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Mihaliç peynirinden izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin farklı gruplarda yer alan bazı pestisitlerin yıkımı üzerine etkilerinin incelenmesi

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 27, 68 - 77, 14.02.2022

Öz

Özet


Amaç:
Bu çalışma Mihaliç peynirinden izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin farklı gruplarda yer alan bazı pestisitlerin biyolojik yıkımı üzerine olan etkilerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla yürütülmüştür.


Materyal ve yöntem:
Çalışmada Mihaliç peynirinden izole edilmiş olan, Bursa Gıda ve Yem Kontrol Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü, Süt Ürünleri Gen Bankası bünyesinde muhafaza edilen Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ve Lactococcus lactis suşlarının bazı pestisitlerin (malathion, endosulfan sulfat, alfa-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, cypermethrin ve imidacloprid) yıkımına olan etkileri; QuEChERS metodu temelli pestisit kalıntısı analizi ile GC-MS/MS ve LC-MS/MS sistemleri kullanılarak 0., 24. ve 48. saatlerde belirlenmiştir. Çalışmanın başında 10 mg/kg (ppm) seviyesinde pestisit ilavesi yapılmıştır.


Tartışma ve sonuç:
Lb. fermentum, Lb. paracasei, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ve Lc.lactis suşlarının tüm pestisitlerde yıkım oranını kontrol grubuna kıyasla anlamlı ölçüde arttırdığı ve zamanın bu yıkıma olumlu etkide bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. 48 saat sonunda en fazla yıkıma uğrayan pestisit etken maddesi cypermethrin olurken cypermethrin etken maddesinde en fazla yıkım yapan suş Lb. fermentum olmuştur. Bu değer başlangıçtaki 10,10 ppm değerinden %92,5 oranında azalma ile 0,75 ppm'e düşmüştür. Suşlar içerisinde de 48 saat sonunda pestisitlerde en fazla yıkım yapanın Lb. fermentum olduğu saptanmıştır.

