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Comparison of Aroma Compounds of Cvs. Gemlik and Barnea Olive Oils Obtained from Adana Province (Turkish with English Abstract)

Yıl 2014, Cilt: 39 Sayı: 2, 103 - 110, 01.04.2014

Öz

In this study, aroma compounds of olive oils obtained from Gemlik and Barnea variety grown in Adana province were investigated. The volatile compounds of olive oils were extracted by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) in a Likens-Nickerson apparatus. The aroma compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-FID techniques, respectively. The Gemlik cv. oil was found to be richer than the oil of cv. Barnea in terms of the aroma compounds. A total of 51 volatile compounds (18 aldehydes, 16 alcohols, 5 ketones, 7 terpenes, 2 carboxylic acids and 3 volatile phenols) in oil obtained from the cv. Gemlik and a total of 46 aroma compounds (18 aldehydes, 13 alcohols, 5 ketones, 1 ester, 6 terpenes, 1 carboxylic acid and 2 volatile phenols) in oil obtained from the Barnea cv. were detected. Aroma profile of both olive oils was quite similar. A total of 24640 µg/kg ve 21365 µg/kg aroma content were identified and quantified in Gemlik and Barnea, respectively. Within all aroma compounds, ( E)-2-hexenal observed as high content in both olive oil samples. On the other hand, free fatty acid and peroxide levels of Gemlik and Barnea oils were found as 0.30 and 0.25% and 10.37 and 8.60 meq oxygen/kg of oil, respectively.

