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Sokol Hareketi: Nasyonalist ve Politik Bir Araç Olarak Jimnastiğin Kullanımı

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 4, 481 - 499, 27.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.53434/gbesbd.984507

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı Sokol hareketinin ortaya çıkışı, diğer ülkelerdeki yansımaları ve milliyetçilik düşüncesi üzerinden siyasi etkilerinin değerlendirilmesidir. Sokol Hareketi tarihinin Prag Jimnastik Kulübü’nün 1862’de Miroslav Tyrš tarafından kurulmasıyla başladığı kabul edilmektedir. Tyrš, Sokol Hareketi ile halkını jimnastiğe teşvik ederek tüm Slav halklarını kültürel ve ulusal bakımdan iyileştirmeyi amaçlamıştır. Sokol Hareketi’nin görevi ise üyelerini ahlaklı, etik ve estetik açıdan, demokrasi prensiplerine uyumlu biçimde beden eğitimi vasıtasıyla ulusal bütünlük yolunda eğitmek olarak tanımlanmıştır. Alman ve İsveç jimnastiklerini kendi milli ihtiyaçlarına göre harmanlayan Tyrš, kısa sürede tüm Slav halkları üzerinde iz bırakmış ve Sokol 20. yüzyıl başlarından itibaren başta Orta, Doğu ve Güney Avrupa olmak üzere tüm dünyaya yayılmıştır. Özgürlük ve demokrasi arzusu ile ezilen ulusların yabancı esaretinden kurtuluşunun en güçlü temsilcilerinden olan Sokol, başlangıçtan itibaren Slav ulusal bilincinin ve milliyetçiliğinin oluşmasında önemli rol oynamış ve diğer halklara da örnek olmuştur. Gerek Slav yurdu dışında yaşayan Slavların örgütlenmeleri gerekse farklı toplumların Sokol benzeri örgütlenme çalışmaları, beden eğitimi ve spor yoluyla yurt savunmasının ve halkı güçlendirmenin en önemli araçları olmuşlardır. Sokol’un 50 yıldan kısa sürede ulaştığı devasa güç her dönem siyasilerin ilgisini çekmiş, yönetim şekilleri değişse de Sokol Hareketi hükümetlerin sosyal politikalarının önemli bir parçasını oluşturmuştur. Benzer biçimde Sokol’un güçlü ve sistematik yapısı ülke düşmanları tarafından bir tehdit olarak algılanmış ve işgal dönemlerinde Sokol Hareketi pasivize edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Ancak farklı dönemlerde kesintiye uğrasa da Sokol Hareketi, özellikle Sokol Festivalleri yoluyla her dönem halkla bütünleşmeyi sağlamış ve günümüze kadar varlığını sürdürmeyi başarmıştır. Sokol günümüzde halen Çek milliyetçiliğinin en önemli yapı taşlarından birini oluştururken, ulusal bilincin ve demokrasinin de en güçlü savunucusu olmaya devam etmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Arkayev, L. (1997). Centennial anniversary of first championship of Russia on Gymnastics. Theoria Praktika Fycicheskoy Kultuci, 11, 2-3.
  • 2. Bábela, M. ve Oborný, J. (2018). Dr. Miroslav Tyrš – Father of the Sokol and philosophy of the Sokol. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 10(2), 313-329.
  • 3. Borošak-Marijanović, J. (2011, Ağustos). Sokol flags – The symbols of Croatian Sokol movement to 1914: The Sokol Movement as a component of national and European integration at the beginning of the 20th century. 24th International Congress of Vexillology sunulan bildiri, North American Vexillological Association/Washington, D.C., USA.
  • 4. Burian, M., Knizek, A., Rajlich, J. ve Stehlik, E. (2007). Assassination: Operation Anthropoid 1941-1942. Prague: Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic.
  • 5. Burian, M., Waic, M., Barta, M. ve Svoboda, L. (2012). Pod křídly Sokola. Praha: Vojenský historický ústav; Ústav pro studium totalitních režimů.
  • 6. Černek, M. (2008). Sokolství a olympismus. Tělesná Kultura, 31(1), 48-56.
  • 7. Čustonja, Z. (2014). Hrvatski Sokol do prvoga svjetskog rata. Pavlin. T, (Ed.), Naša pot, 150 let ustanovitve južnega Sokola in sokolskega gibanja içinde (s. 84-100). Ljubljana: Fakulteta za šport.