Destekleyen Kurum

Tarımsal Araştırmalar ve Politikalar Genel Müdürlüğü

Teşekkür

Bu çalışma Tarımsal Araştırmalar ve Politikalar Genel Müdürlüğü tarafından desteklenen “Geleneksel Gıda Kaynaklı Lactobacillus Suşlarının Bazı Pestisitlerin Parçalanması Üzerine Etkilerinin Araştırılması” isimli projenin bir parçasıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Anonim (2021). Türk gıda kodeksi pestisitlerin maksimum kalıntı l imitleri yönetmeliği. https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2021/09/202 10927M1-1.htm (Erişim tarihi: 23.10.2021)
  • Axelsson, L. ( 2004 ) Lactic acid bacteria: classification and physiology. In: Salminen, S., Wright, A.V. and Ouwehand, A., Eds., Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiological and Functional Aspects, 3rd Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1-67. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780824752033.ch1
  • Azizi, A. and Homayouni, A. (2009). Bacterial- Degradation of pesticides residue in vegetables during fermentation. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 21(8), 6255-6264.
  • Bo, L.Y., Zhang, Y.H. and Zhao, X.H. (2011). Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 76(3), 353-362.
  • Camacho-Morales, R. L. and Sánchez, J. E. (2016). Biotechnological use of Fungi for the degradation of recalcitrant agro- pesticides. In Mushroom Biotechnology (pp. 203-214). Academic Press.
  • Cho, K. M., Math, R. K., Islam, S. M. A., Lim, W. J., Hong, S. Y., Kim, J. M., ... and Yun, H. D. (2009). Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(5), 1882-1889.
  • Clark, A. E., Kaleta, E. J., Arora, A. and Wolk, D. M. ( 2013 ) . Matrix- assisted l aser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 26(3), 547-603.
  • Da Cuña, R. H., Rey Vázquez, G., Dorelle, L., Rodríguez, E. M., Guimarães Moreira, R. and Lo Nostro, F. L. (2016). Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part-C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 187, 74-80.
  • Caplice, E. and Fitzgerald, G. F. (1999). Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50(1-2), 131-149.
  • Guo, L., Ye, L., Zhao, Q., Ma, Y., Yang, J. and Luo, Y. (2014). Comparative study of MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2 in bacteria identification. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 6(5), 534.
  • Harishankar, M. K., Sasikala, C. and Ramya, M. (2013). Efficiency of the intestinal bacteria in the degradation of the toxic pesticide, chlorpyrifos. 3 Biotech, 3(2), 137-142. Hutkins, R. W. (2006). Microbiology and technology of fermented foods. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 473p, UK.
  • Kaur, R., Mavi, G. K., Raghav, S. and Khan, I. (2019). Pesticides classification and its impact on environment. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(3), 1889-1897.
  • Kaushik, G., Satya, S. and Naik, S. N. (2009). Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation–A review. Food Research International, 42(1), 26-40.
  • Klaenhammer, T. R. and Kulen, J. M. (1999). Selection and design of properties. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50(1-2), 45-57.
  • Lai, W. (2017). Pesticide use and health outcomes: Evidence from agricultural water pollution in China. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 86, 93–120.
  • Lehotay, S. J., Tully, J., Garca, A. V., Contreras, M., Mol, H., Heinke, V., Anspach, T., Lach, G., Fussell, R., Mastovska, K. and Poulsen, M. E. (2007). Determination of pesticide residues in foods by acetonitrile extraction and partitioning with magnesium sulfate: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International, 90(2), 485-520.
  • Li, C., Ma, Y., Mi, Z., Huo R., Zhou, T., Hai, H. Kwok, L., Sun, Z., Chen, Y. and Zhang H. (2018). Screening for Lactobacillus plantarum strains that possess organophosphorus pesticide-degrading activity and metabolomic analysis of phorate degradation. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 1-13.
  • Martinez, J. and Leyhe, J. (2004). Malathion analysis of risks to endangered and threatened Salmon and Steelhead. Environmental Field Branch Office of Pesticide Programs. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office.
  • Mavhungu, J. (2005). Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from 'Ting'in the Nothern Province of South Africa. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria.
  • Norris, J. R., Berkeley, R. C. W., Logan, N. A. and O'Donnell, A. G. (1981). The genara Bacillus and Sporolactobacillus. In The Procaryotes vol II, pp 1711–1742. Starr M P, Stolp H, Tr€uper H G, Ballows A and Schlegel H G, eds. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
  • Parte S. G., Mohekar A. D. and Kharat A. S. (2017). Microbial degradation of pesticide: A review. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 11(24), 992-1012.
  • Pimentel, D. (1983). Effects of pesticides on the environment. In 10th International Congress on Plant Protection (Vol. 10, pp. 685-691).
  • Porto, A. L. M., Melgar, G. Z., Kasemodel, M. C. and Nitschke, M. (2011). Biodegradation of pesticides. Pesticides in the Modern World–Pesticides Use and Management, Stoytcheva M. (Ed.)//Tech, 1, 407-438.
