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Lisans Düzeyindeki Mühendislik Öğrencileri İçin Akademik Amaçlı İngilizce Dersi Tasarımı

Yıl 2022, Cilt 42, Sayı 3, 2393 - 2429, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.976649

Öz

Bu vaka çalışması, Türkiye'de bir devlet üniversitesinde İngilizce eğitim veren Elektrik-Elektronik Mühendisliği öğrencilerinin akademik İngilizce ihtiyaçlarını belirlemek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Çalışma, Nation ve Macalister'in (2010) program geliştirme modeli temel alınarak oluşturulmuştur. İhtiyaç analizi aşamasında, 33 öğrenci, bölümünde görev yapan 5 öğretim üyesi ve bir yabancı dil öğretim görevlisi yer almıştır. Nicel ve nitel veriler; kontrol listeleri, anket ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Öğrenci ve öğretim elemanı anketleri aracılığıyla toplanan nicel veriler SPSS Statistics 22 paket programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Nitel verileri yorumlamak için kodlar, kategoriler ve temalar oluşturulmuştur. İhtiyaç analizi ve çevre analizinin bulgularına dayanarak ve öğrenme ihtiyaçları ve çevresel kısıtlamalarını dikkate alarak İngilizce I-II dersleri için öğretim programı değişikliği önerilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler, mevcut Genel İngilizce kursunun hem öğrencileri hem de eğitmenleri tatmin etmediğini ortaya koymuştur. Öğrencileri bölüm derslerinde ve gelecekteki çalışmalarında İngilizce kullanmaya motive etmesi muhtemel bir Akademik Amaçlı İngilizce (EAP) dersi önerilmiştir. Ihtiyaç analizinin sonuçları ve seçilen ilkeler; yeni oluşturulan programın amaçlarını, içeriğini, formatını ve önerilen değerlendirme prosedürlerini belirleyen ana unsurlardır.

