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Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması ve Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2018, Sayı: 643, 109 - 124, 01.09.2018

Öz

Yaratıcılığın ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki rolünün anlaşılmasıyla, yaratıcı ekonomi dikkat çeken bir konu haline gelmiştir ve ülkelerin politikalarında, stratejilerinde ve siyasi gündemlerinde yer almaya başlamıştır. Yaratıcı ekonomi, kısaca “yaratıcılığın temel girdi olarak kullanıldığı endüstrilerden oluşan bir ekonomi” şeklinde tanımlanabilir. Bir bölgedeki yaratıcı ekonominin etkililiğini ölçmek için de “yaratıcılık endeksi” adı verilen endeksler kullanılmaktadır. Bu endeksler, genel olarak, yetenek, teknoloji ve tolerans göstergelerinden oluşsa da, bölgesel ve ülkesel farklılıklar göstermektedir. Küresel Yaratıcılık Endeksi (The Global Creativity Index) ve Avrupa Yaratıcılık Endeksi (The European Creativity Index) bu endekslerin en çok bilinenleridir. Bu çalışmada da mevcut yaratıcılık endekslerinin girdi ve çıktı faktörleri altında belirlenen göstergeler çerçevesinde karşılaştırılması, endekslerin ortak özelliklerinin, zayıf ve güçlü yönlerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır

Kaynakça

  • ACS, Zoltan and Monika MEGYESI; (2009), “Creativity and Industrial Cities: A Case Study of Baltimore”, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 21(4), pp. 421–439. doi: 10.1080/08985620903020086
  • BOSCHMA, Ron and Michael FRITSCH; (2009), “Creative Class and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries”, Economic Geography, 85(49), pp. 391-423. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01048.x
  • BOWEN, Harry P., MOESEN, Wim and Leo, SLEUWAEGEN; (2006), “A Composite Index of the Creative Economy With Application to Regional Best Practices”. https://www.researchgate.net/ profile/Leo_Sleuwaegen/publication/23646745_A_composite_index_of_the_creative_economy_ with_application_to_regional_best_practices/links/55aa107c08aea3d0868052e1/A-composite- index-of-the-creative-economy-with-application-to-regional-best-practices.pdf, 30.03.2017
  • CORREIA, Carlos Miguel de Oliveira; (2012), Creative Indexes: Economic Space Matters?. Master degree dissertation in Economics,Universidade Do Porto.
  • CORREIA, Carlos Miguel and José da Silva COSTA; (2014), “Measuring Creativity in the EU Member States. Investigaciones Regionales”, 30, pp. 7-26.
  • CSÍKSZENTMIHÁLYI, Mihaly; (1999), Implications of a Systems Perspective for the Study of Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg, Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
  • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX-CCI. [Silicon Valley, 2002 and 2005], Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.
  • EFRAT, Kalanit, (2014), “The Direct and Indirect Impact of Culture on Innovation”, Technovation, 34(1), pp.12–20. doi: 10.1016/j.technovation.2013.08.003
  • EVERDINGEN, Yvonne M. van and WAARTS, Eric, (2003), “The Effect of National Culture on the Adoption of Innovations”, Marketing Letters, 14(3), pp.217-232. doi: 10.1023/A:102745291
  • FLORIDA, Richard; (2003), “Cities and the Creative Class”, City and Community, 2(1), pp. 3-19.
  • FLORIDA, Richard. (2005), Cities and the Creative Class. New York: Routledge.
  • FLORIDA, Richard., MELLANDER, Charlotta and Karen KING; (2015), The Global Creativity Index 2015. The Martin Prosperity Institute, University of Toronto Rotman School of Management.
  • FLORIDA, Richard., MELLANDER, Charlotta and Kevin M. STOLARICK; (2010), “Talent, Technology and Tolerance in Canadian Regional Development”, The Canadian Geographer, 54(3), pp. 277–304. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0064.2009.00293.x
  • HANSEN, Hİgni Kalsİ, ASHEIM, Bjİrn and Jan VANG; (2009), The European Creative Class and Regional Development: How Relevant Is Florida’s Theory for Europe?. In L., Kong, J. O’Connor, (Eds.), Creative Economies, Creative Cities: Asian-European Perspectives Vol. 98, pp.99-120, Springer: GeoJournal Library Series.
  • HARTLEY, John, POTTS, Jason, MACDONALD, Trent, ERKUNT, Chris and Carl KUFLEITNER; (2012), The ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCI). www.keanet.eu/report/measuringcreativity.pdf , 30.03.2017
  • HEALY, Kieran; (2002), “What’s New for Culture in the New Economy?”, The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 32(2), pp. 86-103. doi: 10.1080/10632920209596967
  • HERBIG, Paul and Steve, DUNPHY, (1998), “Culture and Innovation”, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 5(4), pp.13 – 21. doi: 10.1108/13527609810796844
  • HKCI, Hong Kong Creativity Index; (2004), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. A Study on Creativity Index. Erişim Tarihi: 28.03.2017, http://www.hab.gov.hk/file_manager/en/ documents/policy_responsibilities/arts_culture_recreation_and_sport/HKCI-InteriReport- printed.pdf
  • KAČERAUSKAS, Tomas; (2015), “The Indices of Creative Cities: The Global and Local Aspects”. European Journal of Social Sciences Education and Research, 4(1), pp. 95-100.
  • KEA European Affairs; (2009), The Impact of Culture on Creativity. A Study prepared for the European Commission. 16.04.2017, http://www.keanet.eu/docs/impactculturecreativityfull.pdf
  • KEA European Affairs; (2006), The Economy of Culture In Europe. Study prepared for the European Commission.16.04.2017,http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/culture/library/studies/cultural-economy_ en.pdf
  • KLOUDOVA, Jitka and Beata STEHLIKOVA; (2010), “Creativity Index For The Czech Republic in Terms of Regional Similarities and Geographic Location”, Economics and Management, 15, pp. 100-109.
  • KRÄTKE, Stefan; (2010), “Creative Cities and the Rise of the Dealer Class: A Critique of Richard Florida’s Approach to Urban Theory”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(4), pp. 835-853.
  • KREGZDAITE, Rusne; (2016), European Cultural and Creative Industries Index., http://www.eventos.uva.es/file_manager/get_paper/6292., 18.08.2017
  • LEE, Sam Youl, FLORIDA, Richard and Zoltan, ACS; (2004), “Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation”, Regional Studies, 38(8), pp.879-891. doi: 10.1080/0034340042000280910
  • MARKUSEN, Ann; (2006), “Urban Development and the Politics of a Creative Class: Evidence From a Study of Artists”, Environment and Planning A, 38, pp. 1921-1940.
  • MORRIS, M. H., AVILA, R. A. and J. ALLEN; (1993), “Individualism and the Modern Corporation: Implications for Innovation and Entrepreneurship”, Journal of Management, 19(3), pp.595-612. doi: 10.1177/014920639301900305
  • PRATT, Andy C. (2008). Creative Cities: The Cultural Industries And The Creative Class. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 90 (2), pp. 107–117. doi: 10.1111/j.1468- 0467.2008.00281.x
  • RINNE, Tiffany, STEEL, G. Daniel and John FAIRWEATHER; (2013), “The Role of Hofstede’s Individualism in National-Level Creativity”, Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), pp.129-136. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2013.752293
  • RHODES, Mel; (1961), “An Analysis of Creativity”, The Phi Delta Kappan, 42(7), pp. 305-310.
  • SARGUT, Selami, (2010), Kültürler Arası Farklılaşma ve Yönetim, İmge Kitabevi, Ankara.
  • SCHUMPETER, Joseph; (1942), Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New English Weekly.
  • STROM, Patrick and Ross NELSON; (2010), “Dynamic Regional Competitiveness in The Creative Economy: Can Peripheral Communities Have A Place?”, The Service Industries Journal, 30(4), pp. 497–511. doi: 10.1080/02642060903067555
  • TAYLOR, Mark Z. And Sean WILSON; (2010), “Does Culture Still Matter?: The Effects of Individualism on National Innovation Rates”, Journal of Business Venturing, 27(2), pp. 234–247. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.10.001
  • UNCTAD; (2013), Creative Economy Report 2013. Geneva: United Nations.
  • WESTWOOD, Robert and David R. LOW, (2003), “The Multicultural Muse: Culture, Creativity and Innovation”, No.2, pp.235-259. doi: 10.1177/14705958030032006
  • WILLIAMS, Leslie K. and Stephen J. MCGUIRE; (2010), “Economic Creativity and Innovation Implementation: The Entrepreneurial Drivers of Growth? Evidence from 63 Countries”, Small Business Economics, 34, pp. 391-412.

Comparison and Evaluatoin of Creativity Indexes

Yıl 2018, Sayı: 643, 109 - 124, 01.09.2018

Öz

With the understanding of the creativity’s role on economic growth, the creative economy has become an important topic and has begun to take place in countries' policies, strategies and political agendas. The creative economy can be defined as “an economy consisting of the industries in which creativity is used as the basic input”. In order to measure the effectiveness of the creative economy in a region, various tools called "creativity index" are used. These indices are, in general, competence, technology and tolerance. Although it is composed of indicators, it shows regional and country differences. The Global Creativity Index and The European Creativity Index are the best known of these indexes. Purpose of this study; the comparison of the existing creativity indexes on the basis of the indicators determined under the input and output factors, the determination of common features and the weak and strong aspects of the indexes