  • Rand, G. M., Carriger, J. F., Gardinali, P. R. and Castro, J. (2010). Endosulfan and its metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, in freshwater ecosystems of South Florida: a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment. Ecotoxicology, 19(5), 879-900.
  • Sharpe, M. E. (1979). Identification of the Lactic Acid Bacteria. In: F.A. Skinner and D.W. Lovelock, Editors. Identification Methods for Microbiololgists, Academic Press, London, pp: 244–259.
  • Sierra-Diaz, E., Celis-de la Rosa, A. D. J., Lozano- Kasten, F., Trasande, L., Peregrina-Lucano, A. A., Sandoval-Pinto, E. and Gonzalez-Chavez, H. (2019). Urinary pesticide levels in children and adolescents residing in two agricultural communities in Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(4), 562.
  • Singh, B. K., Kuhad, R. C., Singh, A. and Lal, R. (1999). Biochemical and molecular basis of pesticide degradation by microorganisms. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 19(3), 197-225.
  • Singh, B. K., Walker, A., Morgan, A. W. and Wright, D. J. (2003). Effetcs of soil pH on the biodegradation on chlorpyrifos and isolation of a chlorpyrifos- degrading bacterium. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 69, 5198-5206.
  • Skouras, P. J., Darras, A. I., Mprokaki, M., Demopoulos, V., Margaritopoulos, J. T., Delis, C. and Stathas, G. J. (2021). Toxicity, Sublethal and low dose effects of imidacloprid and deltamethrin on the a p h i d o p h a g o u s p r e d a t o r C e r a t o m e g i l l a undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Insects, 12(8), 696.
  • Sparling, D. W. and Fellers, G. (2007). Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii. Enviromental Pollution, 147(3), 535-9.
  • Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. (1981). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A biometric Approach. 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill International Book Co., Singapore City.
  • Şenöz, B. (2007). Buğday, makarna ve bisküvide organik fosforlu pestisit kalıntıları ve bazı metabolitleri üzerine depolama ve işleme tekniklerinin etkisi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, Ankara, 76 s.
  • Tigu, F., Assefa, F., Mehari, T. and Ashenafi, M. (2016). Probiotic property of lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented condiments: Datta and Awaze. International Food Research Journal, 23(2), 770. Tiryaki, O., Canhilal, R. and Horuz, S. (2010). Tarım ilaçları kullanımı ve riskleri. Erciyes Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 26(2), 154-169.
  • Tomlin, C.D.S. (2003). The Pesticide manual: A world compendium of pesticides. British Crop Protection Council, UK.
  • Trinder, M., McDowell, T. W. Daisley, B. A., Ali, S.N., Leong, H. S., Sumarah, M. W. and Reida G. (2016). Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces organophosphate pesticide absorption and toxicity to drosophila melanogaster, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(20), 6204-6213.
  • Turabi, M. S. (2007). Bitki koruma ürünlerinin ruhsatlandırılması. Tarım İlaçları Kongre ve Sergisi Bildirileri, 25-26.
  • Turan, Z. M. (1995). Araştırma ve Deneme Metotları. Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ders Notları, No: 62, 121s.
  • TÜİK (2019). Türkiye'de pestisit kullanım verileri. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1001 (Erişim tarihi: 10.10.2021)
  • Wang, W., Yang, L. L., Luo, S. M., Ma, J. Y., Zhao, Y., Shen, W. and Yin, S. (2018). Toxic effects and possible mechanisms following malathion exposure in porcine granulosa cells, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 64, 172-180.
  • WHO (2003). Endosulfan in drinking-water. Background document for preparation of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/92).
  • WHO (2019). Detoxifying agriculture and health from highly hazardous pesticides: a call for action. https://www.fao.org/3/ca6847en/ca6847en.pdf
  • Wood, B. J. and Holzapfel, W. H. N. (Eds.). (1992). The genera of lactic acid bacteria (Vol. 2). Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Ye, X., Dong, F. and Lei, X. (2018). Microbial resources and ecology-microbial degradation of pesticides. Natural Resources Conservation and Research, 23(9), 22-28.
  • Zhang, R., Cui, Z., Jiang, J., He, J., Gu, X. and Li, S. (2005). Diversity of organophosphorus pesticide- degrading bacteria in a polluted soil and conversation of their organophosphorus hydrolase genes. Canadaian Journal of Microbiology, 51, 337- 343.
  • Zhang, Y. H., Xu, D., Zhao, X. H., Song, Y., Liu, Y. L. and Li, H. N. (2016). Biodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides in whole corn silage as affected by the cultured Lactobacillus plantarum. 3 Biotech, 6(1), 73.
  • Zhao, H., Li, X. and Wang, X. (2011). Heavy metal contents of road-deposited sediment along the urban–rural gradient around Beijing and its potential contribution to runoff pollution. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(17), 7120-7127. Zikankuba, V. L., Mwanyika, G., Ntwenya, J. E. and James, A. (2019). Pesticide regulations and their malpractice implications on food and environment safety. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5(1), 1594-1601.

