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EVALUATION OF READABILITY AND CONTENT OF TEXTS ON AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 291 - 300, 04.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1035882

Öz

Informative texts on the websites may make positive contributions to patient-physician communication and patients' compliance. The readability and comprehensibility of the information resources on the Internet is as important as the content, accuracy, and reliability. Access to accurate and understandable resources for individuals who want to learn about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will play an important role in the management of ASD. In our study, it was aimed to
evaluate the contents and readability of information texts presented on Turkish websites about ASD. A total of 400 websites were evaluated in Google search using the keywords "autism, autism spectrum disorder, autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder". The average readability level was analyzed using the Ateşman and Bezirci-Yılmaz readability formulas. The text contents were divided into two groups "websites prepared by healthcare professionals" and "websites prepared by non-health professionals" and compared. Forty-three websites were eligible for evaluation. The readability level of the websites is “difficult” according to the Ateşman formula; According to the Bezirci-Yılmaz formula, it was found to be "undergraduate level". The percentage of content of all evaluated websites (n=43) was found to be 65.12±22.71. The content percentage of the websites prepared by health professionals was 81.18±19.32, and the content percentage of websites prepared by non-healthcare professionals was 42.00±3.94 (p=0.001). Access to health information on the Internet has a critical value for individuals with chronic diseases and their families. Early diagnosis of children with ASD and access to early intensive intervention have an important place in the prognosis of the disorder. The readability and comprehensibility of the texts on websites, which are the first source of reference for most families, may contribute to the management.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Association AP. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Pub, 2013.
  • 2. Maenner MJ, Shaw KA, Baio J, Washington A, Patrick M, DiRienzo M et al. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2016. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2020;69(4):1-12.
  • 3. Fuentes J, Bakare M, Munir K, Aguayo P, Gaddour N, Öner Ö, Mercadante M. Autism spectrum disorders. IACAPAP e-textbook of child and adolescent mental health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions. 2012;1-27.
  • 4. Intenet live stats. [cited 2021 May 27]. Available from: https://www.ilivestats. com/
  • 5. Hanehalkı Bilişim Teknolojileri (BT) Kullanım Araştırması, [cited 2021 May 10]. Available from: https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33679
  • 6. Yilmaz E. Türkiye’de hastaların internet tıbbi enformasyon arama davranışlarının doktor-hasta iletişimine etkileri. Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Derg. 2014;20(3):93-108.
  • 7. Görkemli HN. Sağlik iletişiminde internet kullanimi üzerine bir araştirma. The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication. 2017;7(1):122-38.
  • 8. Cocco AM, Zordan R, Taylor DM, Weiland TJ, Dilley SJ, Kant J, et al. Dr Google in the ED: searching for online health information by adult emergency department patients. Med J Aust. 2018;209(8):342-7.
  • 9. Ritterband LM, Thorndike FP, Cox DJ, Kovatchev BP, Gonder-Frederick LA. A behavior change model for internet interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2009;38(1):18-27.
  • 10. Fahy E, Hardikar R, Fox A, Mackay S. Quality of patient health information on the Internet: reviewing a complex and evolving landscape. Australas Med J. 2014;7(1):24-8.
  • 11. Goldbort R. Readable writing by scientists and researchers. J Environ Health. 2001;63(8):40.
  • 12. Friedman DB, Hoffman-Goetz L. A systematic review of readability and comprehension instruments used for print and web-based cancer information. Health Educ Behav. 2006;33(3):352-73.
