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Urban Management and Women from Jane Addams’ Perspective

Yıl 2018, Cilt 10, Sayı 2, 164 - 174, 01.06.2018

Öz

Social centers settlement houses are social reform institutions which were established in the 19th Century USA, in a period when the social, cultural and political turmoil caused by the industrial developments in the city life were tried to be comprehended and taken under control. The target group of these institutions that were actively run by women was the immigrants and the poor working class who were seen as the cause of problems encountered in the city life. For women settlement houses shined out as institutions where they were the most visible in the public sphere in accordance with their gender’s roles under the conditions of the time. One of the settlement houses where well-educated and upper class women actively played a part was Hull House of which Jane Addams was one of the founders. Established in 1889 in a poor neighborhood of Chicago, Hull House was one of the earliest steps of women’s transformation into the actors of the public sphere with their initiatives regarding the organization of city life. The Hull House experience is the subject matter of this essay from this aspect. In this context, the contributions of activities conducted by Addams and the other voluntary residents in Hull House to the transformation of women into the actors of the public sphere and overcoming the gender barriers in the 19th century in the USA will be discussed

Kaynakça

  • Addams, Jane. “The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements,” Philanthropy and Social Progress ed. Henry C. Adams (NewYork: Thomas Y. Cromwell, 1893), 1–26.
  • Addams, Jane. “The Modern City and The Municipal Franchise for Women,” NAWSA Convention, Baltimore, Maryland,7-13 Şubat,1906 https://archive.org/stream/moderncitymunici00adda#page/n1/mode/2up
  • Addams, Jane. “Woman’s Conscience and Social Amelioration,” The Social Application of Religion, The Merrick Lectures for 1907-8 (Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham, 1908), 41-60.
  • Addams, Jane. “Why Women Should Vote,”Ladies Home Journal (1910): 21-22. http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1915janeadams-vote.html
  • Addams, Jane. “If Men Were Seeking the Franchise,” Ladies Home Journal (1913): 5s. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text12/addams.pdf
  • Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1990 [1910])
  • Addams, Jane. “Bread Givers,” Junior Class Oration, Daily Register (Rockford, 21 Nisan 1880) Jane Addams: Progressive Pioneer of Peace, Philosophy, Sociology, Social Work and Public Administration ed. Patricia Shields (Cham: Springer, 2017), 91-92.
  • Baker, Paula. “The Domestication of Politics: Women and American Political Society, 1780-1920,” American Historical Review 89,(1984): 620-647.
  • Bedell, Leila G. “A Chicago Toynbee Hall,” [Boston] Woman’s Journal 20, no. 21 (1889): 162. Commager, Henry Steele. “Jane Addams: 1860-1960,” The Satuday Review (December 24, 1960): 26-27. https://www.unz.org/Pub/SaturdayRev-1960dec24-00026?View=PDF
  • Curti, Merle. “Jane Addams on Human Nature,” Journal of the History of Ideas 22, no. 2 (1961): 40-253.
  • Davis, Allen F. “Jane Addams and American Urban Reform,” Revista de Estudios Norteamericanos, no 4 (1996): 29 – 35.
  • Deegan, Mary Jo. “An American Dream: The Historical Connections Between Women, Humanism, and Sociology, 1890-1920,” Humanity and Society 27, no. 3 (2003): 378-389.
  • Gittell, Marilyn ve Shtob, Teresa. “Changing Women's Roles in Political Volunteerism and Reform of the City,” Signs 5, no. 3(1980): 67-78. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3173807
  • Goldman, Emma. Living My Life. (Two Volumes in One). (New York: Cosimo, Inc., (1931) 2011)
  • Haggard, Robert F. The Persistence of Victorian Liberalism:The Politics of Social Reform in Britain, 1870-1900 (Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001)
  • Hamington, Maurice. “Intoduction,” Feminist Interpretations of Jane Addams ed. Maurice Hamington (University Park: Penn State Press, 2010), 1-28.
  • Hamington, Maurice. “Jane Addams,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ed. Edward N. Zalta(Fall 2014 Edition)https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/addams-jane/
  • Jackson, Shannon “Civic Play-Housekeeping: Gender, Theatre, and American Reform,” Theatre Journal 48, no. 3 (1996): 337-361. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3209043
  • Knawa, Anne Marie. “Jane Addams and Josephine Dudzik: Social Service Pioneers,” Polish American Studies 35, no. 1/2 (1978): 13- 22.
  • Knight, Louise W. “Jane Addams and Hull House: Historical Lessons on Nonprofit Leadership,” Nonprofit Management & Leadership 2, no. 2 (1991):125-141.
  • Knight, Louise W. “An Authoritative Voice: Jane Addams and the Oratorical Tradition,” Gender&History 10, no.2 (1998): 217-251.
  • Knight, Louise W. Jane Addams: Eylemci Bir Ruh (İstanbul: Ayizi Kitap, 2014)
  • Leffers, M. Regina. “Pragmatists Jane Addams and John Dewey Inform the Ethic of Care,” Hypatia 8, no. 2, (1993): 64-77. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810337
  • Perry, Elisabeth Israels. “Men Are from the Gilded Age, Women Are from the Progressive Era,” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 1, no. 1 (2002): 25-48. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25144284
  • Phillips, J. O. C., “The Education of Jane Addams,” History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 1, (1974): 49-67. http://www.jstor.org/stable/367605.
  • Sarvasy, Wendy. “Social Citizenship from a Feminist Perspective,” Hypatia 12, No. 4 (1997): 54-73. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810733.
  • Schott, Linda. “Jane Addams and William James on Alternatives to War,” Journal of the History of Ideas 54, No. 2 (1993): 241-254. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2709981
  • Shields, Patricia, ed. Jane Addams: Progressive Pioneer of Peace, Philosophy, Sociology, Social Work and Public Administration (Cham: Springer, 2017)
  • Sklar, Kathryn Kish. “Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reformers,” Signs 10, No. 4 (1985): 658-677. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3174308
  • Sklar, Kathryn Kish. “ ‘Some of Us Who Deal with the Social Fabric’: Jane Addams Blends Peace and Social Justice, 1907-1919,” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2, no. 1 (2003): 80-96. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25144318
  • Stewart, Jane A. “The Notable Career of Julia Lathrop,” The Journal of Education 94, no. 17 (2353) (1921): 465.

