Sistematik Derlemeler ve Meta Analiz
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Sanal Laboratuvarların Fen Eğitiminde Kullanımıyla İlgili 2013-2022 Yılları Arasındaki Çalışmaların İncelenmesi

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 43 Sayı: 3, 1451 - 1485, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1264589

Öz

Bu araştırma; sanal laboratuvarların fen bilimleri eğitiminde kullanılmasıyla ilgili yapılmış uluslararası çalışmaların belli ölçütler çerçevesinde seçilip analiz edilmesinden oluşan bir sistematik derlemedir. Araştırma verileri, sanal laboratuvara yönelik araştırmaların incelenmesiyle elde edilmiştir. Sistematik derleme olan bu araştırmada 2013-2022 yılları arasında Web of Science veri tabanında başlık ve özet kısımlarında sanal laboratuvar anahtar kelimesinin geçtiği 1322 makale incelenmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen makale inceleme formu kullanılmıştır. Çalışmaya dahil edilecek makalelerin belirlenmesinde ölçüt örneklem yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Dahil edilme kriterlerine uyan ve tam metnine ulaşılabilen 30 makale çalışmanın örneklemini oluşturmuştur. Veriler analiz edilirken araştırmacılar arası tutarlılığa dikkat edilmiş ve kodlayıcılar arası güvenirlik %90 hesaplanmıştır. Bu sistematik derleme kapsamında verilerin analizinde betimsel analiz ve içerik analiz kullanılmıştır. Betimsel analizde sanal laboratuvarla ilgili yapılan çalışmaların; yıllara göre dağılımı, konu alanlarına göre dağılımı, katılımcı düzeylerine göre dağılımı, grup büyüklüklerine göre dağılımı, yöntem ve desenleri, veri toplama araçları ve veri analiz biçimlerinin frekansları sunulmuştur. İçerik analizinde ise çalışmaların sanal laboratuvarla ilgili ulaştıkları sonuçlar kod, kategori ve temalar oluşturacak şekilde gruplandırılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde, sanal laboratuvar uygulamalarının fen eğitimini farklı değişkenler bakımından olumlu etkilediği görülmüştür.