  • 13. Ateşman E. Measuring readability in Turkish. AU Tömer Language Journal. 1997;58(2):171-4.
  • 14. Bezirci B, Yılmaz A. A software library for measurement of readability of texts and a new readability metric for Turkish. DEÜ FMD. 2010;12(3):49-62.
  • 15. Flesch R. A new readability yardstick. J Appl Psychol. 1948;32(3):221-233.
  • 16. Borges do Nascimento IJ, Cacic N, Abdulazeem HM, Von Groote TC, Jayarajah U, Weerasekara I, et al. Novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in humans: a scoping review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med. 2020;9(4):941.
  • 17. Le HT, Nguyen DN, Beydoun AS, Le XTT, Nguyen TT, Pham QT, et al. Demand for health information on COVID-19 among Vietnamese. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(12):4377.
  • 18. Szmuda T, Özdemir C, Ali S, Singh A, Syed MT, Słoniewski P. Readability of online patient education material for the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a cross-sectional health literacy study. Public Health. 2020;185:21-5.
  • 19. Jayasinghe R, Ranasinghe S, Jayarajah U, Seneviratne S. Quality of online information for the general public on COVID-19. Patient Educ and Couns. 2020;103(12):2594-7.
  • 20. Mishra V, Dexter JP. Comparison of Readability of Official Public Health Information About COVID-19 on Websites of International Agencies and the Governments of 15 Countries. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2018033-e.
  • 21. Bujnowska-Fedak MM. Trends in the use of the Internet for health purposes in Poland. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):1-17.
  • 22. Orinstein AJ, Helt M, Troyb E, Tyson KE, Barton ML, Eigsti IM, et al. Intervention for optimal outcome in children and adolescents with a history of autism. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014;35(4):247-256.
  • 23. DuBay WH. The Principles of Readability. Online Submission. 2004.
  • 24. Chall J. Readibility: The Beginning Years. Editors. Zakaluk B, Samuels SJ. International Reading Association Inc. 1988:3-4.
  • 25. Aksoy N, Kozanhan B, Eryilmaz MA, Tutar MS. Assessment of the readability of patient education materials regarding breast cancer on websites. Fam Pract Palliat Care. 2019;4(1):25-30.
  • 26. Bağcı Z, Kozanhan B, Tutar MS. Readability of patient education texts presented on the internet related to vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019;14(04):180-5.
  • 27. Kara A. Evaluation of the readability of online texts related with autism spectrum disorder. Exp Biomed Res. 2019;2(4):136-42.
  • 28. Kara A, Polat H. Assessment of the readability of online texts related to specific learning disorder. Med-Science. 2020;9(1):114-7.
  • 29. Kozanhan B, Tutar M. Readability of patient education texts presented on the internet in the field of anesthesiology. Turkiye Klinikleri J Anest Reanim. 2017;15(2):63-70.
  • 30. Cline RJ, Haynes KM. Consumer health information seeking on the Internet: the state of the art. Health Educ Res. 2001;16(6):671-92.
  • 31. Tekin A, Ersin K, Demirel M, Özbek Yazıcı S. Güçlendirme bağlamında internetin hasta-hekim ilişkilerine etkisi. Selçuk İletişim. 2009;6(1):23-36.
  • 32. Lagan BM, Sinclair M, Kernohan WG. A web-based survey of midwives’ perceptions of women using the Internet in pregnancy: a global phenomenon. Midwifery. 2011;27(2):273-81.
  • 33. Iverson SA, Howard KB, Penney BK. Impact of internet use on health-related behaviors and the patient-physician relationship: a survey-based study and review. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008;108(12):699.
  • 34. AlGhamdi KM, Moussa NA. Internet use by the public to search for health-related information. Int J Med Inform. 2012;81(6):363-73.
  • 35. Ajuwon GA Popoola SO. Influence of motivational factors on utilisation of Internet health information resources by resident doctors in Nigeria. The Electron. Libr. 2015;33(1):103-19.
  • 36. Kurtzman ET, Greene J. Effective presentation of health care performance information for consumer decision making: A systematic review. Patient Educ Couns. 2016;99(1):36-43.
  • 37. Barro RLJ. Educational Attainment Dataset. [cited 2021 May 10]. Available from: http://www.barrolee.com