Investigation of the effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mihalic cheese on the degradation of some pesticides from different groups

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 27, 68 - 77, 14.02.2022

Öz

Abstract

Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mihaliç cheese on the biodegradation of some pesticides from different groups.


Materials and methods: In the study, the effect of strains of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus lactis isolated from Mihaliç cheese preserved in Dairy Gene Bank on the degradation of some pesticides (malathion, endosulfan sulphate, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, cypermethrin and imidacloprid) were determined by the pesticide residue analysis based on the QuEChERS method at 0, 24 and 48 hours using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS systems. At the beginning of the study, pesticides were spiked at the level of 10 mg/kg (ppm).


Results and conclusion:
Lb. fermentum, Lb. paracasei, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lc. lactis strains significantly increased the degradation rate in all pesticides compared to the control group, and time had a positive effect on this destruction. At the end of 48 hours, the pesticide active ingredient most destroyed was cypermethrin and the strain that destroyed the most cypermethrin was Lb. fermentum. This value decreased by 92.5% from the initial value of 10.10 ppm to 0.75 ppm. Among the strains, Lb. fermentum is the one that causes the most destruction in pesticides after 48 hours.

Kaynakça

  • Anonim (2021). Türk gıda kodeksi pestisitlerin maksimum kalıntı l imitleri yönetmeliği. https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2021/09/202 10927M1-1.htm (Erişim tarihi: 23.10.2021)
  • Axelsson, L. ( 2004 ) Lactic acid bacteria: classification and physiology. In: Salminen, S., Wright, A.V. and Ouwehand, A., Eds., Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiological and Functional Aspects, 3rd Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1-67. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780824752033.ch1
  • Azizi, A. and Homayouni, A. (2009). Bacterial- Degradation of pesticides residue in vegetables during fermentation. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 21(8), 6255-6264.
  • Bo, L.Y., Zhang, Y.H. and Zhao, X.H. (2011). Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 76(3), 353-362.
  • Camacho-Morales, R. L. and Sánchez, J. E. (2016). Biotechnological use of Fungi for the degradation of recalcitrant agro- pesticides. In Mushroom Biotechnology (pp. 203-214). Academic Press.
  • Cho, K. M., Math, R. K., Islam, S. M. A., Lim, W. J., Hong, S. Y., Kim, J. M., ... and Yun, H. D. (2009). Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(5), 1882-1889.
  • Clark, A. E., Kaleta, E. J., Arora, A. and Wolk, D. M. ( 2013 ) . Matrix- assisted l aser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 26(3), 547-603.
  • Da Cuña, R. H., Rey Vázquez, G., Dorelle, L., Rodríguez, E. M., Guimarães Moreira, R. and Lo Nostro, F. L. (2016). Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part-C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 187, 74-80.
  • Caplice, E. and Fitzgerald, G. F. (1999). Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50(1-2), 131-149.
  • Guo, L., Ye, L., Zhao, Q., Ma, Y., Yang, J. and Luo, Y. (2014). Comparative study of MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2 in bacteria identification. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 6(5), 534.
  • Harishankar, M. K., Sasikala, C. and Ramya, M. (2013). Efficiency of the intestinal bacteria in the degradation of the toxic pesticide, chlorpyrifos. 3 Biotech, 3(2), 137-142. Hutkins, R. W. (2006). Microbiology and technology of fermented foods. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 473p, UK.
  • Kaur, R., Mavi, G. K., Raghav, S. and Khan, I. (2019). Pesticides classification and its impact on environment. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(3), 1889-1897.
  • Kaushik, G., Satya, S. and Naik, S. N. (2009). Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation–A review. Food Research International, 42(1), 26-40.