Kaynakça

  • Achuthan, K., Francis, S. P., & Diwakar, S. (2017). Augmented reflective learning and knowledge retention perceived among students in classrooms involving virtual laboratories. Education and Information Technologies, 22(6), 2825-2855. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9626-x
  • Ahmed, M. E., & Hasegawa, S. (2019). The effects of a new virtual learning platform on improving student skills in designing and producing online virtual laboratories. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, 11(3), 364-377. https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel.2019.11.019
  • Ali, N., Ullah, S., & Khan, D. (2022). Minimization of students’ cognitive load in a virtual chemistry laboratory via contents optimization and arrow-textual aids. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 7629-7652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-10936-6
  • Almazaydeh, L., Younes, I., & Elleithy, K. (2016). An Interactive and Self-instructional Virtual Chemistry Laboratory. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 11(07), 70–73. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v11i07.5853
  • AlZahrani, N. S. (2015). Designing virtual science labs for the islamic academy of delaware (Order No. 3730250). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1727750823). Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/designing-virtual-science-labs-islamic-academy/docview/1727750823/se-2
  • Arista, F. S., & Kuswanto, H. (2018). Virtual Physics Laboratory Application Based on The Android Smartphone to Improve Learning Independence and Conceptual Understanding. International Journal of Instruction, 11(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.1111a
  • Ayas, A., & Tatlı, Z. (2011, September). Assessment of the Virtual Chemistry Laboratory from The Students’ Point of View. 5th- International Computer and Instructional Technologies Symposium, Elazığ-Turkey.
  • Barrie, S. C., Bucat, R. B., Buntine, M. A., Burke da Silva, K., Crisp, G. T., George, A. V., Jamie, I.M, Kable, S.H., Lim, K. F., Pyke, S.M., Read, J.R., Sharma, M.D., & Yeung, A. (2015). Development, evaluation and use of a student experience survey in undergraduate science laboratories: the advancing science by enhancing learning in the laboratory student laboratory learning experience survey. International Journal of Science Education, 37(11), 1795-1814. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2015.1052585
  • Chan, P., Van Gerven, T., Dubois, J. L., & Bernaerts, K. (2021). Virtual chemical laboratories: A systematic literature review of research, technologies and instructional design. Computers and Education Open, 2, 100053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeo.2021.100053
  • Chen, S. (2010). The view of scientific inquiry conveyed by simulation-based virtual laboratories. Computers & education, 55(3), 1123-1130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.009
  • Chiu, J. L., DeJaegher, C. J., & Chao, J. (2015). The effects of augmented virtual science laboratories on middle school students' understanding of gas properties. Computers & Education, 85, 59-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.02.007
  • Cepni, S., & Ayvaci, H. (2019). Laboratory supported science and technology teaching. In S. Cepni (Eds.), Science and technology teaching from theory to practice. (pp.287-321). Pegem.
  • Coştu, B., Ayaş, A., Çalık, M., Ünal, S., Karataş, F. Ö. (2005). Determining preservice science teachers’ competences in preparing solutions and in use of laboratory tools. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 28, 65-72. Retrieved from http://www.efdergi.hacettepe.edu.tr/
  • Daineko, Y., Ipalakova, M., Tsoy, D., Bolatov, Z., Baurzhan, Z., & Yelgondy, Y. (2020). Augmented and virtual reality for physics: Experience of Kazakhstan secondary educational institutions. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 28(5), 1220-1231. https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.22297
  • Deepika, N. M., Bala, M. M., & Kumar, R. (2021). Design and implementation of intelligent virtual laboratory using RASA framework. Materials Today: Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.01.226
  • Falode, O. C., & Gambari, A. I. (2017). Evaluation of virtual laboratory package on Nigerian secondary school physics concepts. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 168-178. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.306567
  • Gunawan, G., Harjono, A., Sahidu, H., & Herayanti, L. (2017). Virtual laboratory of electricity concept to improve prospective physics teachers creativity. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia, 13(2), 102-111. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpfi.v13i2.9234
  • Herga, N. R., Čagran, B., & Dinevski, D. (2016). Virtual laboratory in the role of dynamic visualisation for better understanding of chemistry in primary school. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(3), 593-608. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2016.1224a
  • Herga, N. R., Glažar, S. A., & Dinevski, D. (2015). Dynamic visualization in the virtual laboratory enhances the fundamental understanding of chemical concepts. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 14(3), 351-365.
  • Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (Eds). (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. http://handbook-5-1.cochrane.org/
  • Hung, J. F., & Tsai, C. Y. (2020). The Effects of a virtual laboratory and metacognitive scaffolding on students' data modeling competences. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 19(6), 923-939. https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/20.19.923
  • Husnaini, S. J., & Chen, S. (2019). Effects of guided inquiry virtual and physical laboratories on conceptual understanding, inquiry performance, scientific inquiry self-efficacy, and enjoyment. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 15(1), 010119. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.15.010119
  • Ifthinan, D. N. M., & Atun, S. (2019). The Impact of Inquiry-Based Virtual Laboratory on Students' Inquiring Abilities. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 9(1), 50–61. https://doi.org/10.52634/mier/2019/v9/i1/1377
  • Jagodziński, P., & Wolski, R. (2015). Assessment of application technology of natural user interfaces in the creation of a virtual chemical laboratory. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(1), 16-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-014-9517-5
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & Cakir, H. (2022). Investigating the effects of different levels of guidance in inquiry-based hands-on and virtual science laboratories. International Journal of Science Education, 44(2), 324-345. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2022.2028926
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & Koca, E. E. (2022). Comparison of the quality of written scientific arguments in different laboratory environments. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 20(1), 69-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-020-10147-w
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & de Jong, T. (2019). Using hands-on and virtual laboratories alone or together―which works better for acquiring knowledge and skills?. Journal of science education and technology, 28(3), 231-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-018-9762-0
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & de Jong, T. (2020). How do different laboratory environments influence students’ attitudes toward science courses and laboratories?. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(4), 534-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1750075
  • Karlsson, G., Ivarsson, J., & Lindström, B. (2013). Agreed discoveries: students’ negotiations in a virtual laboratory experiment. Instructional science, 41(3), 455-480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-012-9238-1
  • Klentien, U., & Wannasawade, W. (2016). Development of blended learning model with virtual science laboratory for secondary students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 706-711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.126
  • Koç Ünal, İ., & Şeker, R. (2020). The Examination of the effect of virtual laboratory applications on student’ academic achievement: Electricity unit. Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty, 21(1), 504-543. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefad/issue/57218/808092
  • Lai, T. L., Lin, Y. S., Chou, C. Y., & Yueh, H. P. (2022). Evaluation of an inquiry-based virtual lab for junior high school science classes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 59(8), 1579-1600. https://doi.org/10.1177/07356331211001579
  • Lee, S. W. Y., Lai, Y. C., Alex Yu, H. T., & Lin, Y. T. K. (2012). Impact of biology laboratory courses on students' science performance and views about laboratory courses in general: innovative measurements and analyses. Journal of Biological Education, 46(3), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2011.634017
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (2015). Qualitative data analysis. (Translated by S. Akbababa Altun and A. Ersoy). Ankara: Pegem Academy.
  • Penn, M., & Mavuru, L. (2020). Assessing pre-service teachers’ reception and attitudes towards virtual laboratory experiments in life sciences. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 19(6A), 1092-1105. https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/20.19.1092
  • Puntambekar, S., Gnesdilow, D., Dornfeld Tissenbaum, C., Narayanan, N. H., & Rebello, N. S. (2021). Supporting middle school students’ science talk: A comparison of physical and virtual labs. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 58(3), 392-419. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21664
  • Reeves, S. M., & Crippen, K. J. (2021). Virtual laboratories in undergraduate science and engineering courses: A systematic review, 2009–2019. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 30(1), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-020-09866-0
  • Špernjak & Šorgo (2018) Differences in acquired knowledge and attitudes achieved with traditional, computer-supported and virtual laboratory biology laboratory exercises, Journal of Biological Education, 52(2), 206-220, https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2017.1298532
  • Sullivan, S., Gnesdilow, D., Puntambekar, S., & Kim, J. S. (2017). Middle school students’ learning of mechanics concepts through engagement in different sequences of physical and virtual experiments. International Journal of Science Education, 39(12), 1573-1600. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2017.1341668
  • Tatli, Z., & Ayas, A. (2013). Effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory on students' achievement. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(1), 159-170. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/
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An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 43 Sayı: 3, 1451 - 1485, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1264589