Kaynakça

  • Aizawa, I., Rose, H., Thompson, G., & Curle, S. (2020). Beyond the threshold: Exploring English language proficiency, linguistic challenges, and academic language skills of Japanese students in an English medium instruction programme. Language Teaching Research. doi:10.1177/1362168820965510.
  • Alexander, O. (2012). Exploring teacher beliefs in teaching EAP at low proficiency levels. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11(2), 99-111. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2011.12.001
  • Bayraktaroğlu, S. (2012). Yabancı dil öğretiminde neden başarısızız? [Why do we fail in foreign language teaching?] Radikal Gazetesi. 23.07.2012 http://www.radikal.com.tr/yorum/yabanci-dil-egitiminde-neden-basarisiziz-1094961/
  • Bozdoğan, D. & B. Karlıdağ (2013). A case of CLIL practice in the turkish context: lending an ear to students. Asian EFL Journal, 15(4), 89–110.
  • Brown, J. D. (2009). Foreign and second language need analysis. In M. H. Long & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), Handbook of language teaching (pp. 269-293). Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford University Press.
  • de Chazal, E. (2014). English for Academic Purposes-Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers. Oxford University Press.
  • de Chazal, E. & Rodgers, L. (2012). Oxford EAP (Intermediate/B1+) [M]. (1st ed.). Oxford University Publishing.
  • de Chazal, E. & Rjgers, L. (2017). Oxford EAP. A Course in English for Academic Purposes Intermediate/B1+. (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Cheng, A. (2016). EAP at the tertiary level in China: Challenges and possibilities. In K. Hyland, & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English for academic purposes (pp. 97-108). Routledge.
  • Chiarelott, L. (2006). Curriculum in Context: Designing Curriculum and Instruction for Teaching and Learning in Context. Thomson Wadsworth.
  • Constantinou, E. K. (2020). Teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes: Insights into Students’ Perceptions. In Leon-Henri & Bhawana (Ed.) Contemporary Research in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 125-142). Cambridge.
  • Crossman, K. (2014). Intensive English for Academic Purposes: A curriculum designed and developed for local English language learners entering university. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Calgary. doi: 10.11575/PRISM/26594
  • Dearden, J. (2014). English as a medium of instruction – A growing global phenomenon. British Council. https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/ files/e484_emi_cover_option_3_final_web.pdf.
  • Dearden, J. (2018). The changing roles of EMI academics and English language specialists. In Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 323-338). Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-70214-8-18.
  • Doruk, S. (2016). A needs analysis study on academic English needs of freshmen students in English medium instructed programs [Unpublished master's thesis]. Yeditepe University. https://acikbilim.yok.gov.tr/handle/20.500.12812/339708
  • Douglas, S. R., & Landry, M. (2021). English for Academic Purposes Programs: Key Trends Across Canadian Universities. Comparative and International Education, 50(1). doi: 10.5206/cieeci.v50i1.10925
  • Dubin, F. & Olshtain, E. (1986). Curriculum Design. Cambridge University Press.
  • Elizabeth, M. A., & Zulida, A. K. (2012). Problem-based learning: A source of learning opportunities in undergraduate English for Specific Purposes. The International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 47-56.
  • Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. System 33: 209–224. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2004.12.006
  • Ellison, M., Aráujo, S., Correia, M., & Vieira, F. (2017). Teachers’ perceptions of need in EAP and ICLHE contexts. In J. Valcke, & R. Wilkinson (Eds.), Integrating content and language in higher education: Perspectives on professional practice (pp. 59-76). Peter Lang.
  • Franken, M. (1987). Self-questioning scales for improving academic writing. Guidelines 9, 1: 1–8.
  • Gaffas, Z. M. (2019). Students’ perceptions of the impact of EGP and ESP courses on their English language development: Voices from Saudi Arabia. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 42, 100797. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2019.100797
  • Gillett, A. (2014). Does EAP work? A guide for students in higher education. http://www.uefap.net/blog/?p=440
  • Harsch, C. (2018). How suitable is the CEFR for setting university entrance standards? Language Assessment Quarterly, 15, 102–108. doi: 10.1080/15434303.2017.1420793
  • Hyland, K. (2016). General and specific EAP. In K. Hyland 8c P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes (pp. 41-53). Routledge.
  • Hyland, K. (2018). Sympathy for the devil? A defence of EAP. Language Teaching, 51(3), 383-399. doi: 10.1017/S0261444818000101
  • Ibbotson, M. (2008). Cambridge English for engineering. [1]. Student's book. (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Iranmehr, A., Atai, M. R., & Babaii, E. (2018). Evaluation of EAP Programs in Iran: Document Analysis and Expert‎ Perspectives. Applied Research on English Language, 7(2), 171-194. doi: 10.22108/ARE.2018.104481.1123
  • Kırkgöz, Y. (2005). Motivation and student perception of studying in an English-medium University. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1, 101–123.
  • Knudsen, S. (2014). Students are doing it for themselves – the problem-oriented problem’ in academic writing in the humanities. Studies in higher education, 39(10), 1838-1859. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2013.806455
  • Li, Y. & Wang, L. (2018). An Ethnographic Exploration of Adopting Project-Based Learning in Teaching English for Academic Purposes. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 15(2), 290-303.
  • Macaro, E., Curle, S., Pun, J., An, J., & Dearden, J. (2018). A systematic review of English medium instruction in higher education. Language Teaching, 51(1), 36-76. doi: 10.1017/S0261444817000350
  • Nation, I. S. P. & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. Routledge.
  • Öztürk, M. (2013). Effectiveness of EAP curriculum for the preparatory students enrolled in language-‐‑related departments. In 7th and 8th International METU Postgraduate Conference on Linguistics and Language Teaching: Selected Papers (pp. 145-158).
  • Pearson, W. S. (2020). Mapping English language proficiency cut-off scores and pre-sessional EAP programmes in UK higher education. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 45, 1240–1252. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2020.100866
  • Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/9781009024556
  • Salter-Dvorak, H. (2016). Learning to argue in EAP: Evaluating a curriculum innovation from the inside. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 22, 19-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2015.12.005
  • Soars, L. & Soars, J. (2009). New Headway Intermediate Student's Book. (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Şahan, Ö., Çoban, M., & Topkaya, E. Z. (2016). A language needs analysis of engineering undergraduate students at a technical university: A multidimensional approach. English for Specific Purposes World, 51(17), 1-34.
  • Tessmer, M. & Wedman, J.F. (1990). A layers-of-necessity instructional development model. Educational Technology Research and Development 38(2), 77–85. doi: 10.1007/BF02298271
  • Weigle, S. C., & Malone, M. E. (2016). Assessment of English for academic purposes. In K. Hyland, & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes (pp. 632-644). Routledge. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2021.100971
  • Woodward, T. & Lindstromberg, S. (1995). Planning from Lesson to Lesson. Longman.
  • Zamin, A. A. M., & Asraf, R. M. (2017). Reviewing the English for Academic Purposes curriculum: A preliminary analysis from the students’ perspective. Advanced Science Letters, 23(8), 7944-7947. doi: 10.1166/asl.2017.9615
  • Zglobiu, O. R. (2019). Filling the Gap between Target Needs and Student Wants in English for Academic Environmental Purposes. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai-Philologia, 64(2), 121-129. doi: 10.24193/subbphilo.2019.2.10

Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students

Yıl 2022, Cilt 42, Sayı 3, 2393 - 2429, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.976649

Öz

This case study specifies the academic English needs of English Medium Instruction (EMI) Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE) students in a state university in Turkey. Curriculum design process of the project rested on Nation and Macalister’s (2010) framework. 33 students, five instructors in EEE department, and a language instructor took part in the need analysis (NA) stage. The data collection tools included checklists, questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative data gathered through the student and instructor questionnaires were analysed through SPSS Statistics v.22 software package programme. Codes, categories, and themes were generated to interpret the qualitative data. Based on the findings of the NA and environment analysis, we offered curriculum renewal for the English I-II courses by taking students’ learning needs and environmental constraints into account. The resulting data revealed that the existing English for General Purposes (EGP) course failed to satisfy both students and instructors. An English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course geared towards motivating students towards using English in their departmental courses and future work/studies was suggested. The results of the NA as well as the chosen principles were the main drivers and determinants of the goals, content, format, and proposed assessment procedures of the new course.

Kaynakça

  • Aizawa, I., Rose, H., Thompson, G., & Curle, S. (2020). Beyond the threshold: Exploring English language proficiency, linguistic challenges, and academic language skills of Japanese students in an English medium instruction programme. Language Teaching Research. doi:10.1177/1362168820965510.
  • Alexander, O. (2012). Exploring teacher beliefs in teaching EAP at low proficiency levels. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11(2), 99-111. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2011.12.001
  • Bayraktaroğlu, S. (2012). Yabancı dil öğretiminde neden başarısızız? [Why do we fail in foreign language teaching?] Radikal Gazetesi. 23.07.2012 http://www.radikal.com.tr/yorum/yabanci-dil-egitiminde-neden-basarisiziz-1094961/
  • Bozdoğan, D. & B. Karlıdağ (2013). A case of CLIL practice in the turkish context: lending an ear to students. Asian EFL Journal, 15(4), 89–110.
  • Brown, J. D. (2009). Foreign and second language need analysis. In M. H. Long & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), Handbook of language teaching (pp. 269-293). Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford University Press.
  • de Chazal, E. (2014). English for Academic Purposes-Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers. Oxford University Press.
  • de Chazal, E. & Rodgers, L. (2012). Oxford EAP (Intermediate/B1+) [M]. (1st ed.). Oxford University Publishing.
  • de Chazal, E. & Rjgers, L. (2017). Oxford EAP. A Course in English for Academic Purposes Intermediate/B1+. (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Cheng, A. (2016). EAP at the tertiary level in China: Challenges and possibilities. In K. Hyland, & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English for academic purposes (pp. 97-108). Routledge.
  • Chiarelott, L. (2006). Curriculum in Context: Designing Curriculum and Instruction for Teaching and Learning in Context. Thomson Wadsworth.
  • Constantinou, E. K. (2020). Teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes: Insights into Students’ Perceptions. In Leon-Henri & Bhawana (Ed.) Contemporary Research in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 125-142). Cambridge.
  • Crossman, K. (2014). Intensive English for Academic Purposes: A curriculum designed and developed for local English language learners entering university. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Calgary. doi: 10.11575/PRISM/26594
  • Dearden, J. (2014). English as a medium of instruction – A growing global phenomenon. British Council. https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/ files/e484_emi_cover_option_3_final_web.pdf.
  • Dearden, J. (2018). The changing roles of EMI academics and English language specialists. In Key issues in English for specific purposes in higher education (pp. 323-338). Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-70214-8-18.
  • Doruk, S. (2016). A needs analysis study on academic English needs of freshmen students in English medium instructed programs [Unpublished master's thesis]. Yeditepe University. https://acikbilim.yok.gov.tr/handle/20.500.12812/339708
  • Douglas, S. R., & Landry, M. (2021). English for Academic Purposes Programs: Key Trends Across Canadian Universities. Comparative and International Education, 50(1). doi: 10.5206/cieeci.v50i1.10925
  • Dubin, F. & Olshtain, E. (1986). Curriculum Design. Cambridge University Press.