  • 8. Czech Sokol (2018). XVIth All-Sokol Slet 2018. Prag: Czech Sokol.
  • 9. Dimond, M. (2007). The Sokol and Czech nationalism, 1918–1948. M. R. Cornwall ve J. W. Evans, (Ed.), Czechoslovakia in a Nationalist and Fascist Europe 1918-1948 içinde (s. 185-205). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 10. [Erişirgil], Mehmet Emin. (1927). Türk Ocakları. Hayat, 1(20), 1.
  • 11. Gajdoš, A., Provaznikova, M., Bednar, K. ve Banjak, S. J. (2012). Sokol Slets: The essence of gymnastics in Czechoslovakia, Czech and Slovak Republic. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 4(3), 73-82.
  • 12. Grexa, J. ve Strachová, M. (2011). Dějiny sportu. Přehled světových a českých dějin tělesné výchovy a sportu. Brno: Masarykova univerzita.
  • 13. Hoffmann, D. L. (2000). Bodies of knowledge: physical culture and the new Soviet person. Washington, D. C.: National Council for Eurasian and East European Research (NCEER).
  • 14. Hrstić, I. ve Mustapić, M. (2015). Sport and politics in Croatia-Athletes as national icons in history textbooks. Altre Modernità, 14, 148-165.
  • 15. Jandásek, L. (1932). The Sokol Movement in Czechoslovakia. The Slavonic and East European Review, 11(31), 65-80.
  • 16. Kaimakamis, V., Dallas, G., Stefanidis, P. ve Papadopoulos, G. (2011). The spread of gymnastics in Europe and America by pedagogue-gymnasts during the first half of 19th century. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 3(1) 49-55.
  • 17. Kozáková, Z. (1994). Sokolské slety 1882-1948. Praha: Orbis.
  • 18. Kragujević, G. (2017). Methodology of the Sokol physical exercises for all times. Physical Education and Sport Through the Centuries, 4(2), 88-99.
  • 19. Lejkova-Koeppl, M. (1968). The Sokol Movement': A tribute to the national revival and culture of the Czechoslovak nation. M. Rechcigl, (Ed.), Czechoslovakia Past and Present / Essays on the arts and sciences içinde (s. 1463-1476). De Gruyter Mouton.
  • 20. Martínková, A., Klír, M. ve Swierczeková, L. (2013). Miroslav Tyrš 1837–1950. Inventáře Archivu tělesné výchovy. Erişim adresi: https://www.nm.cz/cs/file/2c7230e8a00ffff00cb 479770438f6d5/5893/Tyr%C5%A1%20Miroslav.pdf
  • 21. Maxwell, A. (2009).Choosing Slovakia: Slavic Hungary, the Czechoslovak language, and accidental nationalism. London: I. B. Tauris.
  • 22. Nolte, C. (1993). “Every Czech a Sokol!”: Feminism and nationalism in the Czech Sokol Movement. Austrian History Yearbook, 24, 79-100.
  • 23. Nolte, C. E. (2002a). “Every Czech a Sokol!” The progressive era in the Sokol. The Sokol in the Czech lands to 1914 içinde. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • 24. Nolte, C. E. (2002b). Miroslav Tyrš and his world. The Sokol in the Czech Lands to 1914 içinde. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • 25. Nolte, C. E. (2009). Our brothers across the ocean: The Czech Sokol in America to 1914. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 26, 1963-1982.
  • 26. Nolte, C. R. (1996). Choosing Czech identity in nineteenth‐century Prague: The case of Jindřich Fügner. Nationalities Papers, 24(1), 51-62.
  • 27. Pavlin, T. (2008). Slovensko sokolstvo je samo po kroju in imenu podobno češkemu ... Troha. M. Šorn ve B. Balkovec. (Ed.), Evropski vplivi na slovensko družbo içinde (s. 155-159). Ljubljana: ZZDS.
  • 28. Pavlin, T. (2013). The duty of a Sokol is to yet again step into the national front line (Sokol Movement in Slovenia - 150th Annıversary of Južni Sokol). Science of Gymnastics Journal, 3(5), 5-18.
  • 29. Pavlin, T. (2018). Historical overview of gymnastics and (school) physical education in Slovenia. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 10(1), 81-90.
