Araştırma Makalesi
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The Determinants of R&D Expenditure in Turkish Manufacturing Industry

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 3, 862 - 878, 18.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.25295/fsecon.943757

Öz

The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of research and development decision (R&D) of Turkish firms operating in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we use three different firm-level datasets provided by Turkish Statistical Institute: R&D Activities Survey, Annual Industry and Service Statistics, and Annual Business Registration Framework. By merging these datasets, we obtained a panel covering the period between 2003 and 2015 and examined the effects of firm size and some firm characteristics on the R&D investment decision. We show that the increase in the size of the firm (turnover or number of employees) increases the possibility of engaging in R&D activities, regardless of how we measure the firm size.

Kaynakça

  • Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R., Griffith, R., & Howitt, P. (2005), “Competition and innovation: An inverted-u relationship”, The quarterly journal of economics, 120(2), 701-728.
  • Arrow, K.J. (1962), “The economic implications of learning by doing”, Review of Economic Studies, 29, 155-173.
  • Audretsch, D.B. & Feldman, M. (1996), “R&D Spillovers and the geography of innovation and production”, American Economic Review, 86(4), 253–273.
  • Becker, B. (2013), “The determinants of R&D investment: a survey of the empirical research”, (Loughborough Universtiy Economics Discussion Paper Series, 9). https://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/sbe/RePEc/lbo/lbowps/Becker_09.pdf, [Accessed 3.4.2021]
  • Becker, B. & Pain, N. (2008), “What determines industrial R&D expenditure in the UK?”, Manchester School, 76, 66-87.
  • Bloch, C. (2005), “R&D investment and internal finance: The cash flow effect”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 14, 213-223.
  • Blundell, R., Griffith, R. & Reenen, J.V. (1999), “Market share, market value and innovation in a panel of British manufacturing firms”, Review of Economic Studies, LXVI, 529-554.
  • Bozio, A., Irac, D., & Py, L. (2014), “Impact of research tax credit on R&D and innovation: evidence from the 2008 French reform”, (Banque de France Working Paper No:532) https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2544604, [Accessed 2.2.2021]
  • Bravo-Ortega, C. & Marin, A.G. (2011), “R&D and productivity: A two-way avenue?”, World Development, 39, 1090-1107.
  • Coe, D.T. & Helpman, E. (1995), “International R&D spillovers”, European Economic Review, 39, 859-887.
  • Dosi, G. (1988), “Sources, procedures and microeconomic effects of innovation”, Journal of Economic Literature 25, 1120–1171.
  • Esteve-Pérez, S., & Rodriguez, D. (2013), “The dynamics of exports and R&D in SMEs”, Small Business Economics, 41(1), 219-240.
  • Görg, H., & Strobl, E. (2007), “The effect of R&D subsidies on private R&D”, Economica, 74(294), 215-234.
  • Griliches, Z. (1998), “R&D and productivity: The econometric evidence”, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, D. (1991), “Innovation and growth in the global economy”, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Hiep, N., & Ohta, H. (2007), “Entry costs and heterogeneous characteristics of firms in the decision to export: empirical evidence from firm-level data in Vietnam”, Paper presented at the VDF Tokyo Seminar. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.574.5947&rep=rep1&type=pdf, [Accessed 12.1.2021]
  • Lentile, D. & Mairesse, J. (2009), “A policy to boost R&D: Does the R&D tax credit work?”, (EIB Working Papers 6) http://hdl.handle.net/10419/44906, [Accessed 4.2.2021]
  • Kalaycı, E., & Pamukçu, T. (2014), “Assessing the drivers of R&D activities of firms in developing countries: evidence from Turkey”, The European Journal of Development Research, 26(5), 853-869.
  • Kasahara, H., Shimotsu, K., & Suzuki, M. (2014), “Does an R&D tax credit affect R&D expenditure? The Japanese R&D tax credit reform in 2003”, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 31, 72-97.
  • Kwon, H.U., & Park, J. (2018), “R&D, foreign ownership, and corporate groups: Evidence from Japanese firms”, Research Policy, 47(2), 428-439.
  • Limanlı, Ö. (2015), “Determinants of R&D investment decision in Turkey”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 759-767.
  • Lin, P., & Saggi, K. (2002), “Product differentiation, process R&D, and the nature of market competition”, European Economic Review, 46(1), 201-211.
  • Link, A.N., & Scott, J.T. (2018), “Propensity to patent and firm size for small R&D-intensive firms”, Review of Industrial Organization, 52(4), 561-587.
  • Mishra, V. (2007), “The determinants of R&D expenditure of firms: evidence from a cross‐section of Indian firms”, Economic Papers, 26(3), 237-248.
  • Mulkay, B., Hall, B.H. & Mairesse, J. (2001), “Investment and R&D in France and in the United States. Investing Today for the World Tomorrow”, In H. Herrmann and R. Strauch (eds.), pp. 229-273, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Nickell, S. (1996), “Competition and corporate performance”, Journal of Political Economy, CIV, 724-746.
  • Pamukçu, T., & Utku-İsmihan, F. M. (2009), “Determinants of R&D decisions of firms in developing countries the case of Turkey”, Paper presented at the Anadolu International Conference in Economics, Eskişehir, Turkey, https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.511.4154&rep=rep1&type=pdf, [Accessed 13.1.2021]
  • Romer, P.M. (1990), “Endogenous technological change”, Journal of Political Economy, 98, 71-102.
  • Scherer, F. (1967), “Market structure and the employment of scientists and engineers”, American Economic Review, LVII, 524-531.
  • Scherer, F. M. (1970), “Industrial market structure and economic performance”, Chicago: Rand McNally.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1942), “Capitalism, socialism, and democracy”, New York: Harper.
  • Shefer, D., & Frenkel, A. (2005), “R&D, firm size and innovation: an empirical analysis”, Technovation, 25(1), 25-32.
  • Syverson, C. (2011), “What determines productivity?”, Journal of Economic Literature, 49(2), 326-65.
  • Tingvall, P. G., & Poldahl, A. (2006), “Is there really an inverted u-shaped relation between competition and R&D?”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 15(2), 101-118.
  • Üçdoğruk, Y. (2010), “Modeling R&D investment decision of ISE listed firms: A sample selection approach”, İktisat İşletme ve Finans, 25(289), 29-45.
  • Wooldridge, J.M. (2002), “Econometric analysis of cross-section and panel data”, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.
  • Wooldridge, J.M. (2003), “Introductory econometrics: A modern approach”, South-Western, Thomson Learning.
  • Zhu B. & Li, L.L. (2014), “Government subsidies and private enterprise R&D investment”, Society, 4, 165-186.