Kaynakça

  • Ranalli A, Contento S, Schiavone C, Simone N. 2001. Malaxing temperature affects volatile and phenol composition as well as other analytical features of virgin olive oil. Eur J of Lipid Sci Tech, 103, 228-238.
  • Kiritsakis AK. 1998. Flavor components of olive oil- A review. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 75, 673-681.
  • Gögüfl F, Özkaya MT, Ötlefl S. 2009. Zeytinya¤ı. Eflatun Yayınevi, Gaziantep, Türkiye.
  • Kalua CM, Allen MS, Bedgood DR, Bishop AG, Prenzler PD, Robards K. 2007. Olive oil volatile compounds, flavour development and quality: A critical review. Food Chem, 100, 273-286.
  • Kaftan A, Elmacı E. 2011. Aroma characterization of virgin olive oil from two Turkish olive varities by SPME/GC/MS. Int J Food Prop, 14, 1160-1169. 6. Kıralan M, Özkan G, Köylüo¤lu F, U¤urlu F, Bayrak A, Kiritsakis A. 2012. Effect of cultivation area and climatic conditions on volatiles of virgin olive oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech, 114, 552-557.
  • ‹pek A, Barut E, Gülen H, Öz AT, Tangu NA, ‹pek M. 2009. SSR analysis demonstrates that olive production in the southern Marmara region in Turkey uses a single genotype. Genet Mol Res, 8, 1264-1272.
  • Lavee S, Wodner M. 2004. The effect of yield, harvest time and fruit size on the oil content in fruits of irrigated olive trees (Olea europaea), cvs. Barnea and Monzanilla. Sci Hortic, 99, 267-277.
  • IOOC. 2011. International olive oil council, trade standard on olive oil. Guide for the determination of the characteristics of oil-olives, COI/OH/DOC.1- (http://www.internationaloliveoil. org).
  • Kanavouras A, Kiritsakis A, Hernandez RJ. 2005. Comparative study on volatile analysis of extra virgin olive oil by dynamic headspace and solid phase micro-extraction. Food Chem, 90, 69-79.
  • Boselli E, Di Lecce G, Strabbioli R, Pieralisi G, Frega NG. 2009. Are virgin olive oils obtained below 27 °C better than those produced at higher temperatures? Food Sci Technol, 42, 748-757.
  • Collin S, Nizet S, Muls S, Iraqi R, Bouseta A. 2008. Characterization of odor-active compounds in extracts obtained by simultaneous extraction/ distillation from Moroccan black olives. J Agr Food Chem, 56, 3273-3278.
  • Kesen S, Selli S. 2012. Zeytinya¤ı aroma maddeleri ekstraksiyonunda kullanılacak çözgenin temsili testlerle belirlenmesi. Zeytin Bilimi, 3, 99-106. 16. Schneider R, Razungles A, Augier C, Baumes R. 2001. Monoterpenic and norisoprenoidic glycoconjugates of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Melon B. as precursors of odorants in Muscadet Wine. J Chromatogr A, 936, 145-157.
  • Selli S, Kelebek H. 2011. Aromatic profile and odour-activity value of blood orange juices obtained from Moro and Sanguinello (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). Ind Crop Prod, 33, 727-733.
  • IOOC. 2009. International course on olive oil standards. International Olive Oil Council, Madrid, 30/11-4/12/2009.
  • TGK. 2010. Türk Gıda Kodeksi. Zeytinya¤ı ve pirina ya¤ı numune alma ve analiz metotları tebli¤i, tebli¤ no:2010/36.
  • Kıralan M, Bayrak A, Özkaya MT. 2009. Oxidation stability of virgin olive oils from some important cultivars in east Mediterranean Area in Turkey. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 86, 247-252.
  • Gürdeniz G, Özen B, Tokatlı F. 2008. Classification of Turkish olive oils with respect to cultivar, geographic origin and harvest year, using fatty acid profile and MID-IR spectroscopy. Eur Food Res Technol, 227, 1275-1281.
  • Cerretani L, Bendini A, Del Caro A, Piga A, Vacca V, Caboni MF, Toschi TG. 2006. Preliminary characterisation of virgin olive oils obtained from different cultivars in Sardinia. Eur Food Res Technol, 222, 354-361.
  • Kelebek H, Kesen S, Sabba¤ Ç, Selli S. 2012. Gemlik zeytin çeflidinden elde edilen natürel zeytinya¤ında fenol bilefliklerinin ve antioksidan kapasitenin belirlenmesi. Gıda, 37, 133-140.
  • Paz Romero M, Tovar MJ, Ramo T, Motilva MJ. 2003. Effect of crop season on the composition of virgin olive oil with protected designation of origin ‘‘Les Garrigues’’. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 80, 423-430.
  • Di Giovacchino L, Angerosa F, Di Giacinto L. 1996. Effect of mixing leaves with olives with olives on organoleptic quality of oil obtained by centrifugation. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 73, 371-374.
  • Angerosa F. 2002. Influence of volatile compounds on virgin olive oil quality evaluated by analytical approaches and sensor panels. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech, 104, 639-660.
  • Kandylis P, Vekiari AS, Kanellaki M, Grati KN, Msallem M, Kourkoutas Y. 2011. Comparative study of extra virgin olive oil flavor profile of Koroneiki variety (Olea europaea var. Microcarpa alba) cultivated in Greece and Tunisia during one period of harvesting. Food Sci Technol, 44, 1333-1341.
  • Bubola KB, Koprivnjak O, Sladonja B, Lukic I. 2012. Volatile compounds and sensory profiles of monovarietal virgin olive oil from Buza, Crna and Rosinjola cultivars in Istria (Croatia). Food Technol Biotech, 50, 192-198.
  • Aparicio R, Luna G. 2002. Characterisation of monovarietal virgin olive oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech, 104, 614-627.
  • Morales MT, Aparicio R, Rios JJ. 1994. Headspace gas chromatographic method for determining volatiles in virgin olive oil, J Chromatogr, 668, 455-462.
  • Cavalli JF, Fernandez X, Lizzani-Cuvelier L, Loiseau AM. 2004. Characterization of volatile compounds of French and Spanish virgin olive oils by HS-SPME: identification of quality-freshness markers. Food Chem, 88, 151-157.
  • Baccouri O, Bendini A, Cerretani L, Guerfel M, Baccouri B, Lercker G, Zarrouk M, Ben Miled DD. 2008. Comparative study on volatile compounds from Tunisian and Sicilian monovarietal virgin olive oils. Food Chem, 111, 322-328.
  • Cerretani L, Salvador MD, Bendini A, Fregapane G. 2008. Relationship between sensory evaluation performed by Italian and Spanish official panels and volatile and phenolic profiles of virgin olive oil, Chemosensory Percept, 1, 258-267.
  • Aparicio R, Morales MT. 1998. Characterisation of olive ripeness by green aroma compounds in virgin olive oil. J Agric Food Chem, 46, 1116-1122.
  • Morales MT, Luna G, Aparicio R. 2005. Comparative study of virgin olive oil sensory defects. Food Chem, 91, 293-301.