Kaynakça

  • ACS, Zoltan and Monika MEGYESI; (2009), “Creativity and Industrial Cities: A Case Study of Baltimore”, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 21(4), pp. 421–439. doi: 10.1080/08985620903020086
  • BOSCHMA, Ron and Michael FRITSCH; (2009), “Creative Class and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries”, Economic Geography, 85(49), pp. 391-423. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01048.x
  • BOWEN, Harry P., MOESEN, Wim and Leo, SLEUWAEGEN; (2006), “A Composite Index of the Creative Economy With Application to Regional Best Practices”. https://www.researchgate.net/ profile/Leo_Sleuwaegen/publication/23646745_A_composite_index_of_the_creative_economy_ with_application_to_regional_best_practices/links/55aa107c08aea3d0868052e1/A-composite- index-of-the-creative-economy-with-application-to-regional-best-practices.pdf, 30.03.2017
  • CORREIA, Carlos Miguel de Oliveira; (2012), Creative Indexes: Economic Space Matters?. Master degree dissertation in Economics,Universidade Do Porto.
  • CORREIA, Carlos Miguel and José da Silva COSTA; (2014), “Measuring Creativity in the EU Member States. Investigaciones Regionales”, 30, pp. 7-26.
  • CSÍKSZENTMIHÁLYI, Mihaly; (1999), Implications of a Systems Perspective for the Study of Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg, Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
  • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX-CCI. [Silicon Valley, 2002 and 2005], Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.
  • EFRAT, Kalanit, (2014), “The Direct and Indirect Impact of Culture on Innovation”, Technovation, 34(1), pp.12–20. doi: 10.1016/j.technovation.2013.08.003
  • EVERDINGEN, Yvonne M. van and WAARTS, Eric, (2003), “The Effect of National Culture on the Adoption of Innovations”, Marketing Letters, 14(3), pp.217-232. doi: 10.1023/A:102745291
  • FLORIDA, Richard; (2003), “Cities and the Creative Class”, City and Community, 2(1), pp. 3-19.
  • FLORIDA, Richard. (2005), Cities and the Creative Class. New York: Routledge.
  • FLORIDA, Richard., MELLANDER, Charlotta and Karen KING; (2015), The Global Creativity Index 2015. The Martin Prosperity Institute, University of Toronto Rotman School of Management.
  • FLORIDA, Richard., MELLANDER, Charlotta and Kevin M. STOLARICK; (2010), “Talent, Technology and Tolerance in Canadian Regional Development”, The Canadian Geographer, 54(3), pp. 277–304. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0064.2009.00293.x
  • HANSEN, Hİgni Kalsİ, ASHEIM, Bjİrn and Jan VANG; (2009), The European Creative Class and Regional Development: How Relevant Is Florida’s Theory for Europe?. In L., Kong, J. O’Connor, (Eds.), Creative Economies, Creative Cities: Asian-European Perspectives Vol. 98, pp.99-120, Springer: GeoJournal Library Series.
  • HARTLEY, John, POTTS, Jason, MACDONALD, Trent, ERKUNT, Chris and Carl KUFLEITNER; (2012), The ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCI). www.keanet.eu/report/measuringcreativity.pdf , 30.03.2017
  • HEALY, Kieran; (2002), “What’s New for Culture in the New Economy?”, The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 32(2), pp. 86-103. doi: 10.1080/10632920209596967
  • HERBIG, Paul and Steve, DUNPHY, (1998), “Culture and Innovation”, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 5(4), pp.13 – 21. doi: 10.1108/13527609810796844
  • HKCI, Hong Kong Creativity Index; (2004), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. A Study on Creativity Index. Erişim Tarihi: 28.03.2017, http://www.hab.gov.hk/file_manager/en/ documents/policy_responsibilities/arts_culture_recreation_and_sport/HKCI-InteriReport- printed.pdf
  • KAČERAUSKAS, Tomas; (2015), “The Indices of Creative Cities: The Global and Local Aspects”. European Journal of Social Sciences Education and Research, 4(1), pp. 95-100.
  • KEA European Affairs; (2009), The Impact of Culture on Creativity. A Study prepared for the European Commission. 16.04.2017, http://www.keanet.eu/docs/impactculturecreativityfull.pdf
  • KEA European Affairs; (2006), The Economy of Culture In Europe. Study prepared for the European Commission.16.04.2017,http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/culture/library/studies/cultural-economy_ en.pdf
  • KLOUDOVA, Jitka and Beata STEHLIKOVA; (2010), “Creativity Index For The Czech Republic in Terms of Regional Similarities and Geographic Location”, Economics and Management, 15, pp. 100-109.
  • KRÄTKE, Stefan; (2010), “Creative Cities and the Rise of the Dealer Class: A Critique of Richard Florida’s Approach to Urban Theory”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(4), pp. 835-853.
  • KREGZDAITE, Rusne; (2016), European Cultural and Creative Industries Index., http://www.eventos.uva.es/file_manager/get_paper/6292., 18.08.2017
  • LEE, Sam Youl, FLORIDA, Richard and Zoltan, ACS; (2004), “Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation”, Regional Studies, 38(8), pp.879-891. doi: 10.1080/0034340042000280910
  • MARKUSEN, Ann; (2006), “Urban Development and the Politics of a Creative Class: Evidence From a Study of Artists”, Environment and Planning A, 38, pp. 1921-1940.
  • MORRIS, M. H., AVILA, R. A. and J. ALLEN; (1993), “Individualism and the Modern Corporation: Implications for Innovation and Entrepreneurship”, Journal of Management, 19(3), pp.595-612. doi: 10.1177/014920639301900305
  • PRATT, Andy C. (2008). Creative Cities: The Cultural Industries And The Creative Class. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 90 (2), pp. 107–117. doi: 10.1111/j.1468- 0467.2008.00281.x
  • RINNE, Tiffany, STEEL, G. Daniel and John FAIRWEATHER; (2013), “The Role of Hofstede’s Individualism in National-Level Creativity”, Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), pp.129-136. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2013.752293
  • RHODES, Mel; (1961), “An Analysis of Creativity”, The Phi Delta Kappan, 42(7), pp. 305-310.
  • SARGUT, Selami, (2010), Kültürler Arası Farklılaşma ve Yönetim, İmge Kitabevi, Ankara.
  • SCHUMPETER, Joseph; (1942), Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New English Weekly.
  • STROM, Patrick and Ross NELSON; (2010), “Dynamic Regional Competitiveness in The Creative Economy: Can Peripheral Communities Have A Place?”, The Service Industries Journal, 30(4), pp. 497–511. doi: 10.1080/02642060903067555
  • TAYLOR, Mark Z. And Sean WILSON; (2010), “Does Culture Still Matter?: The Effects of Individualism on National Innovation Rates”, Journal of Business Venturing, 27(2), pp. 234–247. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.10.001
  • UNCTAD; (2013), Creative Economy Report 2013. Geneva: United Nations.
  • WESTWOOD, Robert and David R. LOW, (2003), “The Multicultural Muse: Culture, Creativity and Innovation”, No.2, pp.235-259. doi: 10.1177/14705958030032006
  • WILLIAMS, Leslie K. and Stephen J. MCGUIRE; (2010), “Economic Creativity and Innovation Implementation: The Entrepreneurial Drivers of Growth? Evidence from 63 Countries”, Small Business Economics, 34, pp. 391-412.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Ülkühan Bike ESEN
Dr., Atılım Üniversitesi