Öz

This study is a systematic review that is composed of the analysis of several international studies on the use of virtual laboratories in science education that were selected based on certain criteria. Research data have been attained by reviewing studies that concern virtual laboratories. For this systematic review, 1322 scientific articles published in the Web of Science database between 2013 and 2022, with the keyword "virtual laboratory" in their titles or abstracts, were reviewed. An article review form was used as the tool for collecting data. In determining the papers to be included in the study, the criterion sampling method was used. The sample of the study consists of 30 papers which comply with the inclusion criteria and were accessible in full text. Descriptive and content analyses were used in this systematic review. The studies on virtual laboratories are presented via descriptive analysis on the basis of their distribution by years, distribution by subject fields, distribution by participant levels, distribution by group sizes, methods and patterns, data collection tools, and frequencies of data analysis types. The results of virtual laboratories that these studies acquired were grouped via content analysis under codes, categories, and themes. When the results achieved by these studies are evaluated as a whole, it becomes clear that virtual laboratory applications positively impact science education with respect to different variables.

Kaynakça

  • Achuthan, K., Francis, S. P., & Diwakar, S. (2017). Augmented reflective learning and knowledge retention perceived among students in classrooms involving virtual laboratories. Education and Information Technologies, 22(6), 2825-2855. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9626-x
  • Ahmed, M. E., & Hasegawa, S. (2019). The effects of a new virtual learning platform on improving student skills in designing and producing online virtual laboratories. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, 11(3), 364-377. https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel.2019.11.019
  • Ali, N., Ullah, S., & Khan, D. (2022). Minimization of students’ cognitive load in a virtual chemistry laboratory via contents optimization and arrow-textual aids. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 7629-7652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-10936-6
  • Almazaydeh, L., Younes, I., & Elleithy, K. (2016). An Interactive and Self-instructional Virtual Chemistry Laboratory. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 11(07), 70–73. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v11i07.5853
  • AlZahrani, N. S. (2015). Designing virtual science labs for the islamic academy of delaware (Order No. 3730250). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1727750823). Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/designing-virtual-science-labs-islamic-academy/docview/1727750823/se-2
  • Arista, F. S., & Kuswanto, H. (2018). Virtual Physics Laboratory Application Based on The Android Smartphone to Improve Learning Independence and Conceptual Understanding. International Journal of Instruction, 11(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.1111a
  • Ayas, A., & Tatlı, Z. (2011, September). Assessment of the Virtual Chemistry Laboratory from The Students’ Point of View. 5th- International Computer and Instructional Technologies Symposium, Elazığ-Turkey.
  • Barrie, S. C., Bucat, R. B., Buntine, M. A., Burke da Silva, K., Crisp, G. T., George, A. V., Jamie, I.M, Kable, S.H., Lim, K. F., Pyke, S.M., Read, J.R., Sharma, M.D., & Yeung, A. (2015). Development, evaluation and use of a student experience survey in undergraduate science laboratories: the advancing science by enhancing learning in the laboratory student laboratory learning experience survey. International Journal of Science Education, 37(11), 1795-1814. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2015.1052585
  • Chan, P., Van Gerven, T., Dubois, J. L., & Bernaerts, K. (2021). Virtual chemical laboratories: A systematic literature review of research, technologies and instructional design. Computers and Education Open, 2, 100053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeo.2021.100053
  • Chen, S. (2010). The view of scientific inquiry conveyed by simulation-based virtual laboratories. Computers & education, 55(3), 1123-1130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.009
  • Chiu, J. L., DeJaegher, C. J., & Chao, J. (2015). The effects of augmented virtual science laboratories on middle school students' understanding of gas properties. Computers & Education, 85, 59-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.02.007
  • Cepni, S., & Ayvaci, H. (2019). Laboratory supported science and technology teaching. In S. Cepni (Eds.), Science and technology teaching from theory to practice. (pp.287-321). Pegem.
  • Coştu, B., Ayaş, A., Çalık, M., Ünal, S., Karataş, F. Ö. (2005). Determining preservice science teachers’ competences in preparing solutions and in use of laboratory tools. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 28, 65-72. Retrieved from http://www.efdergi.hacettepe.edu.tr/
  • Daineko, Y., Ipalakova, M., Tsoy, D., Bolatov, Z., Baurzhan, Z., & Yelgondy, Y. (2020). Augmented and virtual reality for physics: Experience of Kazakhstan secondary educational institutions. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 28(5), 1220-1231. https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.22297
  • Deepika, N. M., Bala, M. M., & Kumar, R. (2021). Design and implementation of intelligent virtual laboratory using RASA framework. Materials Today: Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.01.226
  • Falode, O. C., & Gambari, A. I. (2017). Evaluation of virtual laboratory package on Nigerian secondary school physics concepts. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 168-178. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.306567
  • Gunawan, G., Harjono, A., Sahidu, H., & Herayanti, L. (2017). Virtual laboratory of electricity concept to improve prospective physics teachers creativity. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia, 13(2), 102-111. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpfi.v13i2.9234