Adana İli Gemlik ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması

Yıl 2014, Cilt: 39 Sayı: 2, 103 - 110, 01.04.2014

Öz

Bu çalışmada, Adana ilinde yetiştirilen Gemlik ve Barnea zeytin çeşitlerinden elde edilen zeytinyağlarının aroma maddeleri belirlenmiştir. Aroma maddelerinin ekstraksiyonunda Likens-Nickerson buharlı distilasyon-ekstraksiyon tekniği (SDE) kullanılmıştır. Aroma maddelerinin tanımlanmaları ve miktarları sırasıyla GC-MS ve GC-FID teknikleri ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Gemlik çeşidi zeytinyağının aroma maddeleri açısından, Barnea çeşidine göre daha zengin olduğu saptanmıştır. Gemlik çeşidinden elde edilen yağda toplam 51 (18 aldehit, 16 alkol, 5 keton, 7 terpen, 2 karboksilik asit ve 3 uçucu fenol),  Barnea çeşidinden elde edilen yağda ise toplam 46 (18 aldehit, 13 alkol, 5 keton, 1 ester, 6 terpen, 1 karboksilik asit ve 2 uçucu fenol) adet aroma maddesi tanımlanmıştır. Her iki zeytinyağı örneğinin aroma maddelerinin benzerlik gösterdiği ve bu bileşiklerin toplam miktarının Gemlik’te 24640 µg/kg ve Barnea çeşidinde ise 21365 µg/kg olduğu belirlenmiştir. (E)-2-hekzenal her iki zeytinyağı örneğinde de en yüksek oranda bulunan aroma maddesidir. Öte yandan,  Gemlik ve Barnea çeşidinden elde edilen zeytinyağlarında serbest yağ asitleri sırasıyla % 0.30 ve % 0.25 ve peroksit değerleri 10.37 ve 8.60 olarak bulunmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Ranalli A, Contento S, Schiavone C, Simone N. 2001. Malaxing temperature affects volatile and phenol composition as well as other analytical features of virgin olive oil. Eur J of Lipid Sci Tech, 103, 228-238.
  • Kiritsakis AK. 1998. Flavor components of olive oil- A review. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 75, 673-681.
  • Gögüfl F, Özkaya MT, Ötlefl S. 2009. Zeytinya¤ı. Eflatun Yayınevi, Gaziantep, Türkiye.
  • Kalua CM, Allen MS, Bedgood DR, Bishop AG, Prenzler PD, Robards K. 2007. Olive oil volatile compounds, flavour development and quality: A critical review. Food Chem, 100, 273-286.
  • Kaftan A, Elmacı E. 2011. Aroma characterization of virgin olive oil from two Turkish olive varities by SPME/GC/MS. Int J Food Prop, 14, 1160-1169. 6. Kıralan M, Özkan G, Köylüo¤lu F, U¤urlu F, Bayrak A, Kiritsakis A. 2012. Effect of cultivation area and climatic conditions on volatiles of virgin olive oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech, 114, 552-557.
  • ‹pek A, Barut E, Gülen H, Öz AT, Tangu NA, ‹pek M. 2009. SSR analysis demonstrates that olive production in the southern Marmara region in Turkey uses a single genotype. Genet Mol Res, 8, 1264-1272.
  • Lavee S, Wodner M. 2004. The effect of yield, harvest time and fruit size on the oil content in fruits of irrigated olive trees (Olea europaea), cvs. Barnea and Monzanilla. Sci Hortic, 99, 267-277.
  • IOOC. 2011. International olive oil council, trade standard on olive oil. Guide for the determination of the characteristics of oil-olives, COI/OH/DOC.1- (http://www.internationaloliveoil. org).
  • Kanavouras A, Kiritsakis A, Hernandez RJ. 2005. Comparative study on volatile analysis of extra virgin olive oil by dynamic headspace and solid phase micro-extraction. Food Chem, 90, 69-79.
  • Boselli E, Di Lecce G, Strabbioli R, Pieralisi G, Frega NG. 2009. Are virgin olive oils obtained below 27 °C better than those produced at higher temperatures? Food Sci Technol, 42, 748-757.
  • Collin S, Nizet S, Muls S, Iraqi R, Bouseta A. 2008. Characterization of odor-active compounds in extracts obtained by simultaneous extraction/ distillation from Moroccan black olives. J Agr Food Chem, 56, 3273-3278.
  • Kesen S, Selli S. 2012. Zeytinya¤ı aroma maddeleri ekstraksiyonunda kullanılacak çözgenin temsili testlerle belirlenmesi. Zeytin Bilimi, 3, 99-106. 16. Schneider R, Razungles A, Augier C, Baumes R. 2001. Monoterpenic and norisoprenoidic glycoconjugates of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Melon B. as precursors of odorants in Muscadet Wine. J Chromatogr A, 936, 145-157.