  • Klaenhammer, T. R. and Kulen, J. M. (1999). Selection and design of properties. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50(1-2), 45-57.
  • Lai, W. (2017). Pesticide use and health outcomes: Evidence from agricultural water pollution in China. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 86, 93–120.
  • Lehotay, S. J., Tully, J., Garca, A. V., Contreras, M., Mol, H., Heinke, V., Anspach, T., Lach, G., Fussell, R., Mastovska, K. and Poulsen, M. E. (2007). Determination of pesticide residues in foods by acetonitrile extraction and partitioning with magnesium sulfate: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International, 90(2), 485-520.
  • Li, C., Ma, Y., Mi, Z., Huo R., Zhou, T., Hai, H. Kwok, L., Sun, Z., Chen, Y. and Zhang H. (2018). Screening for Lactobacillus plantarum strains that possess organophosphorus pesticide-degrading activity and metabolomic analysis of phorate degradation. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 1-13.
  • Martinez, J. and Leyhe, J. (2004). Malathion analysis of risks to endangered and threatened Salmon and Steelhead. Environmental Field Branch Office of Pesticide Programs. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office.
  • Mavhungu, J. (2005). Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from 'Ting'in the Nothern Province of South Africa. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria.
  • Norris, J. R., Berkeley, R. C. W., Logan, N. A. and O'Donnell, A. G. (1981). The genara Bacillus and Sporolactobacillus. In The Procaryotes vol II, pp 1711–1742. Starr M P, Stolp H, Tr€uper H G, Ballows A and Schlegel H G, eds. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
  • Parte S. G., Mohekar A. D. and Kharat A. S. (2017). Microbial degradation of pesticide: A review. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 11(24), 992-1012.
  • Pimentel, D. (1983). Effects of pesticides on the environment. In 10th International Congress on Plant Protection (Vol. 10, pp. 685-691).
  • Porto, A. L. M., Melgar, G. Z., Kasemodel, M. C. and Nitschke, M. (2011). Biodegradation of pesticides. Pesticides in the Modern World–Pesticides Use and Management, Stoytcheva M. (Ed.)//Tech, 1, 407-438.
  • Rand, G. M., Carriger, J. F., Gardinali, P. R. and Castro, J. (2010). Endosulfan and its metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, in freshwater ecosystems of South Florida: a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment. Ecotoxicology, 19(5), 879-900.
  • Sharpe, M. E. (1979). Identification of the Lactic Acid Bacteria. In: F.A. Skinner and D.W. Lovelock, Editors. Identification Methods for Microbiololgists, Academic Press, London, pp: 244–259.
  • Sierra-Diaz, E., Celis-de la Rosa, A. D. J., Lozano- Kasten, F., Trasande, L., Peregrina-Lucano, A. A., Sandoval-Pinto, E. and Gonzalez-Chavez, H. (2019). Urinary pesticide levels in children and adolescents residing in two agricultural communities in Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(4), 562.
  • Singh, B. K., Kuhad, R. C., Singh, A. and Lal, R. (1999). Biochemical and molecular basis of pesticide degradation by microorganisms. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 19(3), 197-225.
  • Singh, B. K., Walker, A., Morgan, A. W. and Wright, D. J. (2003). Effetcs of soil pH on the biodegradation on chlorpyrifos and isolation of a chlorpyrifos- degrading bacterium. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 69, 5198-5206.
  • Skouras, P. J., Darras, A. I., Mprokaki, M., Demopoulos, V., Margaritopoulos, J. T., Delis, C. and Stathas, G. J. (2021). Toxicity, Sublethal and low dose effects of imidacloprid and deltamethrin on the a p h i d o p h a g o u s p r e d a t o r C e r a t o m e g i l l a undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Insects, 12(8), 696.
  • Sparling, D. W. and Fellers, G. (2007). Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii. Enviromental Pollution, 147(3), 535-9.
  • Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. (1981). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A biometric Approach. 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill International Book Co., Singapore City.