  • Herga, N. R., Čagran, B., & Dinevski, D. (2016). Virtual laboratory in the role of dynamic visualisation for better understanding of chemistry in primary school. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(3), 593-608. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2016.1224a
  • Herga, N. R., Glažar, S. A., & Dinevski, D. (2015). Dynamic visualization in the virtual laboratory enhances the fundamental understanding of chemical concepts. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 14(3), 351-365.
  • Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (Eds). (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. http://handbook-5-1.cochrane.org/
  • Hung, J. F., & Tsai, C. Y. (2020). The Effects of a virtual laboratory and metacognitive scaffolding on students' data modeling competences. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 19(6), 923-939. https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/20.19.923
  • Husnaini, S. J., & Chen, S. (2019). Effects of guided inquiry virtual and physical laboratories on conceptual understanding, inquiry performance, scientific inquiry self-efficacy, and enjoyment. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 15(1), 010119. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.15.010119
  • Ifthinan, D. N. M., & Atun, S. (2019). The Impact of Inquiry-Based Virtual Laboratory on Students' Inquiring Abilities. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 9(1), 50–61. https://doi.org/10.52634/mier/2019/v9/i1/1377
  • Jagodziński, P., & Wolski, R. (2015). Assessment of application technology of natural user interfaces in the creation of a virtual chemical laboratory. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(1), 16-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-014-9517-5
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & Cakir, H. (2022). Investigating the effects of different levels of guidance in inquiry-based hands-on and virtual science laboratories. International Journal of Science Education, 44(2), 324-345. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2022.2028926
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & Koca, E. E. (2022). Comparison of the quality of written scientific arguments in different laboratory environments. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 20(1), 69-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-020-10147-w
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & de Jong, T. (2019). Using hands-on and virtual laboratories alone or together―which works better for acquiring knowledge and skills?. Journal of science education and technology, 28(3), 231-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-018-9762-0
  • Kapici, H. O., Akcay, H., & de Jong, T. (2020). How do different laboratory environments influence students’ attitudes toward science courses and laboratories?. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(4), 534-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1750075
  • Karlsson, G., Ivarsson, J., & Lindström, B. (2013). Agreed discoveries: students’ negotiations in a virtual laboratory experiment. Instructional science, 41(3), 455-480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-012-9238-1
  • Klentien, U., & Wannasawade, W. (2016). Development of blended learning model with virtual science laboratory for secondary students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 706-711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.126
  • Koç Ünal, İ., & Şeker, R. (2020). The Examination of the effect of virtual laboratory applications on student’ academic achievement: Electricity unit. Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty, 21(1), 504-543. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefad/issue/57218/808092
  • Lai, T. L., Lin, Y. S., Chou, C. Y., & Yueh, H. P. (2022). Evaluation of an inquiry-based virtual lab for junior high school science classes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 59(8), 1579-1600. https://doi.org/10.1177/07356331211001579
  • Lee, S. W. Y., Lai, Y. C., Alex Yu, H. T., & Lin, Y. T. K. (2012). Impact of biology laboratory courses on students' science performance and views about laboratory courses in general: innovative measurements and analyses. Journal of Biological Education, 46(3), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2011.634017
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (2015). Qualitative data analysis. (Translated by S. Akbababa Altun and A. Ersoy). Ankara: Pegem Academy.
  • Penn, M., & Mavuru, L. (2020). Assessing pre-service teachers’ reception and attitudes towards virtual laboratory experiments in life sciences. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 19(6A), 1092-1105. https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/20.19.1092
  • Puntambekar, S., Gnesdilow, D., Dornfeld Tissenbaum, C., Narayanan, N. H., & Rebello, N. S. (2021). Supporting middle school students’ science talk: A comparison of physical and virtual labs. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 58(3), 392-419. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21664
  • Reeves, S. M., & Crippen, K. J. (2021). Virtual laboratories in undergraduate science and engineering courses: A systematic review, 2009–2019. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 30(1), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-020-09866-0
  • Špernjak & Šorgo (2018) Differences in acquired knowledge and attitudes achieved with traditional, computer-supported and virtual laboratory biology laboratory exercises, Journal of Biological Education, 52(2), 206-220, https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2017.1298532
  • Sullivan, S., Gnesdilow, D., Puntambekar, S., & Kim, J. S. (2017). Middle school students’ learning of mechanics concepts through engagement in different sequences of physical and virtual experiments. International Journal of Science Education, 39(12), 1573-1600. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2017.1341668
  • Tatli, Z., & Ayas, A. (2013). Effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory on students' achievement. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(1), 159-170. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Fen Bilgisi Eğitimi
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Okan DORUK 0000-0001-6264-765X