  • 30. Pavlin, T. ve Čustonja, Z. (2018). Sokol: Between making nation and state. Kinesiology, 50(2), 260-268.
  • 31. Pavlin, T. ve Žvan, M. (2014). Herald of new, healthier mode of life (Academization of physical education and formation of the Faculty of Sport). Kinanthropologica, 50(2), 21-29.
  • 32. Polidoro, J. R. (2000). Sport and physical activity in the modern world. Boston, USA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • 33. Preclik, V. (2019). Masaryk a legie. Karviná: Paris.
  • 34. Prica, V. P. (2013). Influence of ideology on the architecture of sokol houses in the Kingdom Of Yugoslavia. Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Likovne Umetnosti, 41, 143-151.
  • 35. Riordan, J. ve Krüger, A. (1999). The international politics of sport in the twentieth century. London: Routledge.
  • 36. Riordan, J. ve Krüger, A. (2003). European cultures in sport: Examining the nations and regions. Bristol, UK: Intellect.
  • 37. Sak, R. (2012). Miroslav Tyrš: Sokol, myslitel, výtvarný kritik. Praha: Vyšehrad.
  • 38. Savić, Z., Zdravkovic, D. ve Siljak, V. (2014). The “Sokol” movement as a model of intercultural cooperation. Historicky Casopis, 62(4), 679-693.
  • 39. Sekot, A. (2010). Sport and physical activity in Czech Republic. Sport Science Review, 19(1-2), 159-176.
  • 40. Sesum, V. ve Milosevic, Z. (2014). Sokol movement in Vojvodına from 1869 to 1945. Physical Education and Sport Through the Centuries, 1(2), 4-18.
  • 41. Sirotkina, I. (2017) Natsional'nye modeli fizicheskogo vospitaniya i sokol'skaya gimnastika v Rossii. The Russian Sociological Review, 16(2), 320-339.
  • 42. Škegro, D. ve Čustonja, Z. (2015). History of physical education in Croatia. P. D. Pavlovic, N. Zivanovic, B. Antala. ve K. M. Pantelic Babic, (Ed.), History of Physical Education in Europe I içinde (s. 39-57). University of Pristina, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Leposavic.
  • 43. Štěrbová, G. ve Vlček, P. (2015). A brief history of the development of physical Education in Czech Lands. P. D. Pavlovic, N. Zivanovic, B. Antala. ve K. M. Pantelic Babic, (Ed.), History of Physical Education in Europe I içinde (s. 58-71). University of Pristina, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Leposavic.
  • 44. Şinoforoğlu. T. (2020). Selim Sırrı Tarcan ve İsveç Jimnastiği. Ankara: Spor Yayınevi ve Kitabevi.
  • 45. [Tarcan], Selim Sırrı (1928). Türk ocakları ve bedeni terbiye. Türk Yurdu, 1/21(4/198), 38-40.
  • 46. [Tarcan], Selim Sırrı (1930). Başka milletlerde spor: Sokollar. Muhit, 2(24), 433-435.
  • 47. Troch, P. (2019). Interwar Yugoslav state-building and the changing social position of the Sokol gymnastics movement. European Review of History: Revue Européenne D'histoire, 26(1), 60-83.
  • 48. Türel, O. (2015). “Uzun” XIX. yüzyılda Orta Avrupa: Bir Habsburg üçlemesi. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • 49. Viktorovich, K. V. (2014). The meeting (Slet) оf the Czech Sokol Movement in Brno on June 27-28, 1914. Всемирная История, 94(4), 61-70.
  • 50. Vít, M. ve Reguli, Z. (2015). The role of combatives teaching in physical education. Brno: Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk University.
  • 51. Vukašinović, V., Mijatović, S., Šiljak, V., Veličković, S., Strelić, D. ve Stevanović, M. (2016). Contribution of Dr. Laza Popović to the development of Serbian and Yugoslav Sokol movement. Vojnosanitetski Pregled, 73(10), 976-979.
  • 52. Waic, M. (2013). Tělovýchova a sport ve službách české národní emancipace. Praha: Karolinum.
  • 53. Zec, D. (2015). The Sokol movement from Yugoslav origins to King Aleksandar’s 1930 All-Sokol Rally in Belgrade. East Central Europe, 42(1), 48–69.