  • Şenöz, B. (2007). Buğday, makarna ve bisküvide organik fosforlu pestisit kalıntıları ve bazı metabolitleri üzerine depolama ve işleme tekniklerinin etkisi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, Ankara, 76 s.
  • Tigu, F., Assefa, F., Mehari, T. and Ashenafi, M. (2016). Probiotic property of lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented condiments: Datta and Awaze. International Food Research Journal, 23(2), 770. Tiryaki, O., Canhilal, R. and Horuz, S. (2010). Tarım ilaçları kullanımı ve riskleri. Erciyes Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 26(2), 154-169.
  • Tomlin, C.D.S. (2003). The Pesticide manual: A world compendium of pesticides. British Crop Protection Council, UK.
  • Trinder, M., McDowell, T. W. Daisley, B. A., Ali, S.N., Leong, H. S., Sumarah, M. W. and Reida G. (2016). Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces organophosphate pesticide absorption and toxicity to drosophila melanogaster, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(20), 6204-6213.
  • Turabi, M. S. (2007). Bitki koruma ürünlerinin ruhsatlandırılması. Tarım İlaçları Kongre ve Sergisi Bildirileri, 25-26.
  • Turan, Z. M. (1995). Araştırma ve Deneme Metotları. Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ders Notları, No: 62, 121s.
  • TÜİK (2019). Türkiye'de pestisit kullanım verileri. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1001 (Erişim tarihi: 10.10.2021)
  • Wang, W., Yang, L. L., Luo, S. M., Ma, J. Y., Zhao, Y., Shen, W. and Yin, S. (2018). Toxic effects and possible mechanisms following malathion exposure in porcine granulosa cells, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 64, 172-180.
  • WHO (2003). Endosulfan in drinking-water. Background document for preparation of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/92).
  • WHO (2019). Detoxifying agriculture and health from highly hazardous pesticides: a call for action. https://www.fao.org/3/ca6847en/ca6847en.pdf
  • Wood, B. J. and Holzapfel, W. H. N. (Eds.). (1992). The genera of lactic acid bacteria (Vol. 2). Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Ye, X., Dong, F. and Lei, X. (2018). Microbial resources and ecology-microbial degradation of pesticides. Natural Resources Conservation and Research, 23(9), 22-28.
  • Zhang, R., Cui, Z., Jiang, J., He, J., Gu, X. and Li, S. (2005). Diversity of organophosphorus pesticide- degrading bacteria in a polluted soil and conversation of their organophosphorus hydrolase genes. Canadaian Journal of Microbiology, 51, 337- 343.
  • Zhang, Y. H., Xu, D., Zhao, X. H., Song, Y., Liu, Y. L. and Li, H. N. (2016). Biodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides in whole corn silage as affected by the cultured Lactobacillus plantarum. 3 Biotech, 6(1), 73.
  • Zhao, H., Li, X. and Wang, X. (2011). Heavy metal contents of road-deposited sediment along the urban–rural gradient around Beijing and its potential contribution to runoff pollution. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(17), 7120-7127. Zikankuba, V. L., Mwanyika, G., Ntwenya, J. E. and James, A. (2019). Pesticide regulations and their malpractice implications on food and environment safety. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5(1), 1594-1601.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Gıda ve Yem Bilimi-Teknolojisi Dergisi
Yazarlar

Yıldıray İSTANBULLU Bu kişi benim 0000-0001-5336-2580

Mete YILMAZ Bu kişi benim 0000-0002-0982-727X

Ergün AYANOĞLU Bu kişi benim 0000-0002-1774-2380

Sema DEMİR Bu kişi benim 0000-0003-2610-7466

Vesile ÇETİN Bu kişi benim 0000-0002-6962-8440

Hakan TOSUNOĞLU Bu kişi benim 0000-0003-2163-657X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 14 Şubat 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Sayı: 27

Kaynak Göster

APA İSTANBULLU, Y., YILMAZ, M., AYANOĞLU, E., DEMİR, S., vd. (2022). Mihaliç peynirinden izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin farklı gruplarda yer alan bazı pestisitlerin yıkımı üzerine etkilerinin incelenmesi. Gıda Ve Yem Bilimi Teknolojisi Dergisi(27), 68-77.