Rabia SARIKAYA 0000-0001-9247-8973

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 43 Sayı: 3

Kaynak Göster

APA DORUK, O., & SARIKAYA, R. (2023). An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 43(3), 1451-1485. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1264589
AMA DORUK O, SARIKAYA R. An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education. GEFAD. Aralık 2023;43(3):1451-1485. doi:10.17152/gefad.1264589
Chicago DORUK, Okan, ve Rabia SARIKAYA. “An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education”. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 43, sy. 3 (Aralık 2023): 1451-85. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1264589.
EndNote DORUK O, SARIKAYA R (01 Aralık 2023) An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 43 3 1451–1485.
IEEE O. DORUK ve R. SARIKAYA, “An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education”, GEFAD, c. 43, sy. 3, ss. 1451–1485, 2023, doi: 10.17152/gefad.1264589.
ISNAD DORUK, Okan - SARIKAYA, Rabia. “An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education”. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 43/3 (Aralık 2023), 1451-1485. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1264589.
JAMA DORUK O, SARIKAYA R. An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education. GEFAD. 2023;43:1451–1485.
MLA DORUK, Okan ve Rabia SARIKAYA. “An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education”. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 43, sy. 3, 2023, ss. 1451-85, doi:10.17152/gefad.1264589.
Vancouver DORUK O, SARIKAYA R. An Examination of the Studies Between 2013-2022 on the Use of Virtual Laboratories in Science Education. GEFAD. 2023;43(3):1451-85.