Jane Addams’ın Perspektifinden Kent Yönetimi ve Kadınlar

Yıl 2018, Cilt 10, Sayı 2, 164 - 174, 01.06.2018

Öz

Toplum merkezleri yerleşim evleri , on dokuzuncu yüzyıl Amerika’sında endüstriyel gelişmelerin kent yaşamında yarattığı sosyal, kültürel ve politik çalkantıların kavranmaya ve kontrol altına alınmaya çalışıldığı bir dönemde kurulmuş olan toplumsal reform amaçlı kurumlardır. Kadınların aktif olduğu bu kurumların hedef kitlesi, kent yaşamında yaşanan sorunların kaynağı olarak görülen göçmenler ve fakir işçi sınıfıdır. Kadınlar için toplum merkezleri, günün koşullarında toplumsal cinsiyet rollerinin belirleyiciliğinde, kamusal alanda en görünür olabildikleri kurumlar olarak öne çıkar. İyi eğitimli ve üst sınıf kadınların aktif rol üstlendiği toplum merkezlerinden biri de, kurucuları arasında Jane Addams’ın bulunduğu Hull House’dur. 1889’da, Chicago’nun yoksul bir mahallesinde kurulan Hull House, kent yaşamının düzenlenmesine ilişkin girişimleriyle ABD’de kadınların kamusal alanın aktörlerine dönüşmelerinin en erken adımlarından biriydi. Hull House deneyimi bu yönüyle bu çalışmanın konusudur. Bu bağlamda, Addams’ın diğer gönüllü sakinlerle birlikte Hull House’da yürüttüğü faaliyetlerin, ABD’de kadınların on dokuzuncu yüzyılda toplumsal cinsiyet bariyerlerinin aşılarak kamusal alanın aktörlerine dönüşmelerine katkısı ele alınacaktır