  • Selli S, Kelebek H. 2011. Aromatic profile and odour-activity value of blood orange juices obtained from Moro and Sanguinello (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). Ind Crop Prod, 33, 727-733.
  • IOOC. 2009. International course on olive oil standards. International Olive Oil Council, Madrid, 30/11-4/12/2009.
  • TGK. 2010. Türk Gıda Kodeksi. Zeytinya¤ı ve pirina ya¤ı numune alma ve analiz metotları tebli¤i, tebli¤ no:2010/36.
  • Kıralan M, Bayrak A, Özkaya MT. 2009. Oxidation stability of virgin olive oils from some important cultivars in east Mediterranean Area in Turkey. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 86, 247-252.
  • Gürdeniz G, Özen B, Tokatlı F. 2008. Classification of Turkish olive oils with respect to cultivar, geographic origin and harvest year, using fatty acid profile and MID-IR spectroscopy. Eur Food Res Technol, 227, 1275-1281.
  • Cerretani L, Bendini A, Del Caro A, Piga A, Vacca V, Caboni MF, Toschi TG. 2006. Preliminary characterisation of virgin olive oils obtained from different cultivars in Sardinia. Eur Food Res Technol, 222, 354-361.
  • Kelebek H, Kesen S, Sabba¤ Ç, Selli S. 2012. Gemlik zeytin çeflidinden elde edilen natürel zeytinya¤ında fenol bilefliklerinin ve antioksidan kapasitenin belirlenmesi. Gıda, 37, 133-140.
  • Paz Romero M, Tovar MJ, Ramo T, Motilva MJ. 2003. Effect of crop season on the composition of virgin olive oil with protected designation of origin ‘‘Les Garrigues’’. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 80, 423-430.
  • Di Giovacchino L, Angerosa F, Di Giacinto L. 1996. Effect of mixing leaves with olives with olives on organoleptic quality of oil obtained by centrifugation. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 73, 371-374.
  • Angerosa F. 2002. Influence of volatile compounds on virgin olive oil quality evaluated by analytical approaches and sensor panels. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech, 104, 639-660.
  • Kandylis P, Vekiari AS, Kanellaki M, Grati KN, Msallem M, Kourkoutas Y. 2011. Comparative study of extra virgin olive oil flavor profile of Koroneiki variety (Olea europaea var. Microcarpa alba) cultivated in Greece and Tunisia during one period of harvesting. Food Sci Technol, 44, 1333-1341.
  • Bubola KB, Koprivnjak O, Sladonja B, Lukic I. 2012. Volatile compounds and sensory profiles of monovarietal virgin olive oil from Buza, Crna and Rosinjola cultivars in Istria (Croatia). Food Technol Biotech, 50, 192-198.
  • Aparicio R, Luna G. 2002. Characterisation of monovarietal virgin olive oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech, 104, 614-627.
  • Morales MT, Aparicio R, Rios JJ. 1994. Headspace gas chromatographic method for determining volatiles in virgin olive oil, J Chromatogr, 668, 455-462.
  • Cavalli JF, Fernandez X, Lizzani-Cuvelier L, Loiseau AM. 2004. Characterization of volatile compounds of French and Spanish virgin olive oils by HS-SPME: identification of quality-freshness markers. Food Chem, 88, 151-157.
  • Baccouri O, Bendini A, Cerretani L, Guerfel M, Baccouri B, Lercker G, Zarrouk M, Ben Miled DD. 2008. Comparative study on volatile compounds from Tunisian and Sicilian monovarietal virgin olive oils. Food Chem, 111, 322-328.
  • Cerretani L, Salvador MD, Bendini A, Fregapane G. 2008. Relationship between sensory evaluation performed by Italian and Spanish official panels and volatile and phenolic profiles of virgin olive oil, Chemosensory Percept, 1, 258-267.
  • Aparicio R, Morales MT. 1998. Characterisation of olive ripeness by green aroma compounds in virgin olive oil. J Agric Food Chem, 46, 1116-1122.
  • Morales MT, Luna G, Aparicio R. 2005. Comparative study of virgin olive oil sensory defects. Food Chem, 91, 293-301.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Songül KESEN Bu kişi benim