Şükran Sirkintioğlu YILDIRIM
Kastamonu Üniversitesi

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Eylül 2018
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018 Sayı: 643

Kaynak Göster

APA
ESEN, Ü. B., & YILDIRIM, Ş. S. (2018). Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması ve Değerlendirilmesi. Finans Politik Ve Ekonomik Yorumlar(643), 109-124.
MLA
ESEN, Ülkühan Bike ve Şükran Sirkintioğlu YILDIRIM. “Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması Ve Değerlendirilmesi”. Finans Politik Ve Ekonomik Yorumlar, sy. 643, 2018, ss. 109-24.
Chicago
ESEN, Ülkühan Bike, ve Şükran Sirkintioğlu YILDIRIM. “Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması Ve Değerlendirilmesi”. Finans Politik Ve Ekonomik Yorumlar, sy. 643 (Eylül 2018): 109-24.
EndNote
ESEN ÜB, YILDIRIM ŞS (01 Eylül 2018) Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması ve Değerlendirilmesi. Finans Politik ve Ekonomik Yorumlar 643 109–124.
ISNAD
ESEN, Ülkühan Bike - YILDIRIM, Şükran Sirkintioğlu. “Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması Ve Değerlendirilmesi”. Finans Politik ve Ekonomik Yorumlar 643 (Eylül 2018), 109-124.
AMA
ESEN ÜB, YILDIRIM ŞS. Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması ve Değerlendirilmesi. FPEYD. Eylül 2018;(643):109-124.
Vancouver
ESEN ÜB, YILDIRIM ŞS. Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması ve Değerlendirilmesi. FPEYD. 2018(643):109-24.
IEEE
Ü. B. ESEN ve Ş. S. YILDIRIM, “Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması ve Değerlendirilmesi”, FPEYD, sy. 643, ss. 109–124, Eylül 2018.
JAMA
ESEN ÜB, YILDIRIM ŞS. Yaratıcılık Endekslerinin Kıyaslanması ve Değerlendirilmesi. FPEYD. 2018;:109–124.