  • 54. Zmuda-Palka, M. ve Siwek, M. (2018). Large scale Gymnastic Festivals (Pan-Sokol Slets): The greatest social movement on Polish territory prior to the First World War. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 35(14), 1428–1443.

Sokol Movement: Use of Gymnastics as a Nationalist and Political Tool

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 4, 481 - 499, 27.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.53434/gbesbd.984507

Öz

The aim of this study is to evaluate the emergence of the Sokol Movement, its reflections on other countries and political impact on nationalist thought. The Sokol Movement is considered to have been initiated by the foundation of the Prague Gymnastics Club by Miroslav Tyrš in 1862. The goal of Tyrš was to persuade people to practice gymnastics and improve all Slavic society in terms of culture and as nations. The mission of the Sokol Movement was defined as training its members morally, ethically and aesthetically through physical education in line with democratic principles towards national unity. Tyrš made use of German and Swedish gymnastics practices in line with the needs he pointed for his nation and soon achieved significant impact over Slavic people. Sokol spread around the world, particularly Central, Eastern and Southern Europe from early 20th century on. Sokol symbolized the liberation from foreign domination of oppressed nations with a yearning for freedom and democracy and played a significant role on the development of a national Slavic conscience and nationalism from early stages on, setting an example to other nations. The organization of Slavs outside of Slavic land and other nations’ efforts similar to Sokol have been the most important tools of national defense and people empowerment through physical education and sports. The enormous power of Sokol attained in a time period shorter than 50 years has sustained the attention of politicians and even when regimes changed, the Sokol Movement has remained a major part of governments’ social policy. Thus, the strong and systematic structure of Sokol have been perceived as a threat by enemies of the nation and efforts were mobilized to passivate Sokol during times of invasion. Yet, although interruptions occurred at various times, the Sokol Movement achieved unity with the people particularly through Sokol Festivals and has lived until today. Today, Sokol is still a major component of Czech nationalism and continues to be a defender of national consciousness and democracy.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Arkayev, L. (1997). Centennial anniversary of first championship of Russia on Gymnastics. Theoria Praktika Fycicheskoy Kultuci, 11, 2-3.
  • 2. Bábela, M. ve Oborný, J. (2018). Dr. Miroslav Tyrš – Father of the Sokol and philosophy of the Sokol. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 10(2), 313-329.
  • 3. Borošak-Marijanović, J. (2011, Ağustos). Sokol flags – The symbols of Croatian Sokol movement to 1914: The Sokol Movement as a component of national and European integration at the beginning of the 20th century. 24th International Congress of Vexillology sunulan bildiri, North American Vexillological Association/Washington, D.C., USA.
  • 4. Burian, M., Knizek, A., Rajlich, J. ve Stehlik, E. (2007). Assassination: Operation Anthropoid 1941-1942. Prague: Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic.
  • 5. Burian, M., Waic, M., Barta, M. ve Svoboda, L. (2012). Pod křídly Sokola. Praha: Vojenský historický ústav; Ústav pro studium totalitních režimů.
  • 6. Černek, M. (2008). Sokolství a olympismus. Tělesná Kultura, 31(1), 48-56.
  • 7. Čustonja, Z. (2014). Hrvatski Sokol do prvoga svjetskog rata. Pavlin. T, (Ed.), Naša pot, 150 let ustanovitve južnega Sokola in sokolskega gibanja içinde (s. 84-100). Ljubljana: Fakulteta za šport.
  • 8. Czech Sokol (2018). XVIth All-Sokol Slet 2018. Prag: Czech Sokol.
  • 9. Dimond, M. (2007). The Sokol and Czech nationalism, 1918–1948. M. R. Cornwall ve J. W. Evans, (Ed.), Czechoslovakia in a Nationalist and Fascist Europe 1918-1948 içinde (s. 185-205). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 10. [Erişirgil], Mehmet Emin. (1927). Türk Ocakları. Hayat, 1(20), 1.
  • 11. Gajdoš, A., Provaznikova, M., Bednar, K. ve Banjak, S. J. (2012). Sokol Slets: The essence of gymnastics in Czechoslovakia, Czech and Slovak Republic. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 4(3), 73-82.
  • 12. Grexa, J. ve Strachová, M. (2011). Dějiny sportu. Přehled světových a českých dějin tělesné výchovy a sportu. Brno: Masarykova univerzita.
