID-19 Vaccine İnformation Platform [Internet]. Ankara, Turkey; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 13] Available from: https://covid19asi.saglik.gov.tr/TR-77706/COVID-19-asisiulusal-uygulama stratejisi.html
  • 3. Kwok KO, Lai F, Wei WI, Wong SYS, Tang JWT. Herd immunity - estimating the level required to halt the COVID-19 epidemics in affected countries. J Infect. 2020;80(6):32-3 . doi::10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.027.
  • 4. Fontanet A, Cauchemez S. COVID-19 herd immunity: where are we? Nat Rev Immunol. 2020;20(10):583-4. doi:10.1038/s41577-020-00451-5.
  • 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19. Delta variant: What we know about the science [Internet]. Atlanta; 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 25]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/delta-variant.html
  • 6. Liu Y, Rocklöv J. The reproductive number of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is far higher compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus. J Travel Med. 2021;28(7). doi:10.1093/jtm/taab124.
  • 7. McBryde ES, Meehan MT, Caldwell JM, Adekunle AI, Ogunlade ST, Kuddus MA, et al. Modelling direct and herd protection effects of vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Australia. Med J Aust. 2021;215(9):427-32. doi:10.5694/ mja2.51263.
  • 8. Habersaat KB, Jackson C. Understanding vaccine acceptance and demand-and ways to increase them. Bundesgesundheitsblat Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2020;63(1):32-9. doi:10.1007/s00103-019-03063-0.
  • 9. Forchuk C, Dickins K, Corring DJ. Social Determinants of Health: Housing and Income. Healthc Q. 2016:27-31. doi:10.12927/hcq.2016.24479.
  • 10. Nagata JM, Hernández-Ramos I, Kurup AS, Albrecht D, Vivas-Torrealba C, Franco-Paredes C. Social determinants of health and seasonal influenza vaccination in adults ≥65 years: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative data. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:388. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-388.
  • 11. Arcaya MC, Arcaya AL, Subramanian SV. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories. Glob Health Action. 2015;8(1):27106. doi:10.3402/gha.v8.27106.
  • 12. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1054-62. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3.
  • 13. Gallo Marin B, Aghagoli G, Lavine K, Yang L, Siff EJ, Chiang SS, et al. Predictors of COVID-19 severity: a literature review. Rev Med Virol. 2021;31(1):1-10. doi:10.1002/rmv.2146.
  • 14. Jiménez-García R, Hernández-Barrera V, de Andres AL, Jimenez-Trujillo I, Esteban-Hernández J, Carrasco-Garrido P. Gender influence in influenza vaccine uptake in Spain: time trends analysis (1995-2006). Vaccine. 2010;28(38):6169-75. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.029.
  • 15. Machado A, Santos AJ, Kislaya I, Larrauri A, Nunes B. Understanding influenza vaccination among Portuguese elderly: the social ecological framework. Health Promot Int. 2020;35(6):1427-40. doi:10.1093/heapro/daaa011.
  • 16. Öztürk L. Türkiye’de illerin yoksulluk nedeni olarak toplam doğurganlık hızları: yatay kesit bir analiz, 1990-2000. Uludağ Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2022 Feb 10];31(1):193-210. Available from: http://www.uludag.edu.tr/ dosyalar/iibfdergi/genel-dokuman/2012_1/ASL09.pdf
  • 17. Başlevent C. Türkiye’nin değişen hanehalkı yapısı: tek kişilik haneler ne durumda? Yildiz Social Science Review. 2020;6(1):17-31. doi:10.51803/yssr.703188.
  • 18. Bono SA, Faria de Moura Villela E, Siau CS, Chen WS, Pengpid S, Hasan MT, et al. Factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine acceptance: an international survey among low- and middle-income countries. Vaccines. 2021;9(5):515. doi:10.3390/vaccines9050515.
  • 19. Glatman-Freedman A, Nichols K. The effect of social determinants on immunization programs. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8(3):293-301. doi:10.4161/hv.19003.
  • 20. Freimuth VS, Jamison AM, An J, Hancock GR, Quinn SC. Determinants of trust in the flu vaccine for African Americans and Whites. Soc Sci Med. 2017;193:70-9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.001.
  • 21. Leng A, Maitland E, Wang S, Nicholas S, Liu R, Wang J. Individual preferences for COVID-19 vaccination in China. Vaccine. 2021;39(2):247-54. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.009
  • 22. Viswanath K, Bekalu M, Dhawan D, Pinnamaneni R, Lang J, McLoud R. Individual and social determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):818. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10862-1.
  • 23. Al-Mohaithef M, Padhi BK. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Saudi Arabia: a web-based national survey. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2020;13:1657-63. doi:10.2147/JMDH.S276771.
  • 24. Thompson EL, Rosen BL, Maness SB. Social determinants of health and human papillomavirus vaccination among young adults, National Health Interview Survey 2016. J Community Health. 2019;44(1):149-58. doi:10.1007/s10900-018-0565-2.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Halk ve Çevre Sağlığı
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Güliz AYDEMİR ACAR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Niğde Provincial Health Directorate, Niğde, Turkey
0000-0002-8170-4530
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 4 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 26 Kasım 2021
Kabul Tarihi 8 Şubat 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Aydemir Acar G. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COVID-19 VACCINATION RATE AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH IN TURKEY: A CORRELATION STUDY. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2022; 7(2): 269-279.

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