Kaynakça

  • Addams, Jane. “The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements,” Philanthropy and Social Progress ed. Henry C. Adams (NewYork: Thomas Y. Cromwell, 1893), 1–26.
  • Addams, Jane. “The Modern City and The Municipal Franchise for Women,” NAWSA Convention, Baltimore, Maryland,7-13 Şubat,1906 https://archive.org/stream/moderncitymunici00adda#page/n1/mode/2up
  • Addams, Jane. “Woman’s Conscience and Social Amelioration,” The Social Application of Religion, The Merrick Lectures for 1907-8 (Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham, 1908), 41-60.
  • Addams, Jane. “Why Women Should Vote,”Ladies Home Journal (1910): 21-22. http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1915janeadams-vote.html
  • Addams, Jane. “If Men Were Seeking the Franchise,” Ladies Home Journal (1913): 5s. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text12/addams.pdf
  • Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1990 [1910])
  • Addams, Jane. “Bread Givers,” Junior Class Oration, Daily Register (Rockford, 21 Nisan 1880) Jane Addams: Progressive Pioneer of Peace, Philosophy, Sociology, Social Work and Public Administration ed. Patricia Shields (Cham: Springer, 2017), 91-92.
  • Baker, Paula. “The Domestication of Politics: Women and American Political Society, 1780-1920,” American Historical Review 89,(1984): 620-647.
  • Bedell, Leila G. “A Chicago Toynbee Hall,” [Boston] Woman’s Journal 20, no. 21 (1889): 162. Commager, Henry Steele. “Jane Addams: 1860-1960,” The Satuday Review (December 24, 1960): 26-27. https://www.unz.org/Pub/SaturdayRev-1960dec24-00026?View=PDF
  • Curti, Merle. “Jane Addams on Human Nature,” Journal of the History of Ideas 22, no. 2 (1961): 40-253.
  • Davis, Allen F. “Jane Addams and American Urban Reform,” Revista de Estudios Norteamericanos, no 4 (1996): 29 – 35.
  • Deegan, Mary Jo. “An American Dream: The Historical Connections Between Women, Humanism, and Sociology, 1890-1920,” Humanity and Society 27, no. 3 (2003): 378-389.
  • Gittell, Marilyn ve Shtob, Teresa. “Changing Women's Roles in Political Volunteerism and Reform of the City,” Signs 5, no. 3(1980): 67-78. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3173807
  • Goldman, Emma. Living My Life. (Two Volumes in One). (New York: Cosimo, Inc., (1931) 2011)
  • Haggard, Robert F. The Persistence of Victorian Liberalism:The Politics of Social Reform in Britain, 1870-1900 (Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001)
  • Hamington, Maurice. “Intoduction,” Feminist Interpretations of Jane Addams ed. Maurice Hamington (University Park: Penn State Press, 2010), 1-28.
  • Hamington, Maurice. “Jane Addams,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ed. Edward N. Zalta(Fall 2014 Edition)https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/addams-jane/
  • Jackson, Shannon “Civic Play-Housekeeping: Gender, Theatre, and American Reform,” Theatre Journal 48, no. 3 (1996): 337-361. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3209043
  • Knawa, Anne Marie. “Jane Addams and Josephine Dudzik: Social Service Pioneers,” Polish American Studies 35, no. 1/2 (1978): 13- 22.
  • Knight, Louise W. “Jane Addams and Hull House: Historical Lessons on Nonprofit Leadership,” Nonprofit Management & Leadership 2, no. 2 (1991):125-141.
  • Knight, Louise W. “An Authoritative Voice: Jane Addams and the Oratorical Tradition,” Gender&History 10, no.2 (1998): 217-251.
  • Knight, Louise W. Jane Addams: Eylemci Bir Ruh (İstanbul: Ayizi Kitap, 2014)
  • Leffers, M. Regina. “Pragmatists Jane Addams and John Dewey Inform the Ethic of Care,” Hypatia 8, no. 2, (1993): 64-77. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810337
  • Perry, Elisabeth Israels. “Men Are from the Gilded Age, Women Are from the Progressive Era,” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 1, no. 1 (2002): 25-48. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25144284
  • Phillips, J. O. C., “The Education of Jane Addams,” History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 1, (1974): 49-67. http://www.jstor.org/stable/367605.
  • Sarvasy, Wendy. “Social Citizenship from a Feminist Perspective,” Hypatia 12, No. 4 (1997): 54-73. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810733.
  • Schott, Linda. “Jane Addams and William James on Alternatives to War,” Journal of the History of Ideas 54, No. 2 (1993): 241-254. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2709981
  • Shields, Patricia, ed. Jane Addams: Progressive Pioneer of Peace, Philosophy, Sociology, Social Work and Public Administration (Cham: Springer, 2017)
  • Sklar, Kathryn Kish. “Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reformers,” Signs 10, No. 4 (1985): 658-677. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3174308
  • Sklar, Kathryn Kish. “ ‘Some of Us Who Deal with the Social Fabric’: Jane Addams Blends Peace and Social Justice, 1907-1919,” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2, no. 1 (2003): 80-96. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25144318
  • Stewart, Jane A. “The Notable Career of Julia Lathrop,” The Journal of Education 94, no. 17 (2353) (1921): 465.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Tülay KAYA>
İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyoloji Bölümü

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Haziran 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 10, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Chicago Kaya, T. "Jane Addams’ın Perspektifinden Kent Yönetimi ve Kadınlar". Fe Dergi 10 (2018 ): 164-174