  • 13. Hoffmann, D. L. (2000). Bodies of knowledge: physical culture and the new Soviet person. Washington, D. C.: National Council for Eurasian and East European Research (NCEER).
  • 14. Hrstić, I. ve Mustapić, M. (2015). Sport and politics in Croatia-Athletes as national icons in history textbooks. Altre Modernità, 14, 148-165.
  • 15. Jandásek, L. (1932). The Sokol Movement in Czechoslovakia. The Slavonic and East European Review, 11(31), 65-80.
  • 16. Kaimakamis, V., Dallas, G., Stefanidis, P. ve Papadopoulos, G. (2011). The spread of gymnastics in Europe and America by pedagogue-gymnasts during the first half of 19th century. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 3(1) 49-55.
  • 17. Kozáková, Z. (1994). Sokolské slety 1882-1948. Praha: Orbis.
  • 18. Kragujević, G. (2017). Methodology of the Sokol physical exercises for all times. Physical Education and Sport Through the Centuries, 4(2), 88-99.
  • 19. Lejkova-Koeppl, M. (1968). The Sokol Movement': A tribute to the national revival and culture of the Czechoslovak nation. M. Rechcigl, (Ed.), Czechoslovakia Past and Present / Essays on the arts and sciences içinde (s. 1463-1476). De Gruyter Mouton.
  • 20. Martínková, A., Klír, M. ve Swierczeková, L. (2013). Miroslav Tyrš 1837–1950. Inventáře Archivu tělesné výchovy. Erişim adresi: https://www.nm.cz/cs/file/2c7230e8a00ffff00cb 479770438f6d5/5893/Tyr%C5%A1%20Miroslav.pdf
  • 21. Maxwell, A. (2009).Choosing Slovakia: Slavic Hungary, the Czechoslovak language, and accidental nationalism. London: I. B. Tauris.
  • 22. Nolte, C. (1993). “Every Czech a Sokol!”: Feminism and nationalism in the Czech Sokol Movement. Austrian History Yearbook, 24, 79-100.
  • 23. Nolte, C. E. (2002a). “Every Czech a Sokol!” The progressive era in the Sokol. The Sokol in the Czech lands to 1914 içinde. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • 24. Nolte, C. E. (2002b). Miroslav Tyrš and his world. The Sokol in the Czech Lands to 1914 içinde. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • 25. Nolte, C. E. (2009). Our brothers across the ocean: The Czech Sokol in America to 1914. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 26, 1963-1982.
  • 26. Nolte, C. R. (1996). Choosing Czech identity in nineteenth‐century Prague: The case of Jindřich Fügner. Nationalities Papers, 24(1), 51-62.
  • 27. Pavlin, T. (2008). Slovensko sokolstvo je samo po kroju in imenu podobno češkemu ... Troha. M. Šorn ve B. Balkovec. (Ed.), Evropski vplivi na slovensko družbo içinde (s. 155-159). Ljubljana: ZZDS.
  • 28. Pavlin, T. (2013). The duty of a Sokol is to yet again step into the national front line (Sokol Movement in Slovenia - 150th Annıversary of Južni Sokol). Science of Gymnastics Journal, 3(5), 5-18.
  • 29. Pavlin, T. (2018). Historical overview of gymnastics and (school) physical education in Slovenia. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 10(1), 81-90.
  • 30. Pavlin, T. ve Čustonja, Z. (2018). Sokol: Between making nation and state. Kinesiology, 50(2), 260-268.
  • 31. Pavlin, T. ve Žvan, M. (2014). Herald of new, healthier mode of life (Academization of physical education and formation of the Faculty of Sport). Kinanthropologica, 50(2), 21-29.
  • 32. Polidoro, J. R. (2000). Sport and physical activity in the modern world. Boston, USA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • 33. Preclik, V. (2019). Masaryk a legie. Karviná: Paris.
  • 34. Prica, V. P. (2013). Influence of ideology on the architecture of sokol houses in the Kingdom Of Yugoslavia. Zbornik Matice Srpske Za Likovne Umetnosti, 41, 143-151.
  • 35. Riordan, J. ve Krüger, A. (1999). The international politics of sport in the twentieth century. London: Routledge.
  • 36. Riordan, J. ve Krüger, A. (2003). European cultures in sport: Examining the nations and regions. Bristol, UK: Intellect.