Türkiye İmalat Sektöründe Ar-Ge Yatırımlarının Belirleyicileri

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 3, 862 - 878, 18.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.25295/fsecon.943757

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı Türkiye imalat sanayiinde faaliyet gösteren firmaların araştırma ve geliştirme (Ar-Ge) faaliyetinde bulunma kararlarını belirleyen faktörleri analiz etmektir. Bu analiz için, Ar-Ge Faaliyetleri Araştırması, Yıllık Sanayi ve Hizmet İstatistikleri ve Yıllık İş Kayıt Çerçeveleri olmak üzere, Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu’nun paylaştığı üç ayrı mikro veriden faydalanılmıştır. Bu verilerin birleştirilmesi sonucu elde ettiğimiz ve 2003-2015 yıllarını kapsayan panel veri kullanılarak, firma büyüklüğü ve kimi firma karakteristik özelliklerinin Ar-Ge yatırım kararına etkileri incelenmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre firma büyüklüğündeki artışın, ciro ya da çalışan sayısı ile ölçme tercihimizden bağımsız olarak, Ar-Ge faaliyetinde bulunma ihtimalini arttırdığı tespit edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R., Griffith, R., & Howitt, P. (2005), “Competition and innovation: An inverted-u relationship”, The quarterly journal of economics, 120(2), 701-728.
  • Arrow, K.J. (1962), “The economic implications of learning by doing”, Review of Economic Studies, 29, 155-173.
  • Audretsch, D.B. & Feldman, M. (1996), “R&D Spillovers and the geography of innovation and production”, American Economic Review, 86(4), 253–273.
  • Becker, B. (2013), “The determinants of R&D investment: a survey of the empirical research”, (Loughborough Universtiy Economics Discussion Paper Series, 9). https://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/sbe/RePEc/lbo/lbowps/Becker_09.pdf, [Accessed 3.4.2021]
  • Becker, B. & Pain, N. (2008), “What determines industrial R&D expenditure in the UK?”, Manchester School, 76, 66-87.
  • Bloch, C. (2005), “R&D investment and internal finance: The cash flow effect”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 14, 213-223.
  • Blundell, R., Griffith, R. & Reenen, J.V. (1999), “Market share, market value and innovation in a panel of British manufacturing firms”, Review of Economic Studies, LXVI, 529-554.
  • Bozio, A., Irac, D., & Py, L. (2014), “Impact of research tax credit on R&D and innovation: evidence from the 2008 French reform”, (Banque de France Working Paper No:532) https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2544604, [Accessed 2.2.2021]
  • Bravo-Ortega, C. & Marin, A.G. (2011), “R&D and productivity: A two-way avenue?”, World Development, 39, 1090-1107.
  • Coe, D.T. & Helpman, E. (1995), “International R&D spillovers”, European Economic Review, 39, 859-887.
  • Dosi, G. (1988), “Sources, procedures and microeconomic effects of innovation”, Journal of Economic Literature 25, 1120–1171.
  • Esteve-Pérez, S., & Rodriguez, D. (2013), “The dynamics of exports and R&D in SMEs”, Small Business Economics, 41(1), 219-240.
  • Görg, H., & Strobl, E. (2007), “The effect of R&D subsidies on private R&D”, Economica, 74(294), 215-234.
  • Griliches, Z. (1998), “R&D and productivity: The econometric evidence”, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, D. (1991), “Innovation and growth in the global economy”, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Hiep, N., & Ohta, H. (2007), “Entry costs and heterogeneous characteristics of firms in the decision to export: empirical evidence from firm-level data in Vietnam”, Paper presented at the VDF Tokyo Seminar. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.574.5947&rep=rep1&type=pdf, [Accessed 12.1.2021]
  • Lentile, D. & Mairesse, J. (2009), “A policy to boost R&D: Does the R&D tax credit work?”, (EIB Working Papers 6) http://hdl.handle.net/10419/44906, [Accessed 4.2.2021]
  • Kalaycı, E., & Pamukçu, T. (2014), “Assessing the drivers of R&D activities of firms in developing countries: evidence from Turkey”, The European Journal of Development Research, 26(5), 853-869.