  • Elizabeth, M. A., & Zulida, A. K. (2012). Problem-based learning: A source of learning opportunities in undergraduate English for Specific Purposes. The International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 47-56.
  • Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. System 33: 209–224. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2004.12.006
  • Ellison, M., Aráujo, S., Correia, M., & Vieira, F. (2017). Teachers’ perceptions of need in EAP and ICLHE contexts. In J. Valcke, & R. Wilkinson (Eds.), Integrating content and language in higher education: Perspectives on professional practice (pp. 59-76). Peter Lang.
  • Franken, M. (1987). Self-questioning scales for improving academic writing. Guidelines 9, 1: 1–8.
  • Gaffas, Z. M. (2019). Students’ perceptions of the impact of EGP and ESP courses on their English language development: Voices from Saudi Arabia. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 42, 100797. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2019.100797
  • Gillett, A. (2014). Does EAP work? A guide for students in higher education. http://www.uefap.net/blog/?p=440
  • Harsch, C. (2018). How suitable is the CEFR for setting university entrance standards? Language Assessment Quarterly, 15, 102–108. doi: 10.1080/15434303.2017.1420793
  • Hyland, K. (2016). General and specific EAP. In K. Hyland 8c P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes (pp. 41-53). Routledge.
  • Hyland, K. (2018). Sympathy for the devil? A defence of EAP. Language Teaching, 51(3), 383-399. doi: 10.1017/S0261444818000101
  • Ibbotson, M. (2008). Cambridge English for engineering. [1]. Student's book. (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Iranmehr, A., Atai, M. R., & Babaii, E. (2018). Evaluation of EAP Programs in Iran: Document Analysis and Expert‎ Perspectives. Applied Research on English Language, 7(2), 171-194. doi: 10.22108/ARE.2018.104481.1123
  • Kırkgöz, Y. (2005). Motivation and student perception of studying in an English-medium University. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1, 101–123.
  • Knudsen, S. (2014). Students are doing it for themselves – the problem-oriented problem’ in academic writing in the humanities. Studies in higher education, 39(10), 1838-1859. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2013.806455
  • Li, Y. & Wang, L. (2018). An Ethnographic Exploration of Adopting Project-Based Learning in Teaching English for Academic Purposes. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 15(2), 290-303.
  • Macaro, E., Curle, S., Pun, J., An, J., & Dearden, J. (2018). A systematic review of English medium instruction in higher education. Language Teaching, 51(1), 36-76. doi: 10.1017/S0261444817000350
  • Nation, I. S. P. & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. Routledge.
  • Öztürk, M. (2013). Effectiveness of EAP curriculum for the preparatory students enrolled in language-‐‑related departments. In 7th and 8th International METU Postgraduate Conference on Linguistics and Language Teaching: Selected Papers (pp. 145-158).
  • Pearson, W. S. (2020). Mapping English language proficiency cut-off scores and pre-sessional EAP programmes in UK higher education. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 45, 1240–1252. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2020.100866
  • Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/9781009024556
  • Salter-Dvorak, H. (2016). Learning to argue in EAP: Evaluating a curriculum innovation from the inside. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 22, 19-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2015.12.005
  • Soars, L. & Soars, J. (2009). New Headway Intermediate Student's Book. (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Şahan, Ö., Çoban, M., & Topkaya, E. Z. (2016). A language needs analysis of engineering undergraduate students at a technical university: A multidimensional approach. English for Specific Purposes World, 51(17), 1-34.
  • Tessmer, M. & Wedman, J.F. (1990). A layers-of-necessity instructional development model. Educational Technology Research and Development 38(2), 77–85. doi: 10.1007/BF02298271
  • Weigle, S. C., & Malone, M. E. (2016). Assessment of English for academic purposes. In K. Hyland, & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes (pp. 632-644). Routledge. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2021.100971
  • Woodward, T. & Lindstromberg, S. (1995). Planning from Lesson to Lesson. Longman.
  • Zamin, A. A. M., & Asraf, R. M. (2017). Reviewing the English for Academic Purposes curriculum: A preliminary analysis from the students’ perspective. Advanced Science Letters, 23(8), 7944-7947. doi: 10.1166/asl.2017.9615
  • Zglobiu, O. R. (2019). Filling the Gap between Target Needs and Student Wants in English for Academic Environmental Purposes. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai-Philologia, 64(2), 121-129. doi: 10.24193/subbphilo.2019.2.10