  • 37. Sak, R. (2012). Miroslav Tyrš: Sokol, myslitel, výtvarný kritik. Praha: Vyšehrad.
  • 38. Savić, Z., Zdravkovic, D. ve Siljak, V. (2014). The “Sokol” movement as a model of intercultural cooperation. Historicky Casopis, 62(4), 679-693.
  • 39. Sekot, A. (2010). Sport and physical activity in Czech Republic. Sport Science Review, 19(1-2), 159-176.
  • 40. Sesum, V. ve Milosevic, Z. (2014). Sokol movement in Vojvodına from 1869 to 1945. Physical Education and Sport Through the Centuries, 1(2), 4-18.
  • 41. Sirotkina, I. (2017) Natsional'nye modeli fizicheskogo vospitaniya i sokol'skaya gimnastika v Rossii. The Russian Sociological Review, 16(2), 320-339.
  • 42. Škegro, D. ve Čustonja, Z. (2015). History of physical education in Croatia. P. D. Pavlovic, N. Zivanovic, B. Antala. ve K. M. Pantelic Babic, (Ed.), History of Physical Education in Europe I içinde (s. 39-57). University of Pristina, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Leposavic.
  • 43. Štěrbová, G. ve Vlček, P. (2015). A brief history of the development of physical Education in Czech Lands. P. D. Pavlovic, N. Zivanovic, B. Antala. ve K. M. Pantelic Babic, (Ed.), History of Physical Education in Europe I içinde (s. 58-71). University of Pristina, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Leposavic.
  • 44. Şinoforoğlu. T. (2020). Selim Sırrı Tarcan ve İsveç Jimnastiği. Ankara: Spor Yayınevi ve Kitabevi.
  • 45. [Tarcan], Selim Sırrı (1928). Türk ocakları ve bedeni terbiye. Türk Yurdu, 1/21(4/198), 38-40.
  • 46. [Tarcan], Selim Sırrı (1930). Başka milletlerde spor: Sokollar. Muhit, 2(24), 433-435.
  • 47. Troch, P. (2019). Interwar Yugoslav state-building and the changing social position of the Sokol gymnastics movement. European Review of History: Revue Européenne D'histoire, 26(1), 60-83.
  • 48. Türel, O. (2015). “Uzun” XIX. yüzyılda Orta Avrupa: Bir Habsburg üçlemesi. İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • 49. Viktorovich, K. V. (2014). The meeting (Slet) оf the Czech Sokol Movement in Brno on June 27-28, 1914. Всемирная История, 94(4), 61-70.
  • 50. Vít, M. ve Reguli, Z. (2015). The role of combatives teaching in physical education. Brno: Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk University.
  • 51. Vukašinović, V., Mijatović, S., Šiljak, V., Veličković, S., Strelić, D. ve Stevanović, M. (2016). Contribution of Dr. Laza Popović to the development of Serbian and Yugoslav Sokol movement. Vojnosanitetski Pregled, 73(10), 976-979.
  • 52. Waic, M. (2013). Tělovýchova a sport ve službách české národní emancipace. Praha: Karolinum.
  • 53. Zec, D. (2015). The Sokol movement from Yugoslav origins to King Aleksandar’s 1930 All-Sokol Rally in Belgrade. East Central Europe, 42(1), 48–69.
  • 54. Zmuda-Palka, M. ve Siwek, M. (2018). Large scale Gymnastic Festivals (Pan-Sokol Slets): The greatest social movement on Polish territory prior to the First World War. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 35(14), 1428–1443.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Aylin UGURLU (Sorumlu Yazar)
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5148-7061
Türkiye


Tolga ŞİNOFOROĞLU
KÜTAHYA DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-2954-3979
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Ekim 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 18 Ağustos 2021
Kabul Tarihi 4 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Ugurlu, A. & Şinoforoğlu, T. (2021). Sokol Hareketi: Nasyonalist ve Politik Bir Araç Olarak Jimnastiğin Kullanımı . Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 26 (4) , 481-499 . DOI: 10.53434/gbesbd.984507

Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi yılda dört kez yayımlanan bilimsel ve hakemli bir dergidir.


Gazi Journal of Physical Education and Sports Sciences is a scientific and peer-reviewed journal published quarterly.