OTİZM SPEKTRUM BOZUKLUĞU İLE İLGİLİ METİNLERİN OKUNABİLİRLİĞİNİN VE İÇERİĞİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 291 - 300, 04.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35232/estudamhsd.1035882

Öz

İnternet sitelerindeki bilgilendirme metinlerinin hasta hekim iletişimine ve hastaların tedaviye uyumuna olumlu katkılar sağlayabileceği bildirilmektedir. İnternetteki bilgi kaynaklarının içeriği, doğruluğu ve güvenilirliği kadar kullanıcılar tarafından okunabilirliği ve anlaşılabilirliği de önemlidir. Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu (OSB) son yıllarda görülme sıklığı gittikçe artan bir halk sağlığı sorunu olduğundan bu alanda bilgi edinmek isteyen bireylerin doğru ve anlaşılabilir kaynaklara ulaşması OSB’nin yönetiminde önemli bir rol alacaktır. Çalışmamızda OSB ile ilgili olarak Türkçe internet sitelerinde sunulan hasta bilgilendirme metinlerinin içeriklerinin ve okunabilirlik düzeylerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. İnternet arama motoru Google’da “Otizm, Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu, Otistik Bozukluk, Yaygın Gelişimsel Bozukluk” anahtar kelimeleri kullanılarak yapılan aramada ulaşılan toplam 400 internet sitesi değerlendirmeye alındı. Ateşman ve Bezirci-Yılmaz okunabilirlik formülleri kullanılarak ortalama okunabilirlik düzeyi analiz edildi. Metin içerikleri ‘’Sağlık çalışanları tarafından hazırlanan internet siteleri’’ ve ‘’sağlık çalışanı olmayanlar tarafından hazırlanan internet Siteleri’’ olarak iki gruba ayrılıp karşılaştırıldı. 43 internet sitesi değerlendirme için uygun bulundu. İnternet sitelerinin okunabilirlik düzeyi Ateşman formülüne göre “zor”; Bezirci-Yılmaz formülüne göre ise “lisans düzeyinde” olduğu saptandı. Değerlendirilen tüm internet sitelerinin (n=43) içerik yüzdesi 65,12±22,71 olarak bulundu. Sağlık çalışanları tarafından hazırlanan internet siteleri içerik yüzdesi 81,18±19,32, sağlık çalışanı olmayanlar tarafından hazırlanan internet siteler içerik yüzdesi ise 42,00±3,94 olarak tespit edildi. Sağlık enformasyonuna internet üzerinden erişim, kronik hastalığı olan bireyler ve onların yakınları açısından da kritik değere sahiptir. OSB’li çocukların erken teşhis edilmesi ve erken yoğun müdahaleye ulaşabilmesi hastalığın prognozunda önemli bir yere sahiptir. Bu alanda çoğu ailenin ilk başvuru kaynağı olan internet sitelerindeki metinlerin okunabilir, anlaşılabilir ve hastalıkla ilgili temel bilgileri içermesi OSB’nin prognozuna olumlu katkı sağlayabilir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Association AP. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Pub, 2013.
  • 2. Maenner MJ, Shaw KA, Baio J, Washington A, Patrick M, DiRienzo M et al. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2016. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2020;69(4):1-12.
  • 3. Fuentes J, Bakare M, Munir K, Aguayo P, Gaddour N, Öner Ö, Mercadante M. Autism spectrum disorders. IACAPAP e-textbook of child and adolescent mental health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions. 2012;1-27.
  • 4. Intenet live stats. [cited 2021 May 27]. Available from: https://www.ilivestats. com/
  • 5. Hanehalkı Bilişim Teknolojileri (BT) Kullanım Araştırması, [cited 2021 May 10]. Available from: https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33679
  • 6. Yilmaz E. Türkiye’de hastaların internet tıbbi enformasyon arama davranışlarının doktor-hasta iletişimine etkileri. Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Derg. 2014;20(3):93-108.
  • 7. Görkemli HN. Sağlik iletişiminde internet kullanimi üzerine bir araştirma. The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication. 2017;7(1):122-38.
  • 8. Cocco AM, Zordan R, Taylor DM, Weiland TJ, Dilley SJ, Kant J, et al. Dr Google in the ED: searching for online health information by adult emergency department patients. Med J Aust. 2018;209(8):342-7.
  • 9. Ritterband LM, Thorndike FP, Cox DJ, Kovatchev BP, Gonder-Frederick LA. A behavior change model for internet interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2009;38(1):18-27.
  • 10. Fahy E, Hardikar R, Fox A, Mackay S. Quality of patient health information on the Internet: reviewing a complex and evolving landscape. Australas Med J. 2014;7(1):24-8.
  • 11. Goldbort R. Readable writing by scientists and researchers. J Environ Health. 2001;63(8):40.
  • 12. Friedman DB, Hoffman-Goetz L. A systematic review of readability and comprehension instruments used for print and web-based cancer information. Health Educ Behav. 2006;33(3):352-73.
  • 13. Ateşman E. Measuring readability in Turkish. AU Tömer Language Journal. 1997;58(2):171-4.
  • 14. Bezirci B, Yılmaz A. A software library for measurement of readability of texts and a new readability metric for Turkish. DEÜ FMD. 2010;12(3):49-62.