Serkan SELLİ Bu kişi benim

Haşim KELEBEK Bu kişi benim

Turgut CABAROĞLU Bu kişi benim

Kemal ŞEN Bu kişi benim

Mehmet ULAŞ Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Nisan 2014
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2014 Cilt: 39 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA KESEN, S. ., SELLİ, S. ., KELEBEK, H. ., CABAROĞLU, T. ., vd. (2014). Adana İli Gemlik ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması. Gıda, 39(2), 103-110.
AMA KESEN S, SELLİ S, KELEBEK H, CABAROĞLU T, ŞEN K, ULAŞ M. Adana İli Gemlik ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması. GIDA. Nisan 2014;39(2):103-110.
Chicago KESEN, Songül, Serkan SELLİ, Haşim KELEBEK, Turgut CABAROĞLU, Kemal ŞEN, ve Mehmet ULAŞ. “Adana İli Gemlik Ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması”. Gıda 39, sy. 2 (Nisan 2014): 103-10.
EndNote KESEN S, SELLİ S, KELEBEK H, CABAROĞLU T, ŞEN K, ULAŞ M (01 Nisan 2014) Adana İli Gemlik ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması. Gıda 39 2 103–110.
IEEE S. . KESEN, S. . SELLİ, H. . KELEBEK, T. . CABAROĞLU, K. . ŞEN, ve M. . ULAŞ, “Adana İli Gemlik ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması”, GIDA, c. 39, sy. 2, ss. 103–110, 2014.
ISNAD KESEN, Songül vd. “Adana İli Gemlik Ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması”. Gıda 39/2 (Nisan 2014), 103-110.
JAMA KESEN S, SELLİ S, KELEBEK H, CABAROĞLU T, ŞEN K, ULAŞ M. Adana İli Gemlik ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması. GIDA. 2014;39:103–110.
MLA KESEN, Songül vd. “Adana İli Gemlik Ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması”. Gıda, c. 39, sy. 2, 2014, ss. 103-10.
Vancouver KESEN S, SELLİ S, KELEBEK H, CABAROĞLU T, ŞEN K, ULAŞ M. Adana İli Gemlik ve Barnea Zeytinyağlarının Aroma Maddelerinin Kıyaslanması. GIDA. 2014;39(2):103-10.

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