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Mevlüde ABDİOĞLU>
KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-3029-0868
Türkiye


Ceyhun ÖZKAL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ORTA DOĞU TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-1282-6542
Türkiye


Ayşegül DALOĞLU>
ORTA DOĞU TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9274-5952
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 42, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { gefad976649, journal = {Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1301-9058}, address = {}, publisher = {Gazi Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {42}, number = {3}, pages = {2393 - 2429}, doi = {10.17152/gefad.976649}, title = {Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students}, key = {cite}, author = {Abdioğlu, Mevlüde and Özkal, Ceyhun and Daloğlu, Ayşegül} }
APA Abdioğlu, M. , Özkal, C. & Daloğlu, A. (2022). Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students . Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 42 (3) , 2393-2429 . DOI: 10.17152/gefad.976649
MLA Abdioğlu, M. , Özkal, C. , Daloğlu, A. "Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students" . Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 42 (2022 ): 2393-2429 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gefad/issue/74614/976649>
Chicago Abdioğlu, M. , Özkal, C. , Daloğlu, A. "Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students". Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 42 (2022 ): 2393-2429
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Lisans Düzeyindeki Mühendislik Öğrencileri İçin Akademik Amaçlı İngilizce Dersi Tasarımı AU - MevlüdeAbdioğlu, CeyhunÖzkal, AyşegülDaloğlu Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.17152/gefad.976649 DO - 10.17152/gefad.976649 T2 - Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 2393 EP - 2429 VL - 42 IS - 3 SN - 1301-9058- M3 - doi: 10.17152/gefad.976649 UR - https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.976649 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students %A Mevlüde Abdioğlu , Ceyhun Özkal , Ayşegül Daloğlu %T Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students %D 2022 %J Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1301-9058- %V 42 %N 3 %R doi: 10.17152/gefad.976649 %U 10.17152/gefad.976649
ISNAD Abdioğlu, Mevlüde , Özkal, Ceyhun , Daloğlu, Ayşegül . "Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students". Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 42 / 3 (Aralık 2022): 2393-2429 . https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.976649
AMA Abdioğlu M. , Özkal C. , Daloğlu A. Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students. GEFAD. 2022; 42(3): 2393-2429.
Vancouver Abdioğlu M. , Özkal C. , Daloğlu A. Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2022; 42(3): 2393-2429.
IEEE M. Abdioğlu , C. Özkal ve A. Daloğlu , "Designing an EAP Course for Undergraduate Engineering Students", Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 42, sayı. 3, ss. 2393-2429, Ara. 2022, doi:10.17152/gefad.976649