  • Kasahara, H., Shimotsu, K., & Suzuki, M. (2014), “Does an R&D tax credit affect R&D expenditure? The Japanese R&D tax credit reform in 2003”, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 31, 72-97.
  • Kwon, H.U., & Park, J. (2018), “R&D, foreign ownership, and corporate groups: Evidence from Japanese firms”, Research Policy, 47(2), 428-439.
  • Limanlı, Ö. (2015), “Determinants of R&D investment decision in Turkey”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 759-767.
  • Lin, P., & Saggi, K. (2002), “Product differentiation, process R&D, and the nature of market competition”, European Economic Review, 46(1), 201-211.
  • Link, A.N., & Scott, J.T. (2018), “Propensity to patent and firm size for small R&D-intensive firms”, Review of Industrial Organization, 52(4), 561-587.
  • Mishra, V. (2007), “The determinants of R&D expenditure of firms: evidence from a cross‐section of Indian firms”, Economic Papers, 26(3), 237-248.
  • Mulkay, B., Hall, B.H. & Mairesse, J. (2001), “Investment and R&D in France and in the United States. Investing Today for the World Tomorrow”, In H. Herrmann and R. Strauch (eds.), pp. 229-273, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Nickell, S. (1996), “Competition and corporate performance”, Journal of Political Economy, CIV, 724-746.
  • Pamukçu, T., & Utku-İsmihan, F. M. (2009), “Determinants of R&D decisions of firms in developing countries the case of Turkey”, Paper presented at the Anadolu International Conference in Economics, Eskişehir, Turkey, https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.511.4154&rep=rep1&type=pdf, [Accessed 13.1.2021]
  • Romer, P.M. (1990), “Endogenous technological change”, Journal of Political Economy, 98, 71-102.
  • Scherer, F. (1967), “Market structure and the employment of scientists and engineers”, American Economic Review, LVII, 524-531.
  • Scherer, F. M. (1970), “Industrial market structure and economic performance”, Chicago: Rand McNally.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1942), “Capitalism, socialism, and democracy”, New York: Harper.
  • Shefer, D., & Frenkel, A. (2005), “R&D, firm size and innovation: an empirical analysis”, Technovation, 25(1), 25-32.
  • Syverson, C. (2011), “What determines productivity?”, Journal of Economic Literature, 49(2), 326-65.
  • Tingvall, P. G., & Poldahl, A. (2006), “Is there really an inverted u-shaped relation between competition and R&D?”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 15(2), 101-118.
  • Üçdoğruk, Y. (2010), “Modeling R&D investment decision of ISE listed firms: A sample selection approach”, İktisat İşletme ve Finans, 25(289), 29-45.
  • Wooldridge, J.M. (2002), “Econometric analysis of cross-section and panel data”, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.
  • Wooldridge, J.M. (2003), “Introductory econometrics: A modern approach”, South-Western, Thomson Learning.
  • Zhu B. & Li, L.L. (2014), “Government subsidies and private enterprise R&D investment”, Society, 4, 165-186.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Umut Erksan ŞENALP (Sorumlu Yazar)
TRAKYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0261-3700
Türkiye

Teşekkür Bu çalışmada kullanılan mikro verilere erişim, TÜİK Edirne Bölge Müdürlüğü’nde bulunan Veri Araştırma Merkezi’nde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bunu mümkün kılan Sayın Kenan Çelebi, Halil Emecen, Faruk Yılmaz Şişoğlu ve Settar Taha Işık’a ve TÜİK merkez teşkilatının değerli çalışanlarından Sayın Erdal Yıldırım ve Can Doğan'a teşekkür ederiz.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 18 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Şenalp, U. E. (2021). Türkiye İmalat Sektöründe Ar-Ge Yatırımlarının Belirleyicileri . Fiscaoeconomia , 5 (3) , 862-878 . DOI: 10.25295/fsecon.943757

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