  • 15. Flesch R. A new readability yardstick. J Appl Psychol. 1948;32(3):221-233.
  • 16. Borges do Nascimento IJ, Cacic N, Abdulazeem HM, Von Groote TC, Jayarajah U, Weerasekara I, et al. Novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in humans: a scoping review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med. 2020;9(4):941.
  • 17. Le HT, Nguyen DN, Beydoun AS, Le XTT, Nguyen TT, Pham QT, et al. Demand for health information on COVID-19 among Vietnamese. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(12):4377.
  • 18. Szmuda T, Özdemir C, Ali S, Singh A, Syed MT, Słoniewski P. Readability of online patient education material for the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a cross-sectional health literacy study. Public Health. 2020;185:21-5.
  • 19. Jayasinghe R, Ranasinghe S, Jayarajah U, Seneviratne S. Quality of online information for the general public on COVID-19. Patient Educ and Couns. 2020;103(12):2594-7.
  • 20. Mishra V, Dexter JP. Comparison of Readability of Official Public Health Information About COVID-19 on Websites of International Agencies and the Governments of 15 Countries. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2018033-e.
  • 21. Bujnowska-Fedak MM. Trends in the use of the Internet for health purposes in Poland. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):1-17.
  • 22. Orinstein AJ, Helt M, Troyb E, Tyson KE, Barton ML, Eigsti IM, et al. Intervention for optimal outcome in children and adolescents with a history of autism. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014;35(4):247-256.
  • 23. DuBay WH. The Principles of Readability. Online Submission. 2004.
  • 24. Chall J. Readibility: The Beginning Years. Editors. Zakaluk B, Samuels SJ. International Reading Association Inc. 1988:3-4.
  • 25. Aksoy N, Kozanhan B, Eryilmaz MA, Tutar MS. Assessment of the readability of patient education materials regarding breast cancer on websites. Fam Pract Palliat Care. 2019;4(1):25-30.
  • 26. Bağcı Z, Kozanhan B, Tutar MS. Readability of patient education texts presented on the internet related to vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019;14(04):180-5.
  • 27. Kara A. Evaluation of the readability of online texts related with autism spectrum disorder. Exp Biomed Res. 2019;2(4):136-42.
  • 28. Kara A, Polat H. Assessment of the readability of online texts related to specific learning disorder. Med-Science. 2020;9(1):114-7.
  • 29. Kozanhan B, Tutar M. Readability of patient education texts presented on the internet in the field of anesthesiology. Turkiye Klinikleri J Anest Reanim. 2017;15(2):63-70.
  • 30. Cline RJ, Haynes KM. Consumer health information seeking on the Internet: the state of the art. Health Educ Res. 2001;16(6):671-92.
  • 31. Tekin A, Ersin K, Demirel M, Özbek Yazıcı S. Güçlendirme bağlamında internetin hasta-hekim ilişkilerine etkisi. Selçuk İletişim. 2009;6(1):23-36.
  • 32. Lagan BM, Sinclair M, Kernohan WG. A web-based survey of midwives’ perceptions of women using the Internet in pregnancy: a global phenomenon. Midwifery. 2011;27(2):273-81.
  • 33. Iverson SA, Howard KB, Penney BK. Impact of internet use on health-related behaviors and the patient-physician relationship: a survey-based study and review. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008;108(12):699.
  • 34. AlGhamdi KM, Moussa NA. Internet use by the public to search for health-related information. Int J Med Inform. 2012;81(6):363-73.
  • 35. Ajuwon GA Popoola SO. Influence of motivational factors on utilisation of Internet health information resources by resident doctors in Nigeria. The Electron. Libr. 2015;33(1):103-19.
  • 36. Kurtzman ET, Greene J. Effective presentation of health care performance information for consumer decision making: A systematic review. Patient Educ Couns. 2016;99(1):36-43.
  • 37. Barro RLJ. Educational Attainment Dataset. [cited 2021 May 10]. Available from: http://www.barrolee.com

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Halk ve Çevre Sağlığı
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Abdullah BOZKURT> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erzurum, Turkey
0000-0002-8359-6131
Türkiye


Berkan ŞAHİN>
Giresun University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Giresun, Turkey
0000-0003-4699-3418
Türkiye


Zafer BAĞCI>
Health Sciences University Konya City Hospital, Konya, Turkey
0000-0003-4776-7236
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 4 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 14 Aralık 2021
Kabul Tarihi 28 Şubat 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Bozkurt A. , Şahin B. , Bağcı Z. EVALUATION OF READABILITY AND CONTENT OF TEXTS ON AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2022; 7(2): 291-300.

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